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And then I met his friend — Jose. Soon we became head over heels in love with each other and after I left Granada, he came to Canada to live with me for four months and I just visited him in Spain for Christmas holidays. Falling in love abroad? Being from Canada and never having travelled abroad on my own made it really important for me to have a place to go prior to my arrival. After arriving to Granada, I became absolutely head over heels in love with this city and everything it has brought into my life.

Life long friendships, a new language, love, new experiences and not to mention the delicious tapas. Search The Spotahome Blog Search for:. Maybe inspired, elegant, but eminently practical designs to rebuild shattered communities rapidly and sustainably will be more important and helpful to humanity than some of the grandiose schemes presently on drawing boards? Of course, new cities, based on existing modern technology, are already being designed and built. China is also moving rapidly towards implementing a low carbon economy and have recently selected 5 provinces and 8 cities for low carbon demonstration [ 58 , 59 ].

Basically with the 3D printing, robotic arms with three axis freedom of movement can construct the building, based on the architectural design, which is coded into the controller of the 3D printer. A return to timber as a major building material is especially attractive since each cubic meter of wood can store half tonne of carbon [ 67 ]. Can we make buildings that work like trees and cities like forests? New cities will exploit new materials that will deliver greater functionality.

For example nano-materials already offer opportunities for advances in sensors [ 68 ] and smart polymers [ 69 ]. However, it is just as important that future cities are constructed from materials that are completely recyclable and sustainable [ 70 ]. Where virgin feedstock is required it must be taken from renewable sources, which in many instances will be biomass-based [ 71 ].

For health and safety reasons manufacturing processes are currently located at distances from major conurbations. In the future processes are required that are low hazard and can be integrated into cities, close to workers homes. The newly emergent disciplines of Green Chemistry and Green Engineering are addressing the development of future manufacturing industry [ 72 ]. With buildings being responsible for almost half of all energy consumption and carbon emissions in Europe, new build properties are becoming much more energy efficient and their environmental footprint is being reduced [ 73 , 74 ].

EPBD is not limited to new buildings, but also covers retrofit of existing buildings because these constitute the majority. Accordingly, building materials are in the spotlight as they have a large influence on building energy consumption, carbon emissions, urban warming and comfort level. Solid wood has been used as a building material for thousands of years, appreciated for being a lightweight, easy reusable and naturally regrown resource See: Fig.

Recently a 30 storey tower, has been designed by Michael Green for Vancouver, Canada. Once built, it will be the tallest wooden construction, overtaking its competitors Forte Building, Melbourne and Stadthaus, London [ 78 ]. Legend - Wood is the only material with a negative CO 2 balance; each cubic metre of wood sequestrates on average 0. Building with wood could play a vital role in reducing air pollution and global warming.

Being a natural material it will not produce any waste and can be recycled. Wood can also be an energy source for future cities. Since timber is one of the few materials that has the capacity to store carbon in large quantities over a long period of time, some of the historically negative environmental impact of urban development and construction could be avoided.

As seen in Fig. In the last decade this technology has been used in the building industry to improve the structural, mechanical, hygienic, aesthetic and energy-related properties of building materials. Nanomaterials can be either added to the building materials or used as coatings.

For instance applying nano scale coatings of titanium dioxide breaks down the dirt as and provides a self-cleaning effect when it is applied to windows, frame, glazing or roof tiles [ 81 , 82 ]. According to WHO 50 percent of the 7 bn global population is currently living in cities requiring a land area for farming equivalent to half of South America to produce their food [ 83 ]. But the problem of feeding the inhabitants in future cities may be less severe than we imagine.

Historically, some cities at least integrated agriculture into their structure… Ankor Wat and Tenochtitian were mentioned above. During WW1 and WW2 the gardens and spare ground within British and German cities were turned over to the growing vegetables.

20+ Unusual Money Saving Ideas

Even Einstein cultivated an allotment in WW1, although he was reprimanded for it being untidy. With the collapse of the Soviet Union in , Cuba lost its supplies of fertilizers and agrichemicals precipitating a crisis in food production. To survive, Cubans turned to intensive urban agriculture to augment their food supplies, an activity which continues to this day.

Ironically, when people are restricted to a diet of smaller amounts of freshly grown local food less in quantity than previously, their general level of health improves, an effect clearly evident in both s Britain and s Cuba. In a recent paper Thebo et al. The detailed analysis is summarised in Fig. Percent of urban area classified as a irrigated cropland, b rainfed cropland by country. Legend Proportion of irrigated cropland tend to be higher in regions having larger urban extend area used for irrigated cropland.

However proportion of rainfed cropland is more dependent on regional climate patterns. Martellozzo et al. But the urban area available and suitable for urban agriculture varies considerably depending upon the nature of the agriculture performed. They reluctantly conclude that the space required is regrettably the highest where need is greatest, i. They note that smaller urban areas offer the most potential as regards physical space [ 87 ]. In the developed world urban food growing is becoming popular perhaps for three reasons: firstly by the middle classes the appreciation that urban food cultivation can re-establish the link between food production and consumption, especially for children, encouraging them to adopt a more healthy diet; to supply free, fresh food for those in poverty and perhaps already relying upon food banks; and ironically for high end restaurants.

One example of such community organisations world-wide is York Edible [ 88 ] in the city of York, UK. To reduce their environmental impact future urban dwellers will increasingly grow food within, or at least in the immediate hinterlands, of their cities to avoid the CO 2 emissions associated with food transportation especially over transcontinental distances [ 89 ]. It is estimated that each 1 Calorie of consumed food uses currently 10 Calories of oil [ 90 — 92 ]. Although one dedicated vertical farm could feed up to 50, people [ 96 ], it is still likely that it will be beneficial for all buildings in future to have space reserved for food production.

With the recent developments in photovoltaic PV technology it will be also possible to design vertical farms self-sufficient and completely sustainable. The primary energy consumption of vertical farms is for lighting creating mimic sunlight and water pumping for irrigation. Table 2. Optimisation model for the vertical farm. Adapted from [ 97 ]. In March , the world largest vertical farm was opened in Michigan USA with 17 million plants in plant racks using LED light to mimic sunlight [ 98 , 99 ].

The Conversation

The American National League of Cities is promoting urban agriculture [ ] as a part of its remit to make cities more sustainable. The most ambitious schemes for vertical farms will take a long time to realise, if ever. But some more modest examples already exist, for example in Singapore [ , ], Sky Greens has constructed a four storey building using traditional growing systems comprising soil based potted plants on a series of conveyor belts which migrate the plants near the windows maybe once or twice an hour so that every plant gets same amount of sunlight during the day.

The technology increases food production by a factor of ten compared to that of traditional farming on an equal land area [ ]. The system basically consists of looping towers that could float in local harbours, providing new space for year-round crops. The concept is inspired in part by floating fish farms that have been in use locally since the s [ ]. The flip side of producing and consuming food is that it creates human waste that must be treated to avoid pollution. This especially applies to uncooked foods such as salads. Progressive build-up of toxic, heavy metals in the soil and thus plants is also a long term problem.

But merely treating sewage and discharging the resulting effluent to rivers or the sea loses valuable nutrients, notably phosphorus, and also nitrogen and potassium, which have to be replaced from unsustainable sources. The first European plant has recently been installed in Slough UK to treat water from a local industrial estate. Although Crystal Green is presently sold for conventional agriculture, technology of this type will be essential for sustainable urban agriculture. Energy input, required to operate the process, can potentially be obtained from renewable sources, especially solar [ ].

Adapted from [ ]. Legend Advanced water treatment systems for clean water production and advanced systems for gasification of solid waste for energy generation could allow considerable amount of water and energy savings. These could be reused for domestic needs and urban farming for food production. To overcome rising traffic problems, cities should be compactly structured with improved accessibility, and have a well-designed transport network. In future cities effective transportation will play a key role.

For the health and well-being of citizens walking and cycling between their homes, workplaces, shops and other locations is already being encouraged. Undoubtedly these self-propelled systems will be integrated into future cities, avoiding the modern day perils of mixing pedestrians, cyclists and powered vehicles. For distances and occasions where self-propelled travel is impractical then future cities will need to strike a balance between mass public transport buses and trams , individually-hired vehicles taxis and rental cars and individually owned vehicles.

Various technologies already in development will impinge upon the choices made, such as self-driving vehicles [ , ], electric vehicles [ , ] and Aero-Mobil [ ]. Aero-Mobil is a flying car that integrates existing infrastructure used for automobiles and planes. As a car it can fit into any standard parking space, uses regular gasoline, and can be used in road traffic just like any other car.

As a plane it can use any airport in the world, but can also take off and land using any grass strip or paved surface just a few hundred meters long. It is now finalised and has been in regular flight-testing program in real flight conditions since October The Aero-Mobil is built from advanced composite material includes its body shell, wings, and wheels. According to company authorities the final product will include all the standard avionics and, an autopilot plus an advanced parachute deployment system [ ].

The driverless, for-hire vehicle summoned by an app may find increasing acceptance. At present road vehicles are dual purpose, being used for both modes but in the future a distinction may be drawn between intra -city transport and inter -city transport [ , ]. Traffic and transportation are growing problems for all cities. In Europe, people are wasting 10 to 60 [ ] hours in traffic jams each year, while their vehicles are contributing significantly to global warming by emitting carbon dioxide emissions and to air pollution by emitting nitrogen oxides and carbon particles.

Therefore traffic management and monitoring systems are currently already being applied in many large cities and people are strongly encouraged to use public transport instead of personal vehicles. Even though some steps have been taken more radical, innovative will be needed. It is clear that computers can be safer drivers than human beings. Principally, self-driving cars will be connected with a wireless network similar to the internet or telephone network and all cars will be travelling on major roads under control of satellite and roadside control systems [ ].

A traffic jam will be predicted before it even happens by using roadside sensors, GPS and other advanced software. An alternate innovative design for future transport is the Aero-train which is partly train and partly aircraft. The vehicle is designed with wings and flies on an air cushion along a concrete track using wing and ground effects. This minimises the drag effect allowing the aero-train to consume less energy whilst reaching higher speeds than the conventional trains [ ]. Another imaginative idea, first proposed by Robert M. Salter in the s, is the evacuated tube transport ETT where a vehicle occurs in a vacuum to eliminate air resistance and friction, [ ].

Although the proponents say that ETT could be 50 times more efficient than electric cars or trains it is only a concept that is the subject of ongoing research [ ]. But the achievement of ETT would revolutionise future long distance transportation.

New Sustainable Event Management (2018 Edition): A Free Guide to Better Green Meetings

The UN estimates that there will be more than 40 mega-cities worldwide by , each with a population of at least 10 million, compared to 28 today. This massive global growth of urban areas will requires developments in administrative systems to ensure that technological advances described in previous sections truly deliver improved living conditions for all urban dwellers. Although the well-established scientific basis for global warming is well established, its full impact appears to be several decades in the future, action is required now to ameliorate its effects by identifying, prioritizing, and structuring new design and managerial tools to improve urban environmental and fiscal sustainability [ ].

The UHIE does not just cause discomfort for urban inhabitants, it is also a killer. Various studies of temperature related excess mortality using historical data have shown that during heat waves above a threshold temperature deaths increase significantly with each further degree rise. Not surprisingly, the young, old and those with serious medical conditions, a most vulnerable [ ]. Not surprisingly, the young, the old and those with existing medical conditions are most at risk.

Mitigation technologies such as increasing green urban space and biodiversity, use of reflective materials, decrease of anthropogenic heat levels and use of low temperature natural sinks such as ground or water bodies aiming to counter the impact of the phenomenon are rapidly being developed and applied in real projects [ ]. Rehan provided a detailed framework, including several measures that will diminish the accumulation of heat in urban areas and mitigate their UHIE by a set of planning actions as a strategy to cool the cities.

The framework is given in Fig. Richer urbanites can in principal, offset the effects of the UHIE merely by turning up their air conditioning or installing more powerful units. Nevertheless, to protect the vulnerable it may be necessary to build air conditioned refuges where they can be sent when local temperatures are high. Administrators are already aware of the need to incorporating UHIE mitigation as cities are further developed and is required in temperate regions as well as the topics.

For example Public Health England has recently published an excellent guide the adverse effects of high temperatures and methods to combat them, both short and long term [ ]. Those who argue strongly that man-made global is a myth and therefore nothing needs to be done to mitigate it, must face the consequence if the world follows their lead and they are wrong people, especially the poor and vulnerable will die.

The adverse effect of increasing temperatures is based on sound research and historical data. It is not a theory derived from a computer model. In large cities excess mortality from attributable to high temperatures is exacerbated by air pollution, notably NO x from internal combustion engines that ozone produced by the sunlight-induced reaction of oxygen with unburnt hydrocarbons.

Indeed, separating excess urban mortality arising from pollution and high temperatures is problematical. Now, green infrastructure is more often related to environmental or sustainability goals that cities are trying to achieve through a mix of natural approaches. The climate adaptation benefits of green infrastructure are generally related to its ability to moderate the expected increases in extreme precipitation or temperature.

Benefits include better management of storm-water runoff, lowering incidents of combined storm and sewer overflows CSOs , water capture and conservation, flood prevention, accommodation of natural hazards e. The U. In a study performed by Gill et al. Evapotranspiration reduces the temperature in the area around vegetation by converting solar radiation to latent heat. Lower temperatures caused by both evapotranspiration and direct shading lead to a reduction in the amount of heat absorbed and therefore emitted by low albedo man-made urban surfaces [ , ].

Much of what has been discussed above has ignored the differing sizes of conurbations. Cities face different impacts, depending upon their sizes and levels of development. Small cities of upper income nations are facing with population decline as a result of the migration to larger cities for better job opportunities and higher life standards. Diminishing manpower makes it difficult for small cities to compete globally in terms of economy and productivity.

On the other hand large cities in developed world are facing with the impacts of aging infrastructure and population. Increasing population creates inequality and social cohesion inside the cities while job opportunities become more competitive [ ]. In contrast to developed nations, small cities in developing countries are faced with the impacts of weak economies and weak urban governance.

Due to their inadequate infrastructure and buildings, such cities lack the resilience to survive natural disasters such as earthquake or flood is very low. This Survival is threatened and in many cases many people are forced to vacate their homes See Fig. Environmental pollution is probably the most significant problem facing these cities, a result of the rapid industrialisation.

But the latter potentially creates the wealth that can enable developing world cities to overcome their growing pains provided it is harnessed for benefit of all and is not siphoned off by corruption. Table represents the specific impacts of global urbanization depending on the size and development level of a city.

In many cities of China See Fig. The severe impacts of rapid urbanisation can be ameliorated by applying creative design to infrastructure. Ecosystems like multifunctional units will provide several uses rather than a single functionality thereby saving energy, time and cost. For instance garden plots can serve as water management system while providing food for citizens.

Similarly multifunctional buildings could save time for people while allowing efficient use of land [ ]. Significant advances in computer simulation provided tools that enable us to evaluate current conditions and requirements thus modelling future scenarios. This phenomenon will have increasing importance in future cities to monitor existing conditions for efficient use of capital and natural resources or controlling traffic flow through wireless sensor networks [ — ].

In addition it will allow modifying energy usage or household waste of urban dwellings with real time feedback [ — ]. South Korea has already put this technology into practice in city of Songdo, where traffic, waste and energy usage are monitored [ ]. Similarly in Rio de Janeiro there is a high-tech centre where public safety responses to natural disasters or building collapses are quickly identified [ , ].

The recent earthquake in Nepal demonstrated that, this kind of technological centre could save many lives with timely intervention during disasters. Technically, highly automated management systems are very attractive, but they have potential downsides. Technology must be tempered by democratic safeguards if individual liberties are not to be infringed. The vulnerability of a highly networked city to a physical or a cyber- attack on data centres must be minimised. These developments could potentially be just important to the operation of modern cities as the new engineering technologies.

Emerging cities should be where human beings find satisfaction of basic needs and essential public goods. Where various products can be found in sufficiency and their utility enjoyed. Future cities should also be the habitats where ambitions, aspirations and other immaterial aspects of life are realized, providing contentment and happiness and increasing the prospects of individual and collective well-being.

However in many developing cities, prosperity is absent or restricted to some groups or only enjoyed in some parts of the city [ 6 ]. Low purchase power contrarily increasing expenses could socioeconomically pressurize individuals and minimize their social subsistence. This situation will turn citizens from productive and creative individuals to the ones just trying to survive. Cities also should be compact structured with improved accessibility, they should include natural habitats allowing biodiversity and socialisation of individuals and should have a well-designed transport network which will eliminate the need for private vehicles to overcome the rising traffic problem in growing cities.

The future urban configurations should concentrate on efficient use of resources and opportunities that could help to achieve prosperity and citizen well-being in five dimensions as defined below and illustrated in Fig. Deploy the infrastructure, physical assets and amenities — adequate water, sanitation, power supply, road network, information and communications technology etc. Provide the social services — education, health, recreation, safety and security etc. Minimize poverty, inequalities and segments of the population live in abject poverty and deprivation. Protect the environment and preserve the natural assets for the sake of sustainable urbanization.

The past few decades have witnessed a notable surge in economic growth, but one which has been accompanied by an equally daunting degree of inequity under various forms, with wider income gaps and deepening poverty in many cities across the world. Economic inequality is seriously detrimental to the equitable distribution among individuals of opportunities to pursue a life of their choosing and be spared from extreme deprivation in outcomes. According to recent reports, income gaps between rich and poor are expanding in both developed and developing countries [ 6 , ]. Cities generate wealth, but the problem is the unequal distribution of it.

Kylili and Fokaides define ZEBs as buildings that have zero carbon emissions on an annual basis [ 24 ]. Adapted from [ 24 ]. Various designs for future cities have been mooted, some more adventurous than others. Some are actually being built. All aspire to being carbon neutral and sustainable, exploiting the latest technologies for construction, renewable energy, recycling and transportation.

Recently the British Government has announced plans for new garden cities in the UK which emphasised the development of new communities adapted to local needs [ 25 ]. Garden cities built along these lines will largely exploit existing technologies, an approach already adopted elsewhere.


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To achieve zero carbon emissions, ZCB adopts an integrated design where the ZCB building and its surrounding woodland must be seen as a single entity. It prospers the diversity, expresses the dynamism and creativity of university life with creating a fascinating turban area. While the tower provides multifunctional usage and is visually attractive, its unique geometry covers less land space than its contenders. The building is a showcase of future high rise construction. Future cities could evolve by progressively adding more buildings following the same principles, each designed for its intended function, residential, offices etc.

The buildings have a number of measures for ecological sustainability using a combination of wind, geothermal and solar energy. The original biodiversity of the local area has been maintained and especial attention has been applied to rainwater collection and sewage treatment. Hammarby is meant to provide 10, apartments for 25 inhabitants and occupies hectares of land, close to the city centre.

As with the Malmo development, energy, waste and water systems have been designed for sustainability. The project is a conspicuous example of urban development as it addresses many challenges such as combining workspace with housing, matching with dense urban population, achieving zero carbon standards and increasing comfort level [ 29 ].

Like the Swedish examples, its development is a response to the decline in highly polluting heavy industry, which contaminated the local, land, sea and air in the s. The target is to reverse this environmental damage by creating a sustainable community through a partnership of the government, commercial organisations and citizens.

A key aspect is local recycling of discarded items from bottles to bicycles. Furthermore, all Eco-Town companies must allow their facilities to be inspected by citizens in order to eliminate public distrust and anxiety concerning potential pollution. The developments described above are based essentially on established technologies following principles that can be applied readily elsewhere to achieve urban sustainability in the near future.

They are targeted at relatively modest sized communities typically adjacent or within existing conurbations. In parallel with these projects, far more ambitious, schemes have been initiated that are creating completely new sustainable cities on virgin ground, especially in states with strong central, governments and with considerable national wealth earned from the sale of fossil fuels. But, it is intended to be more than just a demonstration of the practicality of using renewable energy technologies.

Masdar City will host a vibrant, innovative, community of academics, researchers, start-up companies and financiers — all focused on developing renewable energy and sustainability technologies. Another interesting project, Silk City in Kuwait, will be completed in and will include 30 communities grouped into four main districts; Finance city, Leisure city, Ecological City and the Educational - Cultural city.

Silk City will become a new urban centre accommodating , residents in over thousand residential units. King Abdullah Economic City is another representative of the future city concept aiming to have a positive impact on the socio-economic development of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia [ 34 ]. The first stage of the city was finished in and it will be fully completed in In response to its considerable environmental problems, a result of its recent industrial growth and need to meet the aspirations of its increasingly wealthy population, China has initiated the construction of many cities based on sustainable designs.

Although its development has not been without problems [ 38 ] it does appear to be growing at a viable pace [ 39 ]. The stated intention is to move one hundred million people into new cities in the next decade, especially in the western part of the country.

Description

Amenities provided in the city will include; cultural centres and university campuses [ 40 ]. A Formula 1 circuit will also be included. All buildings will be capable of withstanding magnitude 9. While the new cities described above are ambitious they are based on existing or emerging technology and, in principle at least, can be completed within the next decade, designs for far more futuristic cities have also been mooted, siting them underground [ 41 — 43 ], underwater [ 44 ], floating on the sea [ 45 , 46 ] or even in the sky [ 47 , 48 ].

Arguably the development of the underground city has already started. In London, where real estate is very expensive, wealthy property owners are digging downwards to expand their living space thus avoiding planning regulations. Maybe in localities such as London, where the underlying clay is conducive to excavation, a present day city can evolve into a future city by digging downwards rather growing upwards? Aquaculture would be practised in the surrounding sea to produce food sustainably and fresh water would be obtained by desalination.

The city integrates a range of renewable energies solar, thermal, photovoltaic and wind. Intriguingly, since these floating cities float near a coast or travel around the world following the ocean currents, they would avoid the problems of sea level rise resulting from climate change [ 53 , 54 ]. The Venus Project, proposed by US inventor, Jacque Fresco, is another circular city comprising a central dome containing the cybernetic systems that maintain core automated city functions [ 55 , 56 ]. Fresco goes way beyond developing a sustainable city.

He wishes to create an utopian, technological civilisation without money that avoids the ills of all previous forms of economic and political systems…capitalism, government, fascism, communism, socialism and democracy. Fresco considers that by creating the ideal environment for humans it will naturally eliminating violence, greed, and the inequalities that presently afflict us. His philosophy seems to be in a tradition that can be traced back to Plato and Thomas More.

The ideas espoused are beguiling, but are they achievable? Could they survive in a world where the pursuit of power and wealth is the prime objective of some individuals, whether ostensibly justified by nationalism, religious belief, or political creed? Indeed, to fully buy into the Venus Project requires a strong belief in its philosophy. Despite the ambitious, indeed grandiose, designs of future cities requiring considerable planning, rapid urban renewal may become vital in response to natural disasters notably earthquakes and hurricanes.

While nobody would wish such misfortunate on any city with the human tragedies engendered, the opportunity presented to rebuild a devastated city to both improve its sustainability and to reduce the risk of future disaster cannot be overlooked, not least as an honour to those who have suffered. Two examples are the Wenchuan and Qingchuan districts of Sichuan Province, severely damaged by the earthquake, which are now in the reconstruction process.

These areas suffered because buildings were not earthquake resistant. Reconstruction has been difficult and a large number of temporary shelters that are neither durable nor thermally comfortable have been built in an attempt to meet the urgent needs of those affected. A research team led by Prof. The building is safe and durable, and the cost of construction is low.

It also looks attractive and features good thermal performance and a high energy-saving capacity. Maybe inspired, elegant, but eminently practical designs to rebuild shattered communities rapidly and sustainably will be more important and helpful to humanity than some of the grandiose schemes presently on drawing boards? Of course, new cities, based on existing modern technology, are already being designed and built. China is also moving rapidly towards implementing a low carbon economy and have recently selected 5 provinces and 8 cities for low carbon demonstration [ 58 , 59 ].

Basically with the 3D printing, robotic arms with three axis freedom of movement can construct the building, based on the architectural design, which is coded into the controller of the 3D printer. A return to timber as a major building material is especially attractive since each cubic meter of wood can store half tonne of carbon [ 67 ]. Can we make buildings that work like trees and cities like forests? New cities will exploit new materials that will deliver greater functionality. For example nano-materials already offer opportunities for advances in sensors [ 68 ] and smart polymers [ 69 ].

However, it is just as important that future cities are constructed from materials that are completely recyclable and sustainable [ 70 ]. Where virgin feedstock is required it must be taken from renewable sources, which in many instances will be biomass-based [ 71 ]. For health and safety reasons manufacturing processes are currently located at distances from major conurbations. In the future processes are required that are low hazard and can be integrated into cities, close to workers homes. The newly emergent disciplines of Green Chemistry and Green Engineering are addressing the development of future manufacturing industry [ 72 ].

With buildings being responsible for almost half of all energy consumption and carbon emissions in Europe, new build properties are becoming much more energy efficient and their environmental footprint is being reduced [ 73 , 74 ]. EPBD is not limited to new buildings, but also covers retrofit of existing buildings because these constitute the majority. Accordingly, building materials are in the spotlight as they have a large influence on building energy consumption, carbon emissions, urban warming and comfort level.

Solid wood has been used as a building material for thousands of years, appreciated for being a lightweight, easy reusable and naturally regrown resource See: Fig. Recently a 30 storey tower, has been designed by Michael Green for Vancouver, Canada. Once built, it will be the tallest wooden construction, overtaking its competitors Forte Building, Melbourne and Stadthaus, London [ 78 ]. Legend - Wood is the only material with a negative CO 2 balance; each cubic metre of wood sequestrates on average 0.

Building with wood could play a vital role in reducing air pollution and global warming. Being a natural material it will not produce any waste and can be recycled. Wood can also be an energy source for future cities. Since timber is one of the few materials that has the capacity to store carbon in large quantities over a long period of time, some of the historically negative environmental impact of urban development and construction could be avoided. As seen in Fig.

In the last decade this technology has been used in the building industry to improve the structural, mechanical, hygienic, aesthetic and energy-related properties of building materials. Nanomaterials can be either added to the building materials or used as coatings. For instance applying nano scale coatings of titanium dioxide breaks down the dirt as and provides a self-cleaning effect when it is applied to windows, frame, glazing or roof tiles [ 81 , 82 ]. According to WHO 50 percent of the 7 bn global population is currently living in cities requiring a land area for farming equivalent to half of South America to produce their food [ 83 ].

But the problem of feeding the inhabitants in future cities may be less severe than we imagine. Historically, some cities at least integrated agriculture into their structure… Ankor Wat and Tenochtitian were mentioned above. During WW1 and WW2 the gardens and spare ground within British and German cities were turned over to the growing vegetables. Even Einstein cultivated an allotment in WW1, although he was reprimanded for it being untidy. With the collapse of the Soviet Union in , Cuba lost its supplies of fertilizers and agrichemicals precipitating a crisis in food production.

To survive, Cubans turned to intensive urban agriculture to augment their food supplies, an activity which continues to this day. Ironically, when people are restricted to a diet of smaller amounts of freshly grown local food less in quantity than previously, their general level of health improves, an effect clearly evident in both s Britain and s Cuba.

In a recent paper Thebo et al.

Definition of Product | What is Product ? Product Meaning - The Economic Times

The detailed analysis is summarised in Fig. Percent of urban area classified as a irrigated cropland, b rainfed cropland by country. Legend Proportion of irrigated cropland tend to be higher in regions having larger urban extend area used for irrigated cropland. However proportion of rainfed cropland is more dependent on regional climate patterns. Martellozzo et al. But the urban area available and suitable for urban agriculture varies considerably depending upon the nature of the agriculture performed. They reluctantly conclude that the space required is regrettably the highest where need is greatest, i.

They note that smaller urban areas offer the most potential as regards physical space [ 87 ]. In the developed world urban food growing is becoming popular perhaps for three reasons: firstly by the middle classes the appreciation that urban food cultivation can re-establish the link between food production and consumption, especially for children, encouraging them to adopt a more healthy diet; to supply free, fresh food for those in poverty and perhaps already relying upon food banks; and ironically for high end restaurants.

One example of such community organisations world-wide is York Edible [ 88 ] in the city of York, UK. To reduce their environmental impact future urban dwellers will increasingly grow food within, or at least in the immediate hinterlands, of their cities to avoid the CO 2 emissions associated with food transportation especially over transcontinental distances [ 89 ].

It is estimated that each 1 Calorie of consumed food uses currently 10 Calories of oil [ 90 — 92 ]. Although one dedicated vertical farm could feed up to 50, people [ 96 ], it is still likely that it will be beneficial for all buildings in future to have space reserved for food production. With the recent developments in photovoltaic PV technology it will be also possible to design vertical farms self-sufficient and completely sustainable. The primary energy consumption of vertical farms is for lighting creating mimic sunlight and water pumping for irrigation.

Table 2. Optimisation model for the vertical farm. Adapted from [ 97 ]. In March , the world largest vertical farm was opened in Michigan USA with 17 million plants in plant racks using LED light to mimic sunlight [ 98 , 99 ]. The American National League of Cities is promoting urban agriculture [ ] as a part of its remit to make cities more sustainable. The most ambitious schemes for vertical farms will take a long time to realise, if ever.

But some more modest examples already exist, for example in Singapore [ , ], Sky Greens has constructed a four storey building using traditional growing systems comprising soil based potted plants on a series of conveyor belts which migrate the plants near the windows maybe once or twice an hour so that every plant gets same amount of sunlight during the day. The technology increases food production by a factor of ten compared to that of traditional farming on an equal land area [ ]. The system basically consists of looping towers that could float in local harbours, providing new space for year-round crops.

The concept is inspired in part by floating fish farms that have been in use locally since the s [ ]. The flip side of producing and consuming food is that it creates human waste that must be treated to avoid pollution. This especially applies to uncooked foods such as salads. Progressive build-up of toxic, heavy metals in the soil and thus plants is also a long term problem. But merely treating sewage and discharging the resulting effluent to rivers or the sea loses valuable nutrients, notably phosphorus, and also nitrogen and potassium, which have to be replaced from unsustainable sources.

The first European plant has recently been installed in Slough UK to treat water from a local industrial estate. Although Crystal Green is presently sold for conventional agriculture, technology of this type will be essential for sustainable urban agriculture. Energy input, required to operate the process, can potentially be obtained from renewable sources, especially solar [ ]. Adapted from [ ]. Legend Advanced water treatment systems for clean water production and advanced systems for gasification of solid waste for energy generation could allow considerable amount of water and energy savings.

These could be reused for domestic needs and urban farming for food production. To overcome rising traffic problems, cities should be compactly structured with improved accessibility, and have a well-designed transport network. In future cities effective transportation will play a key role. For the health and well-being of citizens walking and cycling between their homes, workplaces, shops and other locations is already being encouraged. Undoubtedly these self-propelled systems will be integrated into future cities, avoiding the modern day perils of mixing pedestrians, cyclists and powered vehicles.

For distances and occasions where self-propelled travel is impractical then future cities will need to strike a balance between mass public transport buses and trams , individually-hired vehicles taxis and rental cars and individually owned vehicles. Various technologies already in development will impinge upon the choices made, such as self-driving vehicles [ , ], electric vehicles [ , ] and Aero-Mobil [ ].

Aero-Mobil is a flying car that integrates existing infrastructure used for automobiles and planes. As a car it can fit into any standard parking space, uses regular gasoline, and can be used in road traffic just like any other car. As a plane it can use any airport in the world, but can also take off and land using any grass strip or paved surface just a few hundred meters long.

It is now finalised and has been in regular flight-testing program in real flight conditions since October The Aero-Mobil is built from advanced composite material includes its body shell, wings, and wheels. According to company authorities the final product will include all the standard avionics and, an autopilot plus an advanced parachute deployment system [ ].

The driverless, for-hire vehicle summoned by an app may find increasing acceptance. At present road vehicles are dual purpose, being used for both modes but in the future a distinction may be drawn between intra -city transport and inter -city transport [ , ]. Traffic and transportation are growing problems for all cities. In Europe, people are wasting 10 to 60 [ ] hours in traffic jams each year, while their vehicles are contributing significantly to global warming by emitting carbon dioxide emissions and to air pollution by emitting nitrogen oxides and carbon particles.

Therefore traffic management and monitoring systems are currently already being applied in many large cities and people are strongly encouraged to use public transport instead of personal vehicles. Even though some steps have been taken more radical, innovative will be needed. It is clear that computers can be safer drivers than human beings. Principally, self-driving cars will be connected with a wireless network similar to the internet or telephone network and all cars will be travelling on major roads under control of satellite and roadside control systems [ ]. A traffic jam will be predicted before it even happens by using roadside sensors, GPS and other advanced software.

An alternate innovative design for future transport is the Aero-train which is partly train and partly aircraft. The vehicle is designed with wings and flies on an air cushion along a concrete track using wing and ground effects. This minimises the drag effect allowing the aero-train to consume less energy whilst reaching higher speeds than the conventional trains [ ].

Another imaginative idea, first proposed by Robert M. Salter in the s, is the evacuated tube transport ETT where a vehicle occurs in a vacuum to eliminate air resistance and friction, [ ]. Although the proponents say that ETT could be 50 times more efficient than electric cars or trains it is only a concept that is the subject of ongoing research [ ].

But the achievement of ETT would revolutionise future long distance transportation. The UN estimates that there will be more than 40 mega-cities worldwide by , each with a population of at least 10 million, compared to 28 today. This massive global growth of urban areas will requires developments in administrative systems to ensure that technological advances described in previous sections truly deliver improved living conditions for all urban dwellers.

Although the well-established scientific basis for global warming is well established, its full impact appears to be several decades in the future, action is required now to ameliorate its effects by identifying, prioritizing, and structuring new design and managerial tools to improve urban environmental and fiscal sustainability [ ]. The UHIE does not just cause discomfort for urban inhabitants, it is also a killer.

Various studies of temperature related excess mortality using historical data have shown that during heat waves above a threshold temperature deaths increase significantly with each further degree rise. Not surprisingly, the young, old and those with serious medical conditions, a most vulnerable [ ]. Not surprisingly, the young, the old and those with existing medical conditions are most at risk.

Mitigation technologies such as increasing green urban space and biodiversity, use of reflective materials, decrease of anthropogenic heat levels and use of low temperature natural sinks such as ground or water bodies aiming to counter the impact of the phenomenon are rapidly being developed and applied in real projects [ ]. Rehan provided a detailed framework, including several measures that will diminish the accumulation of heat in urban areas and mitigate their UHIE by a set of planning actions as a strategy to cool the cities. The framework is given in Fig.