Uncategorized

Manual Inorganic Chemistry: Terms, Definitions and Concepts (Quick Review Notes)

Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can download and read online Inorganic Chemistry: Terms, Definitions and Concepts (Quick Review Notes) file PDF Book only if you are registered here. And also you can download or read online all Book PDF file that related with Inorganic Chemistry: Terms, Definitions and Concepts (Quick Review Notes) book. Happy reading Inorganic Chemistry: Terms, Definitions and Concepts (Quick Review Notes) Bookeveryone. Download file Free Book PDF Inorganic Chemistry: Terms, Definitions and Concepts (Quick Review Notes) at Complete PDF Library. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. Here is The CompletePDF Book Library. It's free to register here to get Book file PDF Inorganic Chemistry: Terms, Definitions and Concepts (Quick Review Notes) Pocket Guide.

In the prokaryotes, all the intracellular water-soluble components proteins , DNA and metabolites are located together in the cytoplasm enclosed by the cell membrane , rather than in separate cellular compartments. Prokaryotes are also much smaller than eukaryotic cells. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a number of shapes , ranging from spheres to rods and spirals.

Bacteria were among the first life forms to appear on Earth , and are present in most of its habitats. Bacteria also live in symbiotic and parasitic relationships with plants and animals. Most bacteria have not been characterised, and only about half of the bacterial phyla have species that can be grown in the laboratory.

The study of bacteria is known as bacteriology , a branch of microbiology. There are typically 40 million bacterial cells in a gram of soil and a million bacterial cells in a millilitre of fresh water. Bacteria are a prominent source of natural products. The serendipitous discovery and subsequent clinical success of penicillin prompted a large-scale search for other environmental microorganisms that might produce anti-infective natural products.

This, in turn, led to the development of an impressive arsenal of antibacterial and antifungal agents including amphotericin B, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, neomycin B, daptomycin and tetracycline all from Streptomyces spp. Bacteria isolated from soil are prolific producers of antibacterial compounds. Soil photo by: Pam Dumas. Available at: Flicker. Soil bacteria photo by: Alexander Raths. Available at: Shutterstock. Although most of the drugs derived from bacteria are employed as anti-infectives, some have found use in other fields of medicine. Botulinum toxin from Clostridium botulinum and bleomycin from Streptomyces verticillus are two examples.

Botulinum toxin is the neurotoxin responsible for botulism food poisoning Fig. It is caused by the bacterium, Clostridium botulinum, which can grow in improperly sterilized canned meats and other preserved foods. The poisoning can be fatal depending on how much of the toxin is ingested. It causes muscle weakness and paralysis. Newer trends in the field include the metabolic profiling and isolation of natural products from novel bacterial species present in underexplored environments.

Symbionts are organisms that live in close association with another, often larger, organism known as a host. Endophytes are non-harmful symbionts that are associated with plants for at least part of their life cycle. Botulinum toxin.

Contributors

A Diagram of botulinum toxin A. Consuming food products tainted with the neurotoxin produced by B the bacterium Clostridium botulinum , can cause paralysis and death. Genetic sequencing was used to show that a separate branch of ancient prokaryotic organisms diverged at an early stage in the history of life on Earth Fig.

Organic chemistry

It is noteworthy that many Archaea have adapted to life in extreme environments such as the polar regions, hot springs, acidic springs, alkaline springs, salt lakes, and the high pressure of deep ocean water. Because many Archaea have adapted to life in extreme environments they also possess enzymes that are functional under quite unusual conditions. For example, Pyrococcus furiosus is an extremophili c species of Archaea Fig.

It can be classified as a hyperthermophile because it thrives best under extremely high temperatures—higher than those preferred of a thermophile. Recently, Dr. Lactose intolerance is a common health concern causing gastrointestinal symptoms and avoidance of dairy products by afflicted individuals. Since milk is a primary source of calcium and vitamin D, lactose intolerant individuals often obtain insufficient amounts of these nutrients which may lead to adverse health outcomes.

Production of lactose-free milk can provide a solution to this problem, although it requires use of lactase from microbial sources and increases potential for contamination. Use of thermostable lactase enzymes can overcome this issue by functioning under pasteurization conditions. Early explorations of this enzyme show that it has optimal activity at o C and that it is thermostable even at o C Fig.

A Shows a computer recreation of P. A Recreation of P. B Effects of temperature figure on P. Fungi are heterotrophic, eukaryotic organisms, either single-celled or multicellular, that are primarily decomposers within the environment. Plants are also characterized by having true roots, stems and leaves.

CH105: Consumer Chemistry

However, it is not an ideal grouping, as there are protists that are animal-like, plant-like and fungi-like grouped under one umbrella term. Many scientists prefer to reclassify the protist kingdom into sub-groupings of related organisms based on phylogenetic data, rather than use the older protist classification. In the following section, we will focus on natural product examples from the Fungi, Plant, and Animal kingdoms. As mentioned above, Fungi are heterotrophic, eukaryotic organisms that are primarily decomposers within the environment.

They include single-celled organisms such as yeast and molds, and multicellular organisms that have fruiting bodies, such as mushrooms. Fungi produce a myriad of secondary natural products. Others have found great utility in medicine. For example, several anti-infective medications have been derived from fungi including the penicillins and the cephalosporins antibacterial drugs from Penicillium chrysogenum and Cephalosporium acremonium , respectively , and griseofulvin an antifungal drug from Penicillium griseofulvum Fig 6.

Navigation menu

By Crulina By Phil. By S chimme l. By Medmyco at English Wikipedia. By Dominique Jacquin.


  • Fairness, Responsibility, and Welfare?
  • Accuracy, Precision, Mean and Standard Deviation!
  • Chemistry Revision Notes for Class 12, Short Key Notes for CBSE Books!
  • CH Chapter 6 – A Brief History of Natural Products and Organic Chemistry – Chemistry;
  • Overview of Chemistry.
  • Chemistry Revision Notes for Class 11 - Short Key Notes for CBSE (NCERT) Books.
  • Molarity, Molality, or Normality? (A Quick Review).

Examples of fungal secondary metabolites. Ergometrine from Claviceps spp. You will notice in the photograph of Claviceps spp. The vasoconstrictive properties of ergometrine can also cause gangrenous side effects when ingested in toxic doses. Distal structures that are more poorly vascularized like the fingers and the toes are affected first. This can cause loss of peripheral sensation, edema, and ultimately the death and loss of affected tissues.

Cyclosporin is another amazing example of a fungal metabolite with important medical implications. Cyclosporin is an alkaloid structure that is assembled from amino acid building blocks that forms a cyclic peptide structure Fig 6. Cyclosporin was isolated in from the fungus Tolypocladium inflatum Fig 6. Of note, T. Cyclosporin is only produced during the asexual life-stage of the organism, demonstrating that gene expression can vary dramatically within an organism due to life-stage or other factors present within the environment of the organism.

Photos By: Kathie Hodge. Cyclosporin Structure from Yikrazuul. A Multicellular life-stage of the fungus, known as Cordyceps subsessilis , B unicellular life-stage of the fungus, known as Tolypocladium inflatum. C Structure of cyclosporine. Oxygen is a by-product of this reaction. Quality digital science resources and outstanding support for STEM concpets. Stale lesson plans? Try a fresh approach with these interactive and engaging lessons. Make difficult concepts easy to learn! Stimulating digital resorces for the high school classroom. Carolina is proud to offer one of the most extensive lines of lab supplies and equipment in the industry.

Quality selection of science lab glassware designed to address accuracy and safety. Affordable price with superior performance. We offer a full range of dissecting equipment to fit all your lab needs. There are sets available for all skill levels or can be customized. Carolina is your quality source for a well-equipped lab. Take time to view our high quality science lab equipment that has proven durability to handle any lab activity. Carolina covers the world of life science with everything from slides and kits to Agricultural and Vet Science.

We have kits for new and traditional AP Biology labs. Choose from our kits, follow a college board lab, or design your own with our wide variety of equipment and supplies. Prepare your students for medical and lab tech careers with Carolina's wide range of equipment, kits and models. Carolina offers a variety of resources and products to help your students delve into the emerging area of Genetics. For over 80 years, Carolina has been providing the highest-quality living organisms and cultures available.

Our butterflies can be purchased at every stage to help demonstrate their beautiful life cycle to students. In stock and ready to ship! Carolina plants are a great tool for teaching cell respiration and photosynthesis. Selection includes aquatic and classroom plants. Carolina's extensive assortment of compound and stereomicroscopes span virtually all grade levels and applications.

Popular corded compound microscopes and cordless microscopes for elementary to advanced use. We have the compound microscope you are looking for!

Solid State : Quick Revision and Short Notes - Chemistry 12 CBSE Board Exams and JEE Preparation

Digital microscopes are great for large classroom computer combined instruction. Students can take images, videos, and more. Stereomicroscopes show 3D images vs. They are great for first tme student use. Get your students inspired with high school physical science kits, robotics, Carolina ChemKits, and much more. Teach long term earth changes in real time and study the atmosphere, weather and climate and their impact on sustaining life.

One stop for all your classical mechanics science and energy education needs. Exciting activities that make science active and fun! Carolina has the best specimens available, along with dissecting supplies, instruments, and much more. Carolina's Perfect Solution specimens are a safe, non-toxic alternative to Formalin.

Carolina's innovative, proprietary tissue fixative produces superior specimens with life-like tissue texture and color. Carolina provides owl pellet products that are heat sterilized and easy to use for students of all ages. Excellent for hands-on, inquiry-based learning. For over 80 years, Carolina has provided superior non-mammal specimens that engage students in hands-on dissecting experiments. This is a great way to learn basic anatomy. Carolina is your one-stop shop for insects in the classroom. For over 85 years we have been supplying teachers with butterflies, ladybugs, praying mantis, ants and more.

K—8 inquiry-based, hands-on science curriculum that paves the way to deep understanding of phenomena through 3-dimensional learning. Moving to NGSS?

Organic chemistry

Teaching NGSS is more than checking off standards. Thank you for your continued use of the STC Program. Keep your classroom alive with activities, information, and help in biology, biotechnology, botany, genetics, and more. Make your classroom electrifying with activities and information spanning chemistry and physics content. Everything from equilibrium to electricity and reactions to rocketry at your fingertips. Mine activities, information, and helpful hints for ESS. Trendy 3-D special effects on movie screens grab and keep your students' attention.

This e-book introduces the reader to biomolecules and describes the experimental and theoretical aspects of their micro- and nano-scale motion in water. Basic and some selected advanced concepts in computational chemistry and molecular modeling presented on the M. This book describes the various filtration processes using membranes such as microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis.

The book covers both continuous and discontinuous fibre reinforced thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers in terms of various mechanical and thermal properties, processes and applications. This little book is a brief introduction to the quantum theory for chemists. In it, the author keeps as close to experiment as possible, and to ideas that are familiar to chemists. This book discusses the connection of classical thermodynamics and the quantum chemical description of matter, in three chapters: statistical thermodynamics, optical spectroscopy, and group theory.

The three-dimensional shape of a protein determines its function. The shape of proteins can change by small or large amounts; another term for shape is conformation. This book is an introduction and guide to ultraviolet light, covering the elemental science and facts, and surveying and explaining its many practical uses. What do mass diffusion, thermal conduction, viscosity, permeability, and electrical conductance have in common? Electrically driven membrane processes, and electrodialysis in particular, are important unit operations, especially within the field of desalination - making tab water from sea water.

This book is likely to find strong appeal among hard-core analytical chemists. Although it is not a textbook, it will appeal to chemistry and environmental faculty and students. One-dimensional population balances are used as a modelling tool for a variety of chemical processes. Find the book you need Go!