Manual Inorganic Chemistry: Terms, Definitions and Concepts (Quick Review Notes)

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In the prokaryotes, all the intracellular water-soluble components proteins , DNA and metabolites are located together in the cytoplasm enclosed by the cell membrane , rather than in separate cellular compartments. Prokaryotes are also much smaller than eukaryotic cells. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a number of shapes , ranging from spheres to rods and spirals.

Bacteria were among the first life forms to appear on Earth , and are present in most of its habitats. Bacteria also live in symbiotic and parasitic relationships with plants and animals. Most bacteria have not been characterised, and only about half of the bacterial phyla have species that can be grown in the laboratory.

The study of bacteria is known as bacteriology , a branch of microbiology. There are typically 40 million bacterial cells in a gram of soil and a million bacterial cells in a millilitre of fresh water. Bacteria are a prominent source of natural products. The serendipitous discovery and subsequent clinical success of penicillin prompted a large-scale search for other environmental microorganisms that might produce anti-infective natural products.

This, in turn, led to the development of an impressive arsenal of antibacterial and antifungal agents including amphotericin B, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, neomycin B, daptomycin and tetracycline all from Streptomyces spp. Bacteria isolated from soil are prolific producers of antibacterial compounds. Soil photo by: Pam Dumas. Available at: Flicker. Soil bacteria photo by: Alexander Raths. Available at: Shutterstock. Although most of the drugs derived from bacteria are employed as anti-infectives, some have found use in other fields of medicine. Botulinum toxin from Clostridium botulinum and bleomycin from Streptomyces verticillus are two examples.

Botulinum toxin is the neurotoxin responsible for botulism food poisoning Fig. It is caused by the bacterium, Clostridium botulinum, which can grow in improperly sterilized canned meats and other preserved foods. The poisoning can be fatal depending on how much of the toxin is ingested. It causes muscle weakness and paralysis. Newer trends in the field include the metabolic profiling and isolation of natural products from novel bacterial species present in underexplored environments.

Symbionts are organisms that live in close association with another, often larger, organism known as a host. Endophytes are non-harmful symbionts that are associated with plants for at least part of their life cycle. Botulinum toxin.


A Diagram of botulinum toxin A. Consuming food products tainted with the neurotoxin produced by B the bacterium Clostridium botulinum , can cause paralysis and death. Genetic sequencing was used to show that a separate branch of ancient prokaryotic organisms diverged at an early stage in the history of life on Earth Fig.

Organic chemistry

It is noteworthy that many Archaea have adapted to life in extreme environments such as the polar regions, hot springs, acidic springs, alkaline springs, salt lakes, and the high pressure of deep ocean water. Because many Archaea have adapted to life in extreme environments they also possess enzymes that are functional under quite unusual conditions. For example, Pyrococcus furiosus is an extremophili c species of Archaea Fig.

It can be classified as a hyperthermophile because it thrives best under extremely high temperatures—higher than those preferred of a thermophile. Recently, Dr. Lactose intolerance is a common health concern causing gastrointestinal symptoms and avoidance of dairy products by afflicted individuals. Since milk is a primary source of calcium and vitamin D, lactose intolerant individuals often obtain insufficient amounts of these nutrients which may lead to adverse health outcomes.

Production of lactose-free milk can provide a solution to this problem, although it requires use of lactase from microbial sources and increases potential for contamination. Use of thermostable lactase enzymes can overcome this issue by functioning under pasteurization conditions. Early explorations of this enzyme show that it has optimal activity at o C and that it is thermostable even at o C Fig.

A Shows a computer recreation of P. A Recreation of P. B Effects of temperature figure on P. Fungi are heterotrophic, eukaryotic organisms, either single-celled or multicellular, that are primarily decomposers within the environment. Plants are also characterized by having true roots, stems and leaves.

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However, it is not an ideal grouping, as there are protists that are animal-like, plant-like and fungi-like grouped under one umbrella term. Many scientists prefer to reclassify the protist kingdom into sub-groupings of related organisms based on phylogenetic data, rather than use the older protist classification. In the following section, we will focus on natural product examples from the Fungi, Plant, and Animal kingdoms. As mentioned above, Fungi are heterotrophic, eukaryotic organisms that are primarily decomposers within the environment.

They include single-celled organisms such as yeast and molds, and multicellular organisms that have fruiting bodies, such as mushrooms. Fungi produce a myriad of secondary natural products. Others have found great utility in medicine. For example, several anti-infective medications have been derived from fungi including the penicillins and the cephalosporins antibacterial drugs from Penicillium chrysogenum and Cephalosporium acremonium , respectively , and griseofulvin an antifungal drug from Penicillium griseofulvum Fig 6.

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Examples of fungal secondary metabolites. Ergometrine from Claviceps spp. You will notice in the photograph of Claviceps spp. The vasoconstrictive properties of ergometrine can also cause gangrenous side effects when ingested in toxic doses. Distal structures that are more poorly vascularized like the fingers and the toes are affected first. This can cause loss of peripheral sensation, edema, and ultimately the death and loss of affected tissues.

Cyclosporin is another amazing example of a fungal metabolite with important medical implications. Cyclosporin is an alkaloid structure that is assembled from amino acid building blocks that forms a cyclic peptide structure Fig 6. Cyclosporin was isolated in from the fungus Tolypocladium inflatum Fig 6. Of note, T. Cyclosporin is only produced during the asexual life-stage of the organism, demonstrating that gene expression can vary dramatically within an organism due to life-stage or other factors present within the environment of the organism.

Photos By: Kathie Hodge. Cyclosporin Structure from Yikrazuul. A Multicellular life-stage of the fungus, known as Cordyceps subsessilis , B unicellular life-stage of the fungus, known as Tolypocladium inflatum. C Structure of cyclosporine. Oxygen is a by-product of this reaction. Quality digital science resources and outstanding support for STEM concpets. Stale lesson plans? Try a fresh approach with these interactive and engaging lessons. Make difficult concepts easy to learn! Stimulating digital resorces for the high school classroom. Carolina is proud to offer one of the most extensive lines of lab supplies and equipment in the industry.

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Organic chemistry

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