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Guide PRECIS DHISTOIRE DE LEGYPTE ANTIQUE, Réalité et Légendes (French Edition)

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Yet without going so far as to awaken the great spectres of the past Kenyon, Grenfell, Hunt, Schubart, Vitelli, and more recently Turner, all of whom were at ease with both literary and documentary papyri , we must recognize what intellectual impoverishment such a conception has led us to today. Furthermore, they did not hesitate to put literature and documents side by side on the same support, reusing a document to copy a literary text on the parts that remained blank, or vice versa, and thus demonstrating a deeper permeability between these two types of text than our modern conceptions allow us to imagine.

The dialogue between literary and documentary papyrology, which is something that I have wished to revive for years, is above all highly fertile in a methodological sense when we take the time to allow the two domains to interact. In two ways. This sociology of literature and literary practices is not new, although it is rarely practiced, mainly because of the difficulties encountered in the contextualization of literary papyri which, resulting often from illegal excavations, are not readily linked to archives or to their owners-readers.

We are too inclined to limit the realm of culture to literature alone, yet the culture of an era is not reflected only in lists of works that it values or statistics generated from the corpus of surviving literary papyri. Documents also have something to say, and they do so in multiple ways.

The first of these ways obviously consists in making use of the content and information that they provide about the world of culture: schools, literate practice the copying and circulation of books , manifestations of culture lectures, recitals, competitions and, more generally, the literacy of populations. Onomastics, often exploited for the study of religious change, also offers data on cultural trends, which continue to be underestimated. It is not insignificant that, in the early fourth century, a magistrate of the city of Hermoupolis was named Achilles and his wife Hermione, 18 two distinctively Homeric names that indicate the identitarian reactions of the traditional municipal elite faced with the rise of Christianity, whose Hellenism aligned itself more and more visibly with the fundamental pillars of secular Greek culture.

Later, Christians too adopted Homeric names, such as Odysseus, which made its appearance in the fifth century, and in the seventh century Menelaus, showing the peaceful development of an essentially cultural paganism deemed to be complementary to Christian culture. Making use of the contents of documents to create a cultural history is an approach that may seem self-evident, yet it was not until that this type of approach was applied to the most widely read Greek author, Homer, and that I published the first systematic document-based study on Homeric culture in Greco-Roman Egypt.

Obsessed with the contents of documents, papyrologists all too often overlook what they can learn from their form.


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In this sense, papyrology suffers from the overabundance of its documentation. In the urgency to edit, the message of the text is given priority, while information that may appear to be incidental, less interesting, or in any case less immediately useful due to its concrete or material and formal nature, is disregarded. Yet so much information can be extracted from the formal analysis of a letter, complaint, contract, or edict, which show, better than any amount of text, the cultural conditioning of a society, along with the cultural or even intellectual profile of the individuals who wrote them.

More and more clearly, from the late third century, letters, contracts and complaints pertaining to this everyday or practical type of writing, as opposed to that of literary texts, attest, through their palaeography, vocabulary, and rhetoric, to the influence of not only Christian literature, as one might expect, but also, more surprisingly, of secular literature. Thus we see the multiplication of citations from authors often poets , the development of a vocabulary marked at once by a return to Atticism and, through the influence of poetry, the systematic use of introductory sections based on rhetorical models that attempts to establish themselves as short pieces of literature justifying the more down-to-earth text which follows.

Let us consider one example among many: the conclusion of a complaint that an individual victim, along with his fellow villagers, addresses to the governor of the Thebaid province in against a local official and his henchmen Fig. As God is our witness, in the winter we fed ourselves with chicory, and in the summer the leftovers I mean what is left over from sifting and grain dropped from the wheat tax, distributing them among our households, given that, once the wheat tax is paid, we have absolutely nothing left.

Above all, we have been divested of the rights that are ours in times of peace, long oppressed by the attacks of innumerable bandits, day and night, bandits who associate with vagabond shepherds who are in league with them. They pillage and damage all of our goods to the detriment of the public treasury and to our greater ruin. And we have suffered an even more severe lack of food due to their wrongdoing, and have no longer any desire to live or to withstand such bold acts committed illegally and which have gone unpunished, to withstand their wolfish and predatory dispositions, always acting like carnivorous beasts.

For such creatures, both cruel and fearless, spread human blood just as a careless person throws water across the ground in waste. The divine Homer, master of the epic, is strikingly used to denounce pillaging by low-ranking officials. Is there any better example of the prestige of ancient literary culture in this world in the throes of cultural change? The effect of this prestige was felt even in the script itself as well as in the page layout.

The script was increasingly influenced by bookhand writing and had recourse more and more often to the diacritical marks used in literary manuscripts accents, punctuation, etc. The page layout made use of spaces, contrasting writing styles, and a presentation marked by the bookhand productions. Both bear witness to the fact that greater attention was paid to the graphic element and its consubstantial relations with the text. At least in certain milieus, and to the extent that we are able to observe this in dossiers containing both books and documents, literature is seen as having a practical function.

Far from having the sole purpose of fostering and maintaining the pleasure of reading seen as a gratuitous act, the works of certain authors became practical manuals for eloquence or the writing of documents. We have seen that Thucydides was considered a master of rhetoric; likewise, Homer, Menander, and Isocrates were read as models of good writing, which could be directly imitated in everyday texts. Collections of letters, of which I cited a few examples above, became fashionable.

These texts, originally ephemeral documents, took on a second life by acquiring the status of literary texts, disseminated as literary manuscripts to a readership for whom they could once again serve as potentially reusable models. Contemporary literary works were also marked by this interest in documents: people began to write letters or even complaints in verse, or to include real or fictitious documents in less circumstantial, literary works.

They produced patriographic rhapsodies or hagiographic collections, for example by transmuting documentary material into literature. Now more than ever they need to support one another to survive and to continue to help us, by sharpening our critical faculties and insight, to piece together the shreds of past memories and thus, as far as possible, to avoid falling victim to our illusions, or worse, to those of others. For Gilbert Dagron and Antonio Velluto.

I, Paris, , p. Dupont, , p. Durand, , VII the quote is on p. I-III, Cairo, Reviewed, corrected and illustrated, Paris, librairie orientaliste Paul Geuthner, Supplanting in the fourth century the harder-to-handle scroll, it was the prototype of the modern book. Minuscule is a cursive writing that harmoniously reconciles the principles of readability and the efficient use of space, which began to develop in the seventh century and which, by ousting the ancient forms of cursive documentary writing and the majuscules of literary manuscripts, was used throughout the Middle Ages up until our times, in which it has been reproduced by modern typography.

Epigrammi P. CtYBR inv. Garzya and R. Loenertz, Studia patristica et byzantina, vol. III, lines I, Cairo, , no. You can suggest to your library or institution to subscribe to the program OpenEdition Freemium for books. Feel free to give our address: contact openedition. We will be glad to provide it with information about OpenEdition and its subscription offers.

Thank you. We will forward your request to your library as soon as possible. OpenEdition is a web platform for electronic publishing and academic communication in the humanities and social sciences. Desktop version Mobile version. Results per book Results per chapter. Search inside the book. Table of contents. Cite Share. Cited by. Translated by Liz Libbrecht. Editor's note Text Annexes Notes Author s.

Editor's note Translated with the collaboration of Korshi Dosoo. Full text. Loenertz, Stu I, Cai Notes 1 Ptolemy, son of Lagos, was a general of Alexander the Great. Credits Photos: J. Author Jean-Luc Fournet. Is He young or old, or is He ever-living? Is He beautiful, or have many fostered His son, or is His daughter handsome, and dear to men of the world? Patrick, full of the Holy Spirit, responded: 'Our God is the God of all, the God of heaven and earth, the God of the seas and the rivers, the God of the sun and the moon, and of all the other planets; [] the God of the high hills and the low valleys; God over heaven, in heaven, and under heaven ; and He has a mansion— i.

He inspireth all things, He quickeneth all things, He enkindleth all things; He giveth light to the sun and to the moon. He created fountains in the dry land, and placed dry islands in the sea, and stars to minister to the greater lights. He hath a Son co-eternal and co-equal with Himself; and the Son is not younger than the Father, nor is the Father older than the Son. And the Holy Ghost are not divided. I desire moreover to unite you to the Son of the heavenly King, for ye are daughters of an earthly king.

Teach us duly that we may see the Lord face to face —teach us, and we will do as you will say to us. Patrick said, 'Do you believe that through baptism the sin of your mother and your father shall be put away from you? And [] Patrick said to them,' You cannot see Christ except that you first taste death, and unless you receive the body of Christ, and His blood. This beautiful passage delineates the faith and zeal of our Saint, as well as the grace and unction attached to his preaching, while on the other hand, it unfolds the beautiful simplicity of the youthful princesses, and the wondrous effect of God's efficacious grace upon their hearts and souls.

Patrick Whilst our Saint preached and baptized at Cashel, the prince Aengus stood by his side; and the sharp point of the crozier […] pierced his foot from which the blood flowed most copiously; the fervent convert bore the pain in silence; and when St. His saying is so good that with those Gratzachams his cauldron shall be brought back to him. Note: See 21 9 a. Patrick God sometimes gives to his great Servants while on earth, a foretaste of the joys of heaven. Hence, we are not surprised that extraordinary, heavenly signs and prodigies are recorded to have taken place at the death of our Saint.

On the 17th of March, in the year , at the age of , amid the sweet songs of the Angels, and a supernatural light from heaven, St. Patrick, the Apostle of Ireland, breathed forth his pure soul into the hands of his Creator. Note: FW Patrick [St Patrick at Lerins] the night he usually divided into three parts. During the first part he recited a hundred Psalms, making at the same time two hundred genuflections. This entry was later used at FW Note: Not found in Kinane St.

Compare the citations at c and g for example. See also 36 a. One of the first pages of this history was written on the gross canvas of the Bayeux Tapestry. This is the fragment in which we see Harold and William, both of them passing the sanctuary of the Archangel, before warring against Conan, duke of Brittany. The Mont appears, on the canvas of queen Mathilda, massive and already colossal with Romanesque arcades. It is no longer the culmen contemplationis of the ancient chronicles, we can imagine the fortress. We feel that, caught between hammer and anvil, between Brittany and a Normandy where a duchy will grow into a kingdom, it will undergo countless attacks, receive but also give hard blows.

Ce registre a disparu. One of the great monastic builders of the Mont , he shares with Robert the glory of being also its great librarian. He bought numerous volumes and in order to classify the hundred of property titles of the monastery in orderly and methodical fashion, he created himself a register that was called Quanandrier or Rented Paper, with another book that was called the White book because of the colour of its cover and in which he had transcribed all the originals of the donations to the abbey.

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The latter register has disappeared. He is the architect of the Cartulary. The Cartulary is situated in the North-West conrner of the Merveille: it consists of the three small rooms on top of each other: the first alone is vaulted; the cloister, in its western part, leads unto the second floor of this rather small room. At the moment the cartulary that tourists do not have access to, forms a museum at the top floor where some objects are assembled that were discovered during the repair works.

Note: Muniment room is one of the senses of the French word chartrier cartulary. It can also designate the contents of this room, i. The first I opened turned out to be ancient manuscripts on vellum, of a careful writing and more or less well conserved; some of them had gold and illuminated initials; in a few others this gold had aroused the greed of the idle or of children: it had been cut out by means of a pair of scissors.

The ordinary writing had tempted nobody and it had suffered no other wounds than those of time. We passed several hours in repairing them and to make an inventory and we found the precious Cartulary which we had feared lost. Note: Cog. To falsify or feign; to flatter; to wheedle. Fiat in Domino! Let it be in the Lord. Perhaps short for Fiat in nomine Domini. Let it be, in the name of the Lord. Fiat, Fiat in Domino. Note: See 53 o.

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New gods of another origin, social gods, we could say, have taken the most important role. The reason may be that, no more than those of ancient Latium , the gods of Gaul had a clearly defined personality. They were conceived as vague spirits, abstract powers of physical phenomena, more or less conventional geniuses of social groups.

They had neither face nor body. The brenn who pillaged Delphi laughed a lot, it seems, at the idea that men of marble or bronze could represent the gods of the Greeks. Neither did he understand that one could imagine being able to lock up divinity in the cella of a temple. In its very vagueness, the conception that the Gauls had of their gods was vaster vaster and more grandiose than the imagination of the Greeks. Le feu consume le tout. It is there that they decided the common business of the land. After these meetings, general or local, the judge became priest again.

For the health of the city or the nation he made solemn sacrifices. Immense wicker mannequins were filled with live men, preferably criminals, but when they did not have any, innocent people. The fire killed them all. It was in the oak woods that they had their sanctuaries and they did not do their sacred rites without oak leaves. They believed that the appearance of the mistletoe reveals the presence of the god of the tree on which it grows.

When they found it on an oak, they cut it with great ceremonies. They chose the sixth day of the moon because they believed that on that day the star possesses all its vigour and it has not completed half of its journey. Under the sacred tree they prepare a banquet and a sacrifice; they bring two white steers whose horns have not yet carried a yoke. A priest in a white robe climbs the tree: with a golden sickle he cuts it and the mistletoe is caught in a white sheet. The druids then kill the victims while asking the god that the mistletoe may bring happiness to all to whom he has given it.

Also they confided the education of their children to the druids, even of those not destined to become priests. In each city and maybe also in centers away from the cities, the druids led real scholastic establishments. They are the masters who shape the youth of Gaul. The education they give consists of the learning by heart by the pupils of a great number of verses. Aengus divides the Irish Saints into three classes. The first class, extending from the year to , begins with St. Patrick, and numbers Saints, all bishops and founders of Churches.

Patrick; one Mass; one mode of celebration; one tonsure from ear to ear. The second class, extending from the year to , counts Saints. The third class, extending from the year to , numbers Saints, comprising bishops, priests, and laymen. Patrick [St Aengus] wrote five books on the Saints of Ireland [ In the whole island, sometimes there were only a few bishops, and they concealed in their hiding-places ; the priests, who succeeded to land in Ireland from the Continent, travelled through the country in disguise, preparing the dying, encouraging the living, and not unfrequently sealing their faith in their blood; our Cathedrals were converted into Protestant conventicles, and no church or chapel left through the land.

Patrick 4: Approbations Owing to continuous absence from home for a lengthened period, I could not acknowledge your kind letter and thank you for your gift earlier. In danger from the sea. Many of them were sick or crippled; that is why, in a quite large circle around Mont-Saint-Michel , hospitals, leproseries and poor houses had been erected. These hospitals, usually administered by clerics, could not shelter all who asked for help.

The deplorable hygienic conditions in which the pilgrims live, contaminated the land. Leprosy especially ravaged the land and the leper houses where the unfortunates were treated, for better or worse, were always full. Note: It. Note: See j. Les bords de celle ouverture sont un peu amincis, lisses au dehors comme au-dedans. Footnote [1] The head of saint Aubert is preserved still at the basilica of Saint-Gervais in Avranches. Tradition has it that the archangel saint Michael, while appearing to saint Aubert, put his finger in the skull of the the bishop who did listen to his commands.

This curious relic shows us that the bone of the skull and of the face are still attached. The rims of the opening are a bit thinner, smooth outside as inside. Nothing in the periphery of the opening, neither in the length of the bone, shows the action of an instrument, the application of something biting or corrosive. Everything is mooth as if this opening had been made without violence and a long time befor the death of the subject. We can neither assume that this opening was the result of the application of a trephine of which it does not show the form.

This miraculous water was sold in bottles to the pilgrims. Je les ai vus bien souvent passer en troupes. Blatter, For the most part these were children of 13 years old. They sang canticles to Saint Michael and before them went a flag with an image of the archangel. I have often seen them pass in groups. These strange movements have been carefully analysed by different authors from beyond the Rhine.

Janssen found in these episodes the old habit of the Germans to run across the world, the currendi libido? Currendi libido. Desire to run. The ideal lasts only for a time. Archives du Calvados , mai ; Certificats. Archives du Calvados , May ; Certificates. Le Mont Saint-Michel inconnu Parmi ces poissons, mulets, bars, plies, soles, esturgeons, maquereaux, etc.

It has been claimed but we have not been able to find definite proof of the fact that before salmon was so common in the country that domestics in the farms on the Normandy coast forced on their masters when they applied for a position the condition not to have them eat salmon more than three times a week. Huynes, destroyed the church: all the bells were molten; the roods of the sleeping quarters and the other dwellings were burned and the coals, which fell on the town, did not leave a single house intact.

It seemed impossible to rebuild such a magnificent monastery, burnt five times already, and that it was a clear sign that God did not like such splendid buildings. It carries the arms of the abbey and that of the Benedictines of the Congregation of Saint-Maur. Fleming St Patrick viii: The fifth Life, written by Probus, an Irish monk who died in Meyence in the year , is considered to be an amended version of St. Fleming St Patrick Probus states that St. Patrick, after he fled from Ireland , landed at Bordeaux Brotgalum.

Le Mont Saint-Michel inconnu Its tonnage was no more than 50; Kyde had also chartered a whaler of 31 tonnage; these two ships had 13 armed men and 56 archers and sailors. One was called The Trinity; she had been brought from Orwell England by Gautier Dubois; its weight wqs 80, it took 29 sailors in defense and in crew.

Wichelsea had armed Le George and maybe The Trinity too, with 20 men captain included. Granville had armed a vessel that belonged to Damours le Bouffi; it had a tonnage of 15, with 17 sailors and soldiers on board. Note : Perhaps inspired by the Homeric list of ships of the English fleet on page , on their way to fight the French in , from which the above quotation is taken. But see l. Maclovii pardis dat vulnera cancer in vadis. Il contient, en effet. The paragraph ends like this:. Au total une garnison de. Every armed man was accompanied by a page and a courtier; two archers had one servant.

So when at a certain date it is claimed that 20 armed men were at Tombelaine, that means the following:. A total garrison of … men. Knox and the Reformation. Note: Knoxite. Presumably a follower of John Knox c. The orthographic shift of the names its frequent when it involves the transcription of foreign names. These prisoners were men of renown. Norman Lesley was, we know, one of the most distinguished champions of the Scottish Reformation. In Lesley, at the head of a small group of fifteen men, butchered cardinal Beaton at the castle of Saint Andrew and locked himself in the fortress he had just taken with Knox, the great Scottish reformer.

Note: Pelham or Adventures of a Gentleman. Novel by Bulwer Lytton, published See VI. Four years before the Stapleton was jailed, there entered in the prison of the mount, the gazetteer Victor de la Castagne, better known under the name of Dubourg, originally from Espalion. The prisoner died voluntarily of hunger on 26 August He had arrived on the Mont in September ; he was detained for a little less than a year and not thirty as some authors have claimed.

He was held on the Mont for several years. He was a writer, less famous for his work than for his bad luck. It is true that it was baptized Free Mount and later Villefranche. From to it can be said that The superior administration was plagued by complaints of all kinds.

The doctors were ignorant, the chaplain was treated as a monster in soutane, the director was barbaric tyrant and a uniformed Nero. Especially the chaplain was vilified. He is known as a greedy man, without faith, bad, false; he is dirty as a comb and uglier than the ugliest of monkeys. He is the one who thought up the iron bars that have turned our cells into iron cages. Note: See o and h. They were no more than latrines or else mass graves. We understand that the besieged could not throw beyond the ramparts the bodies of those who had died inside the Mont , monks or soldiers.

They were made to disappear in hidden holes that the political passions had transformed into abominable in pace! Note: See l - n. A book or table in which the places of the heavenly bodies and other astronomical matters are tabulated in advance for each day of a certain period; an astronomical almanac see OED. Le Mont Saint-Michel inconnu Dans ce manuscrit, chaque mois commence par un vers? Il indique les jours funestes de chaque mois. It indicates the unlucky days of each month.

Orphreys: gold embroidery, or any rich embroidery. To this day tourists, admiring and credulous people, are shown a very beautiful tower, called the Guet Tower. But historical truth does not agree for the excellent reason that the Guet Tower was built under Robert Jolivet, between and It is enough to look at the tower once to recognize the building methods of the fifteenth century.

But Tiphaine died in Dinan in , i. In any case, to us the date seems very questionable. His name was Geoffroy of Servon, a name based, undoubtedly, on a small parish at approximately three leagues from Mont Saint-Michel which had as its lords the noble lineage of the Foulques Paynel. Note: In VI. Note: See h. The girls from Landerneau. Who smells like thyme and white roses? The girls of Lesneven]. Not found in Myrdhinn. Myrdhinn : Prophetiae desiderantur.

Note: This is the single occurrence of the word in the book. Prophetiae desiderantur. Prophets are wanted. Myrdhinn trois hommes vraiment saints cherchent Merlin pour le convertir [ He is seated on a black horse, his coat is black, his hair is black, his face is black and he is black all over. Merlin recognised Colombanus, the great doctor of the Irish church ]. Fleming St Patrick St. Patrick in the year moved onward to a place called Druim-Sailech, or the Field of Sallows, but afterwards called Armagh , on account of its eminence.

Il accourut. Feeling that she was close to the end, although her fortieth spring had not yet blossomed, she called Geoffroy de Servon to her side. He came. Six hours was enough to go from the Mont to Dinan. He consoled her with pious words and these evoked, one can be sure, quite a few memories of Mont Saint-Michel; then the abbot gave lady Duguesclin the last sacraments and the rather mystical soul of the fairy lady escaped from her gentle body and flew away into eternity through the ethereal spaces in which the worlds rotate.

Two days later, Geoffroy officiated pontifically at the church of Saint-Saviour in Dinan and his voice trembled, surely from emotion, when he gave the last blessing; in the end the convoy went, slowly, towards the convent of the Jacobins and the coffin disappeared soon in the dark caves of the chapel. When he had discarded his priestly vestments, the good abbot certainly lavished consolations on the unfortunate constable. These were undoubtedly eloquent and persuasive: a few months later Duguesclin married Jeanne de Laval. Note: See 20 c. Duguesclin married his second wife, Jeanne de Laval, in Ils en furent pour leurs frais.

The monks wanted from the bishop the privilege of being able to hear confession of everybody who came to them; they started negotiations with the bishop of Avranches for that purpose and it was during these that they offered him this beautiful fish. It was in vain. So they made a pun on his name: they called him Rodomont.

Married to Isabeau de la Tiral who was, after his death, dame of Ducey, he had four boys and four girls. He wsa beheaded in , but the sentence of villenage against his children was never executed. His elder son, Gabriel II, married to Suzanne de Boucquetot with whom he had five sons and a daughter, was a terrible enemy of the Mont.

We know that he failed to take the abbey-fortresse by guile on the night of 29 and 30 August Any person who was vindictive, unjust, impious or cruel, was immediately likened by the people to Montgommery, so much that one ceased to distinguish between the members of the family.

No difference was made between Jacques and the two Gabriels. The legend represented him as ceasely roaming the Normandy coast, from Coutances to Pontorson. Not a single castle that he did not visit every month; he tried to spend counterfeit money in Tombelaine; at night he traveled with a horse shod backwards to confuse those who attempted to follow him, he arrested pilgrims who were late; having become the devil himself, as soon as he was on horseback, he martyred poor priests whom he forced to say sacrilegious masses in his parishes of Chasseguay, Cormeray and de Ducey.

Rien pour les autres, tout pour lui. Note: Cyrographum. Note : L. Litis divisio. The division of a legal argument. See reproduction: there is a zigzagging line between the two words, representing the perforation between the cheque and the stub. It carries thus in itself the proof its mendacity. These frauds are not rare; mostly they derive from an excessive love on the part of the monks for their monastery; the older the abbey or the priory, the greater its glory; so the forgers wanted to help the descendants of the donors to regain the goods that had been given by their ancestors.

Finally in Hampshire he held from the king one hide and the tithing for the manor of Basinguestoches, today Basingtoke. Note: Hide. Old English measure of land, the equivalent of acres, variously defined as sufficient to support a family, or as much as could be ploughed in one year.

Pigeon had wanted to place the old Hotel des Monnaies. At the bottom of the hole, carved into the granite, one found two or three metal ingots. The sign this was the name of any object of metal, jewel, figure or medal was worn attached to a beret. Most of the images were molten in slate or Munich stone molds.

See h. Note: Breton. The mouth of a river. It is used in geography to designate a narrow valley invaded by the sea. The Normans themselves, so proud to have on their marine land the expression was coined by the troubadour Wace the eighth wonder of the world, have long realized that the bay belongs more to the Bretons than to their own province. Note: Gauger, gouger. Dublin slang. A cadger, a chancer, a scoundrel. Today no more smugglers with sacks that contain more subterfuge and malice than salt, powder or tobacco.

What do you have there? Du dernier bien. One says euphemistically that a man is du dernier bien with a woman to express the fact that he is her lover. It is generally believed that this is the identical bell of the Saint to which allusion is made in the ancient Irish records. Boulogne-sur-Mer St. Fiacc states that the Apostle of Ireland was born at Nemthur—Nemthur, as all commentators agree, is not the name of a town, but of a tower. From the days of Julius Caesar, Portus Ictius, or the harbour of Boulogne , was the port from which the Roman troops sailed to Britain , and the harbour to which they steered on their return.

The very fact that King Niall made use of this harbour when he raided Armorica in the twenty-seventh year of his reign, makes it likely that he sailed into the same harbour when first invading that country [ Note: See p , c , e. This was the founding act of the Swiss Confederation. Note: This entry is written to the right of k and m. Old Fr. Hart The more common meaning is noose or hanging, but it originally meant a thin branch, hence, in dialect, a whip Fr. So this could either be a linguistic note or refer to the two penalties of hanging and whipping. Croix du Fief.

Cross of the fief: the name of a square in Saint Malo. Note: Hiberno English. Spy Wednesday. The Wednesday before Easter. Herpin ] [the ancient cross of the Fief, which disappeared during the Revolution. This cross used to stand, outside of the walls and in the port, in a little island of rough stones that served as a pedestal. It was a symbol of the jurisdiction of the common lordship of the Bishop and the Chapter of Saint-Malo. Herpin ]. Note: The double cross is also known as the Lorraine cross. Faire venir de tels blocs de granit de si loin!

No-one today know their history; no human strength has been able to set them up; only the power of the spirit was able to raise them. So this is what I propose: go and get them, and set them up here in the same order as they are there. No more suitable monument can be built to honour our warriors, none will last this long. Hearing Merlin speak like this, the king could not help smiling. To make such blocks of granite travel such a distance! These stones are really mysterious. The water that is poured by the heavens in their cavities closes wounds and gives sight to blind eyes.

At their feet grow plants that have thousands of good uses. It has been like this for a long time, ever since the giants who brought these stones from deepest Africa and placed them in a circle in Ireland , just as they had been in their own country. The king gave them his brother Uter as their commander; the boats were soon ready and they were seen travelling to Ireland , their sails filled by the wind, and Merlin standing at the bow of the leading ship.

Myrdhinn n1: Tu quoque saepe veni, soror, o dilecta [Come you also often, sister, loved one. Note: P. Postmaster General. Note: Alternatively, this and the following unit may be associated with the Wireless Broadcasting Inquiry. See the note for e. Post Master General J.

Walsh was a key person in the scandal. Note: See. A down bed. Miscellanies At last, after a little hesitation as to whether he should wear cap and gown, which I decided he should, for this time only, not , Lexilogus was ready: and calling out on the staircase to some invisible Bed-maker, that his books should not be meddled with, we ran downstairs. I thought Don Quixote had put an end to all that long ago. Yes; and a handsome house withal—unless indeed you think the handsome Soul will fashion that about herself from within—like a shell—which, so far as her Top-storey, where she is supposed chiefly to reside, I think may be the case.

So, by the time he had beautified her within, it was too late to re-front her Outside, which had case-hardened , I suppose. Miscellanies Euphranor thought not. No, nor of any young Wordsworth neither under our diviner auspices. Miscellanies A Horn-Book gives of Ginger-bread;. And, that the Child may learn the better,. As he can name, he eats the Letter. Note: Hornbook. For, as King Arthur shall bear witness, no young Edwin he, though, as a great Poet, comprehending all the [ ] softer stops of human Emotion in that Register where the Intellectual, no less than.

Miscellanies Something to this effect I said, though, were it but for lack of walking breath, at no so long-winded a stretch of eloquence. And so we went on, partly in jest, partly in earnest, drawing Philosophers of all kinds into the same net in which we had entangled the Poet and his Critic — How the Moralist who worked alone in his closet was apt to mismeasure Humanity, and be very angry when the cloth he cut out for him would not fit — how the best Histories were written. They agreed with me; and we turn'd homeward. Miscellanies I then inquired about his own reading, which, though not much, was not utterly neglected, it seemed; and he said he had [ ] meant to ask one of us to beat something into his stupid head this summer in Yorkshire.

Lexilogus, I knew, meant to stop at Cambridge all the long Vacation; but Euphranor said he should be at home, for anything he then knew, and they could talk the matter over when the time came. We then again fell to talking of our County; and among other things I asked Phidippus if his horse were Yorkshire , of old famous for its breed, as well as of Riders, and how long he had had her, and so forth. Note: Plaister. Well, so I am fitted, — as Lycion is to be [ ] with one who can Valse through life with him.

This has been written sideways in the right margin. I think I have observed they have grave, taciturn faces, especially when old, which they soon get to look. Is this from much wasting, to carry little Flesh — and large — Responsibility? JJA II. Durum et durum non faciunt murum. Hard and hard i. Miscellanies … took his degree in , at Trinity College Cambridge; a year after was ordained deacon, and entered on the curacy of Allington in Lincolnshire, where he continued till , when he went to reside at Trowbridge, in Wiltshire, to which Rectory his father had just been presented by the Duke of Rutland.

Miscellanies His Father dying, and carrying with him what pension he had from Mr. Et le temps.

And the time. Fair violet! Answer us—Whither art thou gone? Ever thou wert so still, and faint,. And fearing to be look'd upon. We cannot say that one hath died,. Who wont to live so unespied,. But crept away unto a stiller spot,. Where men may stir the grass, and find thee not. Note: Hypped. Affected with hypochondria, depressed. Miscellanies I have no very acute pain, a skeely doctor, a good nurse, kind solicitous friends, a remission of the worst pain of my desk hours—so why should I fret?

Note: Skeely. Skilled, skilful. The word survives chiefly in Scottish and Northern dialect. A young man, especially a fashionable one. A child. Miscellanies But nowhere was he more amiable than is some of those humbler meetings — about the fire in the keeping-room at Christmas, or under the walnut tree in summer. Note: Keeping-room. A sitting-room or parlour. Miscellanies He was content with a poem so long as it was good in the main, without minding those smaller beauties which go to make up perfection — content with a letter that told of health and goodwill, with very little other news — and content with a friend who had the average virtues and accomplishments of men, without being the faultless monster which the world never saw, but so many are half their lives looking for.

Apocryphal New Testament [Jesus] turned to the apostles — to me Peter and John — and said that Mary should appear to them again. I will bring her unto you arrayed in this body. Apocryphal New Testament But [the Jews] being yet more inflamed in spirit went unto the governor, crying out and saying: The nation of the Jews is destroyed because of this woman [the Virgin Mary]: drive thou her away from Bethlehem and from the province of Jerusalem.

But the governor was astonied at the wonders and said unto them: I will not drive her out from Bethlehem nor from any other place. Apocryphal New Testament And it came to pass after that sound that the sun and the moon appeared about the house, and an assembly of the first-begotten saints came unto the house where the mother of the Lord lay, for her honour and glory. And I saw many signs come to pass, blind receiving sight, deaf hearing, lame walking, lepers cleansed, and them that were possessed of unclean spirits healed. Special Committee on the Improvement of the Fire Department.

General Assembly. Department of Ports and Harbours. Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War. Council of National Defense. Highways Transport Committee. Main Page. Raamatun tutkisteluja 1: Jumalallinen aikakausien suunnitelma Finnish by Russell, C. The Ralstons English by Crawford, F.

Livres d'occasion

Rambles in Normandy English by Mansfield, M. Mary V. With official documents revealed and recorded for the first time. Raymond; or, Life and Death With examples of the evidence for survival of memory and affection after death. Caldecott's Picture Book No. Walter S. James Laughlin The Real Shelley. New Views of the Poet's Life. Rebel Raider English by Piper, H. Lee English by Lee, Robert E. Jones English by Jones, Rufus M.

These Shreds, Guardians of Human Memory: Papyrus and Culture in Late Antiquity

Jones English by Pringle, Cyrus G. Alec John A Record of St. The Rector English by Oliphant, Mrs. Margaret The Rector of St. Redeemed English by Rowe, Clarence H. September German by Humboldt, Alexander von Il re dei re, vol. John, Percy B. Red, White, Blue Socks. Reflections on Dr. English by Mill, Mrs. English by Farmer, John S. English by Barlow, R. Band 1. Band 2. Band 3. Band 4. Erster Band. Zweiter Band.

Aïe Aïe Aïe !

Vries in naar het Noorden en Oosten van Japan volgens het journaal gehouden door C. English by Lawson, Robert W. English by Gannett, Ezra S. Calhoun of South Carolina on the bill to prevent the interference of certain federal officers in elections: delivered in the Senate of the United States February 22, English by Calhoun, John C. Illustrated by Examples from the Etchings of Rembrandt. Remember the Alamo! English by Fehrenbach, T. Mixson, Company "E" 1st S. Hagood's English by Mixson, Frank M. George H. Regiment English by Sloan, John A.

Infantry English by Clark, William H. C, 2nd Va.