10 differences between Martin Luther and John Calvin
Thesis Statement The purpose of my paper will reflect the life of Martin Luther during the Reformation period and the changes brought forth as a result of his teachings and writings. Introduction Research on Martin Luther was chosen to demonstrate the importance of his works, and decisions.
The sixteenth- century movement for the reform of abuses in the Roman Catholic Church resulted in the establishment of the Reformed and Protestant Churches. Reformers like Martin Luther and John Calvin were two of the most significant figures in the history of The Reformation.
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He spent two years studying Scripture before being ordained as a priest. In , Luther was sent to Rome and was shocked by the spiritual laxity. After finishing his theological doctorate, he became a professor at Wittenberg, in , Luther became the district vicar. Luther began to develop his own theology and in he felt compelled to protest the dispensation of indulgences.
Indulgences were sold to forgive sinners. Luther posted his 95 Theses on the door of the castle church.
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He was asked to recant by the Cardinal and refused. Many theologians also believe that …show more content…. Because of Luther's conservatism and the political conditions of 16th-century Germany, the Lutheran churches originated as territorial churches, subject to the local princes. The local organization still has the most important place in church polity, but there is a growing tendency toward a more organized church.
Lutheranism has traditionally stressed education, and there are many Lutheran schools, colleges, and seminaries throughout the world. Since the midth century, Lutherans have had a program of Christian service for women called the Deaconess movement.
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The world membership of Lutherans is about 61 million. This left him free to annul his own marriage and marry Anne Boleyn.
Anne Boleyn also failed to produce a male heir, and when she was accused of adultery, Henry had her executed. His third wife, Jane Seymour, at long last delivered a son, Edward, who ruled for only a short time before dying in at the age of fifteen.
This portrait of Elizabeth I of England, painted by George Gower in about , shows Elizabeth with her hand on a globe, signifying her power over the world. The pictures in the background show the English defeat of the Spanish Armada. Under Elizabeth, the Church of England again became the state church, retaining the hierarchical structure and many of the rituals of the Catholic Church.
However, by the late s, some English members of the Church began to agitate for more reform. Known as Puritans , they worked to erase all vestiges of Catholicism from the Church of England. Worse still, many in power saw Puritans as a security threat because of their opposition to the national church. Under Elizabeth, whose long reign lasted from to , Puritans grew steadily in number.
After James I died in and his son Charles I ascended the throne, Puritans became the target of increasing state pressure to conform. Many crossed the Atlantic in the s and s instead to create a New England, a haven for reformed Protestantism where Puritan was no longer a term of abuse. Thus, the religious upheavals that affected England so much had equally momentous consequences for the Americas. By the early s, the Protestant Reformation threatened the massive Spanish Catholic empire.
As the preeminent Catholic power, Spain would not tolerate any challenge to the Holy Catholic Church. Over the course of the s, it devoted vast amounts of treasure and labor to leading an unsuccessful effort to eradicate Protestantism in Europe. By , these seven northern provinces had declared their independence from Spain and created the Dutch Republic, also called Holland, where Protestantism was tolerated.
Determined to deal a death blow to Protestantism in England and Holland, King Philip of Spain assembled a massive force of over thirty thousand men and ships, and in he sent this navy, the Spanish Armada, north. Calvin bounced around for the next three years, teaching and preaching in France, Italy and Switzerland.
Martin Luther and John Calvin as Religious Leaders of the Reformation
In this book, Calvin clearly laid out his religious beliefs. That same year, Calvin found himself in Geneva, where a radical Protestant named Guillaume Farel convinced him to stay. French-speaking Geneva was ripe for reform, but two factions were battling for control. The Libertines wanted minor church reform, such as no compulsory church attendance and wanted magistrates to control the clergy.
Radicals, like Calvin and Farel, wanted major changes. Three immediate breaks from the Catholic Church took place: monasteries were closed, the Mass was prohibited, and papal authority was renounced. Calvin's fortunes shifted again in when the Libertines took over Geneva.
Martin Luther and the Reformation
He and Farel escaped to Strasbourg. By , the Libertines had been ousted and Calvin returned to Geneva, where he began a long series of reforms. He redid the church on an apostolic model, with no bishops, clergy of equal status, and lay elders and deacons. All elders and deacons were members of the consistory, a church court. The city was moving toward theocracy, a religious government. The moral code became criminal law in Geneva; sin became a punishable crime.
Excommunication, or being thrown out of the church, meant being banned from the city. Lewd singing could result in the person's tongue being pierced. Blasphemy was punished by death.