In , native people of Suriname were displayed in the International Colonial and Export Exhibition in Amsterdam, held behind the Rijksmuseum. In the late s, Hagenbeck organized exhibitions of indigenous populations from various parts of the globe. He staged a public display in of Sinhalese autochthones from the Sri Lanka. At the Pan-American Exposition  and at the World's Columbian Exposition , where Little Egypt performed bellydance , and where the photographers Charles Dudley Arnold and Harlow Higginbotham took depreciative photos, presenting indigenous people as catalogue of "types", along with sarcastic legends.
In , to increase the number of visitors, the Cincinnati Zoo invited one hundred Sioux Native Americans to establish a village at the site. The Sioux lived at the zoo for three months. The US had just acquired, following the Spanish—American War , new territories such as Guam , the Philippines , and Puerto Rico , allowing them to "display" some of the native inhabitants. Sequoyah Ade :. To further illustrate the indignities heaped upon the Philippine people following their eventual loss to the Americans, the United States made the Philippine campaign the centrepoint of the World's Fair held that year in St.
Louis, MI [sic]. In what was enthusiastically termed a "parade of evolutionary progress," visitors could inspect the "primitives" that represented the counterbalance to "Civilisation" justifying Kipling 's poem " The White Man's Burden ". Pygmies from New Guinea and Africa, who were later displayed in the Primate section of the Bronx Zoo , were paraded next to American Indians such as Apache warrior Geronimo , who sold his autograph. But the main draw was the Philippine exhibition complete with full size replicas of Indigenous living quarters erected to exhibit the inherent backwardness of the Philippine people.
The purpose was to highlight both the "civilising" influence of American rule and the economic potential of the island chains' natural resources on the heels of the Philippine—American War. It was, reportedly, the largest specific Aboriginal exhibition displayed in the exposition. As one pleased visitor commented, the human zoo exhibition displayed "the race narrative of odd peoples who mark time while the world advances, and of savages made, by American methods, into civilized workers. At the behest of Grant, the zoo director William Hornaday placed Benga displayed in a cage with the chimpanzees, then with an orangutan named Dohong, and a parrot, and labeled him The Missing Link , suggesting that in evolutionary terms Africans like Benga were closer to apes than were Europeans.
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It triggered protests from the city's clergymen, but the public reportedly flocked to see it. Benga shot targets with a bow and arrow, wove twine, and wrestled with an orangutan. Although, according to The New York Times , "few expressed audible objection to the sight of a human being in a cage with monkeys as companions", controversy erupted as black clergymen in the city took great offense.
McClellan Jr. As the controversy continued, Hornaday remained unapologetic, insisting that his only intention was to put on an ethnological exhibition. In another letter, he said that he and Grant—who ten years later would publish the racist tract The Passing of the Great Race —considered it "imperative that the society should not even seem to be dictated to" by the black clergymen.
On Monday, September 8, , after just two days, Hornaday decided to close the exhibition, and Benga could be found walking the zoo grounds, often followed by a crowd "howling, jeering and yelling. By the s, a new kind of human zoo appeared in America, nude shows masquerading as education. The former was supposedly a real nudist colony , which used hired performers instead of actual nudists.
The latter featured nude women performing in western attire. A Congolese village was displayed at the Brussels World's Fair. An African village, intended as a craft and cultural festival, was held in Augsburg Zoo in Germany in July , and was subject to widespread criticism. In August , London Zoo displayed four human volunteers wearing fig leaves and bathing suits for four days.
In , Adelaide Zoo ran a Human Zoo exhibition which consisted of a group of people who, as part of a study exercise, had applied to be housed in the former ape enclosure by day, but then returned home by night. Although members of the group of twenty people - among them an infant, age three-months - were not officially on display, it was necessary for them to "collect firewood in the zoo to cook their food, and [they] were being stared at and filmed by tourists and passers-by". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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Physical anthropology and human" zoos": the exhibition of natives as a scientific popularization practice on the threshold of the 20th century. Asclepio; archivo iberoamericano de historia de la medicina y antropologia medica, 62 1 , The second rib is the second uppermost rib in humans or second most frontal in animals that walk on four limbs. In humans, the second rib is defined as a true rib since it connects with the sternum through the intervention of the costal cartilage anteriorly at the front.
Posteriorly, the second rib is connected with the vertebral column by the second thoracic vertebra. The second rib is much longer than the first rib , but has a very similar curvature. The non-articular portion of the tubercle is occasionally only feebly marked. The angle is slight and situated close to the tubercle.
The body is not twisted so that both ends touch any plane surface upon which it may be laid; but there is a bend, with its convexity upward, similar to, though smaller than that found in the first rib. The body is not flattened horizontally like that of the first rib.
Its external surface is convex, and looks upward and a little outward; near the middle of it is a rough eminence for the origin of the lower part of the first and the whole of the second digitation of the serratus anterior; behind and above this is attached the posterior scalene. The internal surface, smooth, and concave, is directed downward and a little inward: on its posterior part there is a short costal groove between the ridge of the internal surface of the rib and the inferior border. It protects the intercostal space containing the intercostal veins , intercostal arteries , and intercostal nerves.
The ninth rib has a frontal part at the same level as the first lumbar vertebra. This level is called the transpyloric plane , since the pylorus is also at this level. The tenth rib attaches directly to the body of vertebra T10 instead of between vertebrae like the second through ninth ribs. Due to this direct attachment, vertebra T10 has a complete costal facet on its body.
The eleventh and twelfth ribs , the floating ribs , have a single articular facet on the head, which is of rather large size. They have no necks or tubercles, and are pointed at their anterior ends. The eleventh has a slight angle and a shallow costal groove, whereas the twelfth does not. The twelfth rib is much shorter than the eleventh rib, and its head is inclined slightly downward. The sternum is a long, flat bone that forms the front of the rib cage. The cartilages of the top seven ribs the true ribs join with the sternum at the sternocostal joints. The costal cartilage of the second rib articulates with the sternum at the sternal angle making it easy to locate.
The transversus thoracis muscle is innervated by one of the intercostal nerves and superiorly attaches at the posterior surface of the lower sternum. Its inferior attachment is the internal surface of costal cartilages two through six and works to depress the ribs. Expansion of the rib cage in males is caused by the effects of testosterone during puberty.
Variations in the number of ribs occur. About 1 in people have an additional cervical rib , and there is a female predominance. In several ethnic groups, most significantly the Japanese, the tenth rib is sometimes a floating rib , as it lacks a cartilaginous connection to the seventh rib. The human rib cage is a component of the human respiratory system. It encloses the thoracic cavity, which contains the lungs.
An inhalation is accomplished when the muscular diaphragm , at the floor of the thoracic cavity, contracts and flattens, while the contraction of intercostal muscles lift the rib cage up and out. Expansion of the thoracic cavity is driven in three planes; the vertical, the anteroposterior and the transverse. The vertical plane is extended by the help of the diaphragm contracting and the abdominal muscles relaxing to accommodate the downward pressure that is supplied to the abdominal viscera by the diaphragm contracting.
A greater extension can be achieved by the diaphragm itself moving down, rather than simply the domes flattening. The second plane is the anteroposterior and this is expanded by a movement known as the ' pump handle. When the external intercostal muscles contract and lift the ribs, the upper ribs are able also to push the sternum up and out.
This movement increases the anteroposterior diameter of the thoracic cavity, and hence aids breathing further. The third, transverse, plane is primarily expanded by the lower ribs some say it is the 7th to 10th ribs in particular , with the diaphragm's central tendon acting as a fixed point. When the diaphragm contracts, the ribs are able to evert and produce what is known as the bucket handle movement , facilitated by gliding at the costovertebral joints.
In this way, the transverse diameter is expanded and the lungs can fill. Rib fractures are the most common injury to the rib cage. These most frequently affect the middle ribs. When several adjacent ribs incur two or more fractures each, this can result in a flail chest which is a life-threatening condition. A dislocated rib can be painful and can be caused simply by coughing, or for example by trauma or lifting heavy weights. One or more costal cartilages can become inflamed — a condition known as costochondritis ; the resulting pain is similar to that of a heart attack.
Abnormalities of the rib cage include pectus excavatum "sunken chest" and pectus carinatum "pigeon chest". A bifid rib is a bifurcated rib, split towards the sternal end, and usually just affecting one of the ribs of a pair.
Zoo flips script, puts humans in a cage for lions
It is a congenital defect affecting about 1. It is often without symptoms though respiratory difficulties and other problems can arise. Rib removal is the surgical removal of one or more ribs for therapeutic or cosmetic reasons. Rib resection is the removal of part of a rib. Their position can be permanently altered by a form of body modification called tightlacing , which uses a corset to compress and move the ribs.
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The ribs, particularly their sternal ends, are used as a way of estimating age in forensic pathology , due to their progressive ossification. In one scenario described by the patent, a robot that has failed could alert a computer system, automatically generating an order for repair, which it assigns to an available human transport device. Which device receives the order could be determined by its location, or the schedule or the particular skills of the human located within. Amazon in was granted a patent for a system to transport humans, enclosed in a cage and on top of a robotic trolley, for work in areas full of other automated robots.
Patent and Trademark Office. Share story. By Matt Day. Benjamin Romano. Matt Day.