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Filters reduce guide numbers regardless of whether they are gels placed over the flash device or are lens filters on the camera. Flash devices may come with detachable color-correction gels or filters to match the color of the flash with different types of ambient lighting such as incandescent and fluorescent. Some modern flash devices can even detect when color-correction gels have been attached and automatically compensate for their effect on guide numbers.

Unless a hot shoe-mounted electronic flash device's power can be controlled by a camera via through-the-lens metering TTL , guide numbers must be manually compensated for the effect of on-lens filters. The following is a step-by-step example of using the above formula: Suppose your guide number is 32 it is irrelevant if it is scaled for meters or feet for this purpose and the rated filter loss is 1. Take 0. When a flash device is set to manual M or automatic A exposure mode and is not being controlled via the camera's through-the-lens metering, a convenient way to compensate for the effect of a lens-mounted filter is to set the ISO rating on a camera to a higher value than the flash device.

The extra camera sensitivity compensates for the loss due to the filter. Take 2 and raise it to the power of 1. When electronic flash devices based on flashtube technology are used with most modern cameras those with focal-plane shutters , shutter speed has no effect on guide numbers. This is because even at the most powerful settings, flash durations seldom exceed a few milliseconds thousandths of a second. With focal-plane shutters, a flash begins shortly after the shutter curtain has fully opened and must extinguish before the curtain begins to close.

When this happens, an underexposed, gradated band appears along an edge of the image—often trailing off darker towards the left or bottom, as seen in the photo at top right. Conversely, longer exposures also have no effect on guide number. After the flash has extinguished, longer shutter speeds will only increase the contribution from continuous ambient light, which can lead to ghosting with moving subjects.

See also Flash synchronization. Shutter speeds used to and still do today influence guide numbers when using flashbulbs due to their relatively long flash durations. Vintage flashbulbs, though no longer made, are still available and have a niche following, largely because even medium-size bulbs such as the once-popular General Electric Synchro-Press No. If one wanted the benefit of all the light produced by a flashbulb highest possible guide number , relatively long exposure times were required because most flashbulbs didn't stop producing useful amounts of light until 20—90 milliseconds ms after electrical current was applied.

The GE No. The No. So long as one used flashbulbs with leaf shutter-type cameras, faster exposures and larger apertures could be used to minimize motion blur or reduce depth of field at the expense of guide number. This relationship between shutter speed and guide number was reflected in the guide number tables printed on flashbulb packaging after the industry-wide adoption of the guide number system, as exemplified by the below-left table for the No.

When filling in shadows outdoors, powerful flash devices those with inherently greater guide numbers when compared at the same ISO sensitivity and coverage angle can be useful because they permit photographers to increase the maximum flash-to-subject distance, such as when taking group photos. Clearly, more power helps because the sun is such a bright, unadjustable light source against which a flash device must compete.

The exposures given here assume average frontlit subjects under bright or hazy sun with distinct shadows for photos taken between 2 hours after sunrise and 2 hours before sunset. Note that increasing the ISO sensitivity of a digital camera or choosing a faster film speed will not increase the distances given in these tables because the extent to which ISO sensitivity affects the exposure in the fill-flash areas of an image will equally affect the sunlit ones.

General Electric introduced the guide number system in concurrently with the introduction of a compact, wire-filled flashbulb called the No. The first flashbulb was introduced in and was filled with flash powder. In , Sashalite Limited in London invented the "Sashalite" flashbulb, which was filled with a crumpled wad of aluminum foil so thin about one-tenth the width of a human hair it could not be picked up with fingers. However, apparently assuming photographers using their product would be doing so in a relatively narrow range of distances common to portraiture, made no mention of flash-to-subject distance.

The instruction sheet then directed the photographer as follows:. Then simply: 1. Open the camera shutter. Flash the "Sashalite" bulb. Close the camera shutter. In , Philips introduced what was arguably the first modern flashbulb with wire fill under the trade name "Hydronalium". Philips' technology was licensed in by Wabash Photolamp Corporation and introduced to the U. Prior to GE's inverse of the squares innovation, photographers and publications—via tedious trial and error with different flashbulbs and reflectors—generated tables providing a large number of aperture-distance combinations.

For instance, a edition written too late to incorporate guide numbers of the Complete Introduction to Photography by the Journal of the Photographic Society of America featured an exposure table for foil-filled flashbulbs, which is shown below. The parenthetical values in bold were not part of the original table; they show the equivalent guide number for each aperture-distance combination.

Though little-known today, the music for Athalie merits performance. Rather than compose entirely new music for the production, Mendelssohn strategically chose to re-use his concert overture and its colourful assortment of motifs, thereby facilitating, retrospectively, their identification in the youthful composition of Schumann questioned Mendelssohn's heavy reliance on the material of the overture, perhaps most conspicuous in the finale, which revives the elves' music and the coda of the overture, and concludes with the four ethereal wind chords. But throughout the course of the incidental music the familiar motifs of the overture are themselves subjected to a series of fanciful metamorphoses, extending a process already at work in the product of the year-old's imagination.

Thus, the quintessential tetrachord of the elves' motif is invoked in any number of ingenious ways, including, in nos. Among Mendelssohn's most impressive works is the secular cantata Die erste Walpurgisnacht , on a poem by Goethe that treats the springtime pagan rituals of the Druids on the Brocken. Goethe himself probably encouraged Mendelssohn to attempt the work during their last meeting in The poem was intended to symbolize the suppression of old customs by new ideas, in this case, the persecution of the Druids by Christian zealots.

Through-composed, the cantata begins with an energetic overture that depicts the end of winter and coming of spring a topic previously treated by Haydn in the overture to The Seasons ; Mendelssohn's transition to spring, in turn, inspired a passage in the first movement of Brahms's Second Symphony.

There follow nine connected movements; the climax is reached in nos. Here Mendelssohn fortified the orchestra with cymbals and bass drum and experimented with abrupt metrical shifts to achieve that musical confusion so prized by Berlioz when he heard the work in Cummings as the Christmas carol Hark! Of the four sets of partsongs Mendelssohn published, three for mixed chorus, opp. The majority fall into strophic designs and not infrequently attain the artful simplicity of folksong, as in Abschied vom Wald op.

The preferred poets are Eichendorff, Uhland, Goethe and Heine, and the texts treat, in the main, romantic themes of springtime, forests and wandering. According to conventional wisdom, Mendelssohn's solo and duet lieder do not rank among his most significant efforts. He remained uninfluenced by the rich corpus of Schubert's songs it was Zelter who advised Goethe in to return a parcel of Schubert's Goethe settings, and later Mendelssohn came to know only a few Schubert lieder.

Instead, initially his models were the north German lieder, including those of Reichardt and Zelter, in which the piano parts provided only modest accompaniments to the poetry. Many of Mendelssohn's songs are simple strophic settings; only rarely is the accompaniment allotted musically challenging material e.

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Of considerably greater interest, however, is the relationship between the songs and the composer's instrumental music. Thus, Frage op. Scheidend op. The Venetianisches Gondellied op. And the duet Herbstlied op. Like the Lieder ohne Worte , Mendelssohn published his lieder in sets of six, with the exception of opp.

But, in decided contrast to Schubert and Schumann, Mendelssohn did not fully explore the potential or ramifications of the song cycle. Mendelssohn's posthumous fame followed a most unusual trajectory for a major European composer. Already during his lifetime his position at the forefront of German and English culture was secured. Mendelssohn was inevitably associated with Queen Victoria and Prince Albert, and his fame was susceptible to late 19th- and early 20th-century critiques of Victorian society and mores. In the 20th century the rise of Nazism in Germany did further, seemingly irreparable harm: Mendelssohn's music was banned and his statue in front of the Leipzig Conservatory was surreptitiously removed and destroyed a new statue was unveiled before the Neues Gewandhaus in As the Romans of old took delight in the struggle and writhing agony of the gladiator, so we of the present day enjoy watching the beats and throes of the human heart as exhibited by our tone and word poets, the gladiators of modern times.

But a century later Mendelssohn scholarship began to focus on the wealth of surviving primary sources, including manuscripts, sketches, diaries, paintings and correspondence, a substantial amount of which remained unpublished by the late s. Investigation of these materials for the first complete edition of Mendelssohn's music and letters will undoubtedly reveal much new information about this critical figure in 19th-century musical life, who, if he missed true greatness, may have missed it, as the American critic H.

Rietz Leipzig, —7 [R]. Singspiel, 2,? Klingemann or F. Voigts, after M. Ruy Blas: Romance, female vv, str duet arr. Die Lorelei, frag. Ave Maria, 1. Finale, ed. Concerto, d, vn, pf, str, 6 May , arr. Concerto, E, 2 pf, 17 Oct , perf. Berlin, 7 Dec , fs, first movement, ed. Lindeman Madison, WI, , rev. July , perf. Symphony no. Berlin 14 Nov , arr. London, 25 May , with arr. Overture for wind instruments, C, 1st version as Harmoniemusik, 11 wind insts, July , rev. Berlin 2 Nov ; rev. Ein Sommernachtstraum, ov. Berlin, 8 Sept , rev. Piano Concerto no.

Munich, 17 Oct , pts London, , fs ed. Capriccio brillant, b, pf, 18 May , perf. London, 25 May , solo pf , fs ed. London, 13 May , movts 2—4 rev. Oct ,? Grillparzer, 14 Nov , perf. London, 7 April , rev. London, 8 May , solo pf London, , fs ed. Birmingham, 21 Sept , pts London, , fs ed. Leipzig, 2 April ; rev. Dec , pts Bonn, , fs ed. Leipzig, 25 June , rev. Leipzig, 3 March , arr. Concerto, e, pf, —4, inc. Violin Concerto, e, 16 Sept , perf. Leipzig, 13 March , pts , fs ed. Symphony, C, —5, inc. Piece, C, vn, pf, , inc. Sonata, d, vn, pf, c Dec , inc.

Quintet no. Variations concertantes, D, vc, pf, 30 Jan , perf. Berlin, 1 Jan Offenbach, , arr. Concert Piece, d, cl, basset-hn, pf, 19 Jan Offenbach, , orchd C. String Quartets nos. Leipzig, 16 Feb ; e, 18 June , perf. Theme, A, str qt, inc. Piano Trio, A, inc. Theme and Variations, D, c , ed. Todd works : Four Little Pieces, c G, g canon , G, g canon , ed.

Piano piece, e, , inc. Andante, C, , inc. Study, F,? Three Fugues, d, d, b,? Lieder ohne Worte, i Bonn, , orig. Etude Praeludium , f, 13 March , pubd in I. Moscheles and F. Petitpierre, H Sonata, G, c —? Sostenuto, F, c June , orig. Lied [ohne Worte], D, c 19 Jan , inc. Lied ohne Worte Allegro marcato alla marcia , d, 12 Dec , 2nd version, Reiterlied, 18 Dec ; ed.

Walker London, Andante sostenuto, E, inc. Fugue, e, inc. Allegro brillant, A, 23 March , version with Andante slow introduction Duet , 26 March , perf. Heinemann Munich, ; R x. Seven Lieder ohne Worte, arr. Prince Albert, ed. Langley Kassel, Andante, g, inc. Variations brillantes on march from C. London, 1 May , collab. Moscheles, pubd as Moscheles's op. Little , untitled, d, c Dec , ed. Little London, , Prelude, d, 28 Nov , ed. Altman ; see also chamber [ 3 Fugues]. Fantasia and Fugue [on subject of Sinfonia no. Little London, Little Attwood [duet arr. Three Preludes and Fugues : c, prelude 2 April , fugue 30 July ; G, prelude 4 April , fugue 1 Dec ; d, prelude 6 April , fugue 29 March ; early versions of fugues 1 and 3, ed.

Fugue, f, 18 July , ed. London, , perf. London, 30 Sept , ed. Prelude, c, 9 July , for Henry E. Altman Chorale, D, —5, for op. Graulich Stuttgart, Kyrie, d, chorus 5vv, orch, 6 May , perf. Berlin, 13 Oct , vs, ed. Leavis Oxford, , fs, ed. Todd Stuttgart, Christe, du Lamm Gottes, F, chorale cantata, chorus, orch, Christmas , ed.

Bill Stuttgart, Jesu, meine Freude, e, chorale cantata, chorus, str, 22 Jan , facs. Jonas Chicago, , ed. Pritchard Hilversum, Bill Kassel, O Haupt voll Blut und Wunden, c, chorale cantata, solo v, chorus, orch, 13 Sept , perf. Leipzig, 4 Nov , ed. Todd Madison, WI, Psalm cxv, g, solo vv, chorus, orch, 15 Nov , perf.

Frankfurt, 19 Nov , 2nd version, c May , perf. Leipzig, 8 Feb Bonn, , orig. Vom Himmel hoch, C, chorale cantata, solo vv, chorus, orch, 28 Jan , ed. Lehmann Stuttgart, Verkenius; facs. Wir glauben all' an einen Gott, d, chorale cantata, chorus, orch, c March , ed. Ach Gott, vom Himmel sieh' darein, a, chorale cantata, solo vv, chorus, orch, 5 April , ded. Schelble, ed.

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Responsorium et Hymnus, Vespergesang,a, male vv, vc, b, org, 5 Feb , perf. Psalm xlii, F, solo vv, chorus, orch, org, 1st version, July , 2nd version, 22 Dec , final version, Jan ; perf. Leipzig, 21 Feb , rev. Psalm cxiv, G, 8vv, orch, 9 Aug , ded. Schirmer, perf.

Leipzig, 1 Jan , rev. Psalm melodies and harmonizations, chorus, 13 Nov Pss ii, xxiv, xxxi, xci, xciii, xcviii, c, ed. Psalm xcviii, D, solo vv, double chorus, orch, org, 27 Dec , perf. Three psalms : Ps ii, g, solo vv, chorus, 15 Dec , perf. Berlin, 24 Dec , rev. March ; Ps xliii, d, 8vv, 3 Jan , rev. March ; Ps xxii, e, solo vv, chorus, Feb , perf. Brodeck Stuttgart, Lauda Sion, C, solo vv, chorus, orch, 10 Feb , perf.

Berlin, 18 Sept , ed. Gott, du bist unsre Zuversicht Ps xlvi , 5vv, c June—Aug , ed. Jube Domine, C, solo vv, double chorus, 25 Oct , rev. Kyrie, c, solo vv, double chorus, 12 Nov , rev. Frankfurt, 30 Dec , ed. Jesus, meine Zuversicht, c, solo vv, chorus 5vv, pf, 9 June , ed. Milder-Hauptmann, perf. Berlin, 27 May , ed. H Ryschawy Stuttgart, Hutzel Stuttgart, Three motets, female chorus, org, Dec , rev.

Lord, have mercy upon us, chorus, 24 March , ded. Hymn paraphrase of Ps xiii by C. Herr Gott, dich loben wir TeD , solo vv, double chorus, 4 trbn, str, org, 16 July , perf. Berlin, 6 Aug , ed. Roe-Min Kok Stuttgart, Berlin, Christmas , ed. Graulich Stuttgart, ; Wachet auf, perf. Hear my prayer paraphrase of Ps lv by W. Bartholomew , G, hymn, S, chorus, org, 25 Jan , perf. London, 8 Jan , ded. Robinson, perf. Dublin, 21 Dec , ed. London, Berlin, 2 Sept , ed. Berlin, , re-used in Elijah, see also Schmidt-Beste, E Cantique pour l'Eglise wallonne de Francfort Venez, chanter , 4vv, , ed.

Mohn Stuttgart, March ; Herr Gott, du bist unsre Zuflucht, d, 25 Dec , perf. Berlin, , rev. Die deutsche Liturgie, 8vv, 28 Oct Kyrie, A, ed. Silber Ballan Stuttgart, Levetzow , solo vv, chorus, orch, , perf. Berlin, 18 April , ed. Rellstab , solo male vv, male chorus, wind with timp, vc and db , 12 Sept , perf. Die erste Walpurgisnacht J. Berlin, 10 Jan , rev. Dec — 15 July , perf. Gott segne Sachsenland S. Mahlmann , male vv, wind, 2 June , perf. Lasset heut am edlen Ort Goethe , 4 male vv, 11 Dec , facs. Schwaz, 19 April , ed.

Hellmundt Wiesbaden, Festgesang [for the Gutenberg Festival] A. Leipzig, 25 June ; R xv [no. Cummings as Hark! Che vuoi mio cor? Ch'io t'abbandono P. Infelice Metastasio , S, orch, 3 April , perf. London, 19 May , rev. O lasst mich einen Augenblick Goethe , 1v, orch, inc. Die Nachtigall Da ging ich hin ,? Durch Fichten, c Sept? Ich denke dein F. Sicheln schallen,? The sun is dancing on the stream A. Cunningham , air for the emancipation of slaves in Ceylon, June , lost. Charlotte to Werter [ sic ] W.

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Hoffmann von Fallersleben Berlin, , R xix. Reiselied Ich reit' ins finstre Land hinein Uhland , 11 Aug , inc. Weihnachtslied Auf schicke dich recht feierlich , 2 versions, 19—20 Dec , pubd in H. Gerber: Albert Baur Freiburg, , —3. Warum sind denn die Rosen so blass? Heine ,? May , inc. Heine , before 17 April , D-B copy. Goethe , 13 July , facs.

Tischendorf , —41, pubd in Die musikalische Welt Brunswick, Vier Lieder, ed. Klingemann , c June—July ; see also piano [Lied, 16 Oct ]. Schmidt, ed. Three-part canon, 27 Sept , ded. Hiller, facs. Three-part canon, 9 March , ded. Three-part canon, 19 May , ded. Two-part canon, 2 va, 26 June , in letter to G. Four-part canon, b, 16 April , ded. Chopin, facs. Denn ach sie sind Philisten, 20 Feb , for F. Was soll ich schreiben, 3vv, 11 April , for G. Der weise Diogenes R. Reinick , 4 male vv, 11 Feb [ recte ], facs. Two-part canon, 28 Feb , for O.

Three-part canon, 17 Sept , ded. Canon, c, 2 Jan , ded. Two-part canon, 8 March , ded. Two-part canon, 12 April , ded. Kietz [painter], facs. Heck, auction catalogue Vienna, Und wer nicht richtet sondern fleissig ist, 3vv, 7 Sept , ded. Canon, 11 Dec , ded. Two-part canon, 11 Nov , ded. Two-part canon, b, 7 April , ded. Lepsius or F. Two-part canon, 22 April , ded. Pater peccavi, 3vv, 7 Aug , ded. Two-part canon, 23 Dec , ded. Three-part canon, b, 11 July , ded.

Felix Moscheles [uses canon of 16 Dec ]; facs. Etude, a, vn, or canon, 2 vn, 11 March , ded. Deutsch, ed. Four-part canon, ded. Three-part canon, 8 July , facs. Kinsky, ed. Lallemant, facs. Two-part canon, b, 5 Sept , ded.

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Canone in 8va, 2vv, 18 April , facs. Mirsey, eds. Two-part canon, 26 Aug , facs. Two-part canon, 2 Sept , ded. Workbook with exercises in figured bass, chorale, invertible counterpoint, canon and fugue a 2, a 3, c —21, ed. Preludio from Partita in E for vn solo, bwv , pf acc.

David, perf.

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Leipzig, 8 Feb Chaconne, vn, pf London and Hamburg, ; Fr. Cantata no. Zadok the Priest, wind pts, perf. Birmingham, 28 Aug Die Jahreszeiten, ov. Septet op. Marcia funebre [from Pf Sonata op. A Catalogues of works. B Collections and exhibitions. C Iconographies. D Letters. E Facsimile reprints of documents. F Memoirs, recollections. G Life and works.

H Biographical studies. J Other studies. Printed from Grove Music Online. Grove is a registered trademark. Grove Music Online. Advanced search. Pre- and Early Medieval before Medieval 15th c.


Late 18th c. Africa Asia. The Americas Browse All. Place Type. City Country. State Browse All. Sign In Article Navigation. Subscriber sign in. Forgot password? Don't have an account? Sign in via your Institution. Sign in with your library card. Search within Article contents 1. Early years. Apprenticeship and early maturity, —9. Years of travel and the Grand Tour. Leipzig, — Berlin and Leipzig, — Musical style.

Orchestral music. Chamber works. Keyboard music. Oratorios and sacred works. Operas and other dramatic music. Lieder and other vocal works. Bach G. Handel Other arrangements W. Mozart J. Haydn W. Mozart I. Moscheles L. Cherubini D. Cimarosa J. Lang H. Open in new tab. Hannal after G. Even Friedrich Niecks, who took up Mendelssohn's defence Niecks, J , conceded that the serene beauty of Mendelssohn's music has to most of us not the same charm as the rugged energy, the subtle thoughtfulness and morbid world-weariness of other composers.

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The Alphabet. Read Free For 30 Days. Kunz Op. Flag for inappropriate content. Related titles. Jump to Page. Search inside document. Schirmer, Inc. Copyright renewal assigned, , to Q. KoMRAD Max Kunz, form educative pianoforte-literature one of his Finger-exercises in Canon- high place of honor deserves a ", " for his contemporaries all in notion of striking out a this field, combination possible of the light e.

In the simple strict canon, the faculty of recollection, which plays so essential a rdle in music, set in is motion by which means the development of an aptitude for successive apprehension is gradually facilitated, and it assumes the force No of a habit. It is.

Such in part unavoid- mentioned finger -exercises of Schmitt, the "formative period"]. These are, indeed, sad defects, for part do not doubt all all public musical institutions, competent private teachers, introduction obligatory. Hans vom BUlow. Finally, the pieces are all short, because more the little developed movements easily overtask the capacity and the patience of the young.

In order to obviate, as far as possible, or at least to miti- gate, the monotony which it was impossible wholly to avoid in so many pieces confined within such narrow limits, we hJ Count: III II IV II IV II III with the body, the elbows, the wrists, and the fingers kept in proper position, at the same time counting the beats four to each measure aloud and steadily, he can use this work to advantage. Velocity is in no case had recourse, and a desideratum in these We have avoided i the successive repetition of except in a slow movement or after ant and the same key, a rest which did not, of course, lessen our labor a employing the little finger and thumb on black keys, except ; from No.

On the other hand, all possible care should be bestowed upon ; lone-production, connection of the tones the legato , and the acquirement of a cnntabiU singing style for touch is, to and strive contfte pianist, what attack is to the singer tinually, The correct execution. At the same time, avoided, and the pupil learns to at already remarked, care is taken to offer no difficulty which the femiliar pupil is not able to master before becoming too Later, of course, he will have to with his piece.

Furthermore, the character of the melodies is also varied by using the several tetra chords with the addition, of course, of a note above or below when they have a range of a fifth upon which they employed all the are based. Changes of this kind, too, are introduced wher- The ever possible. Some of them are inverted, and double counterpoint in the octave is The likewise employed.

Many of them might also be utilized for singing-exercises in attack and entrance, especially if suitable words be added. Some yo numbers were discarded by maturer judgment Among the present pieces, very few of the earlier ones are to be found th ; rest are This book, therefore, appears as an entirely new work, and could not be published as a second edition of the old one, which has been bng out of print. By this means the beginner will find both key and time of the new Canon far less difficult than when attempting to play it without first becoming I the acquainted with T'.

In what Key is the ist Canon written, and notes of the Scale are used for it how many '' half beats in the ist Canon, or any notes not belonging to the Key? Are there any In the 2nd Canon, there of the notes, larger than what is it called? Canon 9; and what mean? Why may we not count six to music written in Simple Triple Time On what degree of the Scale does Canon 8 begin in the upper voice or part and on what degree does it end in the lower part? In the Table as: p Simple Double Time. The Key The Half-note there Time-signature is is only half a beat, because the Double; and therefore, although there are four Half-notes in the measure, we should only have two Beats and one Accent if we are to be guided by the Time-signature.

The interval from F to is Major 3rd. The means that there are three beats in a in Time-signature i the measure, each beat to be of the value of a Half-note. The Time-signature C means that there are four beats in the Canon it is found under Simple Quadruple Time; and 3rd beats are accented. What is the difference between the Key-signature of minor, and that of D major? In In is the dot ever be a whole beat Canon 13, what is it Canon what is it 3rd, 4th. The Time-signature of Canon 12, is Quadruple, with four beats and two Accents.

In the Key of F major. The Quarter-note, in Canon 13, is only half a beat; the Half-note would be a whole beat and the Eighth-note a quarter beat, in that Canon. In i6 wrinen, and what intervals do line in the Treble Clef, 14, the note on the 3rd the interval of a third from D, on the 4th line: and in Canon 16, it is the same; upon what knowledge must we depend for taking those two thirds differently?

In the Dot ever worth P. Canon the beat In than half a beat less Canon is Fx played? What "P. In Is an Eighth-note worth, and note worth, in f Time? Canon 20 is last what written, and Measure make, if is Sixteenth- what would the written one over the p. What ; is the meaning of the Time-signature of Canon where do you find it in the Table, and how many Accents has it Why may we not count 3 to Music written in pound Duple Time T.

What ought the Music T. How much note, V. In and beginners to count, in Time, unless very rapid? What P. Canon 20 we should then change it into Simple Triple Time, to which we may give only one Accent. Because P. V, On which key of the Piano T. As the Time 17? What woukl T'. What V. How do we know that, with all the Eighth-notes that have to be played, there is only one Accent to be given in each Measure of Canon 23? P The. We found, just now, that in recognizing a Leading-note recognized also the maior jra of a particular Chord; what chord was it said to oe?

What Chord-notes can you V. In first strain of four Measures is written in the comp. No; the what Key Canon is find, in 5j written, Canon 44? Cinon is What should all beginners many Accents has it? The Time-signature called T'. In C;tnon 69, B double-flat is used; on which key of the Piano T'. On that which that which is also called Afl. G double-sharp , of the Piiino is in G8 minor, relative to B major, and its Leading-note is F double -sharp.

In how many ways to Time, in these has the Half-note been written, as Canons v. In what Key Leading-note T'. What ought is it accented beginners to count to? Time, and and P. The Time-signature means that each contain the value of 9 Eighth-notes. We should count unless the pace is 9. In what key Leading-note What is Canon which written, and is its isGfl.

Canon the other minor key called, which is played T'. In is is its Leading-note? In what key is Canon note; and now is written? No; because Al] is separated from only by a Chromatic half-tone; that is, one that changes the pitch of a note, but does not change its name, or its place on P. The the Staff. The knowledge of our keys, and the position of the half-tones in all of them, for tt is by toe half-tofics of What What What some from Major to Minor, and others from Augmented, and from Perfect to Diminished.

Are What guide, then, have we to help us in taking our the key, that ali the intervals, except the Sth, are varied; Perfect to T'. The Chord on the Tonic has been referred to, and also is the for the 4th Chord on the Dominant; Subdominant as well? Any key that we may be singing or playing in, related to five other keys, viz. Tetracbord, as the word of an Octave-scale. Have the "Tetrachords" anything to lationship of T.

In We have found out notes that make the Tonic chord in some of the Canons but are there any Chords written as such in these Canons? No; the Canons are Mekxlies. Why T'. To what Two-part Canons are they called their great subject does the study of Scales, Basses, and their intervals, lead us? To the Subject of Chords, which are built on the Basses with intervals taken from the scale we are in, and from its not the notes of related Scales be used in Melodies T'. May T'. Why will we it when help us, reading more difficult Music, even in these Canons to see quickly the Leading-notes and Fourths of the keys?

Yes, Can we sing or play the simplest written Melody as it is intended to sound by merely knowing how to P. No; take all vals, the notes of at their true distances, or inter- it If V.

Kunz - Canone n.23 -n.24 , op.14 (200 canons Kunz) (audio + sheet music)

Is from each other? Syncopation in these Canons P. Yes; we fail to notice the Rests, the Melody? In Canons it, know how for to sing, or hold down, all their true length of time, before a 49, tied; in and others, the regularity of the measure interrupted, though not by Syncopation; how is it done? In intended Canon 6. Yes, because the Rests all have their different lengths; so that silence, as well as sound, has its exact time, which must be carefully allowed for in the Measure.

The upper figure of all Compound Duple Time, is 6; what number is it that will go into six three times, T'. That makes it easy for us to remember the number of Accents in each kirid of Compound lime; but what does T'. What if the Leading-note of a Minor Scale tell us? Callcott say as to the inminished fluence of those half-tones upon Melody itself P It must depend upon our seeing, at once, the exact proportion of our half-beats, quarter-beats, eighths, and sixteenths of the beat, to the whole, and to each other; and also upon our understanding the exact position of the regular Accents, as shown by the Time-signature.

That we must be guided by the upper figure as to the of beats in the Measure and by the lower figure as to the value of the Beat-note and the proportion of all shorter notes to it, throughout the Canon. Two will go is P. In the first eleven Canons, there is no direction given as to the speed at which they are to be played ; but how many differently worded directions do we find used for the others P Mwic, by Henry C.

MUM Rerri Acadny tt go into nine, three times, without a re- mainder. Four will Baniitit, PrafeMor of Mmic. Humany and Gnnpoiitioii go into twelve, three times, without a re- mainder. Common Time has an even number of beats, and in Triple Time their number P. Banister says: is "In former times Triple Time was and was a Circle uneven.

The upper figure of all Compound Quadruple Time, is la; wnat number is it that will go into twelve three the expression We? The Leading-note and Fourth of related P. There are, in all, nineteen differently worded Italian directions used in these Canons, to guide us as to their speed. Has the begmner anything more to think of, When trying to acquire what Herr Kunz calls a "singing stvle" of P'.

For all these things the Pupils eyes should never stray from the Notation on the Page; but what is the common error, to which Herr Kunz refers, how does he help us to avoid it, and if the minJ is used, instead of only the ear and fingers, in these Canons work will it be preparing itself? Yes; there P. Herr Kunz would have us learn "to read"; and he thinks that if the very common mechanical playing by heart is avoided from the first, then our minds will be prepared to understand It is the all compass of the fingering future the writings of the old masters.

When Music first developed into its early polyphonic form, in France and Flanders, two entirely different melodies were sung together, which led to the contrivance of imitation or Canon. By "reading" How are we to guard against playing can we best prepare for studying the Chorales and T'. Fredf-rick Inman.