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Sein erster Arbeitstag als deutscher Botschafter in Washington war der September Wie kaum ein anderer Diplomat kennt sich Wolfgang Ischinger mit weltpolitischen Krisen aus. Ischinger : Sehr beunruhigend. Heute gibt es technologische Alternativen verschiedenster Art. Deutschland hat hier einen besonders krassen Nachholbedarf. Ischinger : Eindeutig ja. Since the September election, the parties were not able to come up with a coalition treaty that all of them agree on and further still it was rejected before the party bases even got the chance to vote on it.

Topics such as government hacking, vulnerability management and intelligence oversight made it in the final draft of the coalition treaty as already predicted in the last policy debate. Additionally, the ongoing coalition talks as well as the recent publication of the VEP charter led to an intense discussion about Germany's lack of a vulnerability management process. From a general political perspective, there are four options for the coalition talks going forward. First, the public and political pressure will force the four parties back to the negotiation table.

Second, the second strongest party, the social democrats SPD , will revoke their strong stand against forming a coalition again with Angela Merkel's conservative party CDU and CSU and enter coalition talks. The third option is for the CDU and the Green party to form a minority government.

And the last option is reelections. A minority government is almost unheard of in the German political setting, and both the FDP and the SPD have reiterated not wanting to enter coalition talks again - there is no confident take on what is going to happen. What is important to keep in mind though is that the German administration still functions. The day-to-day business of governing continues as usual and the minister heads are still in office albeit limited in what new initiatives they can start.

Thus, operational stability is not an issue. Even though it is unclear where Germany is heading right now, this should not give cause for alarm. First off, the administration still functions. Second, and more importantly, it is apparent that all the issues that the TCF is working on are relevant to the current political landscape - and not only that - they are valued important enough to be codified in the coalition treaty.

As to the reasons why the coalition talks failed, it is publicly known that migration and environment policy were the show stoppers - not cyber security and privacy policy. Therefore, we expect to see the TCF topics being reflected in the next round of talks as well - regardless of what party is involved. Issue: German Ministry demands workarounds for digital security mechanisms. As an example, he cited that alarms for cars today have become so sophisticated that the owners are sent electronic notification at the slightest hint of tampering.

The policy also signaled to industry that the state should receive exclusive access rights to Internet connected devices such as smart home appliances. This would be seen as a pre-emptive strategy by the government to stop criminals from the spreading infected programs. The report of such a policy prompted a swift backlash from activists, industry and politicians alike who are concerned about the digital and physical effects of such policies. It is important to keep in mind that the coalition government for Germany has yet to be formed. As such, the government will not pass any laws or amendments unless they are considered extremely urgent.

Additionally, if we take the historical long view, the Ministry of Interior has held firm on its no-backdoor, no-encryption-regulation policy since What is more likely, is that the proposal is not a major shift in policy but rather a targeted one seeking specific goals. For example, in the case of the suspect with the car, the government would mandate the intermediary that is forwarding tampering alert text messages to not deliver the alert to the suspect.

This would then allow the security services time to plant a surveillance device which would have had to been approved by a respective judicial authority. Similarly, it the same process would be required for smart home devices. Any notion that the proposal seeks backdoor access to, for example switch on microphones of smart TVs, was firmly rejected by the Ministry of Interior when questioned by reporters. Furthermore, ISPs have already been authorized to apply a "walled garden" approach to computers of their users which are infected by a botnet until they are disinfected.

Legislative basis covering this has been passed in as part of the IT-security law. According to a statement from the Ministry issued after the first report, "kill switches" were never up for debate. Lastly, the policy proposal does underline that a precondition for all measures including surveillance activities would need judicial approval. Like many governments, Germany is trying to develop policy that keeps pace with technological change while addressing traditional surveillance in responsible ways.

Currently, the political atmosphere is one where little change will occur across all ministries as coalition talks progress. It is unlikely that the Ministry of Interior seeks to implement backdoors but rather looks for ways to require manufacturers and service providers of digital security systems to support law enforcement operations in any way they can short of implementing backdoors.

The coalition agreement which determines the goals and viewpoints of the government coalition affects also the topics the Transatlantic Cyber Forum deals with. We have summarised the main points of the coalition agreement and shortly present our take on the goals of the government.

The coalition agreement emphasises its support for the use of encryption. Despite its support for encryption, the coalition agreement states clearly that this must not in any way hinder law enforcement to do their work. Police is supposed to have the same means for investigation as it has offline. The parties argue that there should be no difference if a suspect is using traditional communication or encrypted online communication. Government hacking as a means to enable this, is not explicitly mentioned. The agreement also discusses the problem of using the retrieved digital evidence.

Vulnerability management is only discussed in the context of businesses but not as a form of government vulnerability disclosure. The parties state in the agreement that companies and providers have to make vulnerabilities public when they know them and fix them as soon as possible. Our Take: The statements let us believe that we will have a continuation in government hacking legislation.

The argument around law enforcement stayed the same and if any, manifest or may expand the support for government hacking even though the term is not explicitly mentioned. Vulnerabilities are seen more in the context of a threat to consumer rights.


It makes no mention about a relation to government hacking - and hackbacks - and the need for government also to disclose known vulnerabilities. However, that vulnerabilities are even recognized and mentioned is a step further and could smooth the work for a government vulnerability disclosure process which we have confirmed is in the works at the Federal Ministry of the Interior, Building and Community.

The importance of consumer protection online is emphasised. Two goals are the creation of clear liability rules that will be set in place and research to test how certain cyber security insurance models could work. Here the government aims to balance the responsibility of all involved stakeholders, such as companies, consumers etc. Our Take: This topic has been debated intensely in the past few years without coming to a conclusion so far.

Therefore, it makes sense to include it in the agreement to further the discussion leading to concrete results. In the area of cyber defense, the German government aims to discuss ways of defending and preventing cyber attacks better. In the agreement, soft means, such as the creation of better defense sensibilisation is supposed to be achieved for all stakeholders and intensified for specific target groups. Moreover, the government wants to modernize education and training to include digital and cybersecurity skills. It has also put emphasis on defending and preventing attacks against the critical infrastructure and aims to explore means to do that.

Our Take: Here we can see at best an intensification of the sensibilisation measures which goes hand in hand with the cybersecurity strategy goals of Interesting is however, that it is vaguely stated that the government wants to explore means to defend and prevent. In earlier versions of the agreement, government hackbacks were a clear option - this is now watered down but not off the table as recent discussions show.

The government proposes several organisational changes in the context of cybersecurity. One is a national cyber security pact which aims to bring together all important stakeholders manufacturer, provider and user as well as the public administration. Furthermore, an update to the IT legislation is supposed to make the Federal Agency for Information Security BSI more neutral and independent ultimately making it the central agency for cyber security.

The BSI would take up a broader advising role for state and federal administration, gain further responsibility for consumer protection. This also goes along with the emphasis to create products that abide by security by design. The Federal Ministry for Defense and the Federal Ministry of the Interior, Building and Community will establish an agency with the task to research disruptive innovations in cybersecurity and key technologies as well as an IT security fund for security relevant key technologies.

Last but not least, the government created the position of State Minister for Digitalisation in the chancellery. She is the former state secretary for digital infrastructure in the Federal Ministry of Transport where she focused on support of digital education, computer games. Our take: We have been supporting the efforts to strengthen the BSI. The new State Minister for Digitalisation has more of a symbolic power as the German government seems to have recognized that digital policy is interconnected and spans across all ministries and that a coherent strategy may be a good way to move forward.

So far, she has been outspoken against data retention [36] and the infamous network enforcement law [37] but on the other hand regards data protection as an unnecessary barrier for digitisation. In a short sentence it is mentioned that the government aims to introduce a form of online administration which makes communication with the government easier.

Furthermore, it is proposed to use a form of electronic ID to authentify citizen for these services. Our Take: As of now, the security aspects are not talked about.

Werner Mölders und die Bundeswehr | Portal Militärgeschichte

The statements argue for usability and easy access. Here it will be interesting to what extent the security of design concept which is mentioned in other parts and expected by private sector products is implemented and who would support the implementation as the German government lacks sufficient IT security personal. Additionally, Germany already has an existing electronic ID which has failed to become mainstream as citizens will be asked to choose whether they would like to have it activated on their national ID or not. Marketing and use cases of the ID have been bad in the past which led to a low adoption rate.

The Federal Agency for Criminal Investigations is supposed to increase its workforce and is going to be expanded as the central hub for police-relevant-data. Moreover, the government wants to implement an investment fund for the IT of German police forces. In the area of criminal investigation the data transfer between justice and police is supposed to be improved.

In this context, the German government wants to create a basis for sharing data that is relevant for criminal investigations among EU countries. Closing holes in the prosecution of people who are found guilty for criminal activity online or spreading illegal online content are aimed to be closed.

In the past, this has proven quite challenging. Data sharing has lately been further on the EU level as well and seems - for Germany - also to be response to the terrorist attack in Berlin. The German government states that it aims to protect key technologies from sale or acquisition which would in any way limit the use of certain important technologies. In order to do that, the German government wants to add the relevant national and European regulatory means to enable this.

The digitalisation of the armed forces Bundeswehr is supported and continues. Secusmart developed a hardened smartphone for the German government which is being used by for unclassified and lowly classified communication. The university of the German armed forces has gained professorships in the area of cybersecurity and the reserve personal is supposed to be engaged more closely in the area of cybersecurity in form of a cyber community that includes civil and military personal.

They too however have problems to find suitable personal. The question here is to what extent an expansion in cyber capabilities is useful, if it cannot be used to defend civilian infrastructure as the Bundeswehr is strictly separated. Conclusion: Overall, we see a continuation of the last term of the grand coalition and a great focus on inner security and expanded cyber powers for law enforcement which is not necessarily good for cybersecurity. We can expect to have the government hackback discussion appear again. Almost all of the positive developments we identified during the prior coalition talks [40] between the Liberals, Greens and Social Democrats - the only party of those three which is now in power - cannot be found in this coalition agreement.

This followed inter alia increasing public pressure to address the issue of vulnerability handling after the government took several steps towards a more offensive stance in cyberspace, including extending a legal mandate for government hacking, consolidating its military cyber forces, and creating a centralized agency for procuring hacking tools and vulnerabilities. Moreover, there have been extensive and ongoing discussions about active cyber defense -- so-called hack backs see past TCF policy debates.

The government representative officially described the discussion on the panel as a first step in this debate, which should be ongoing and continue to include different stakeholders, as solutions to different facets of the problem need to include expertise and experience from all sectors.

The government representative also said that his Ministry is currently not retaining any zero-day vulnerabilities. The Transatlantic Cyber Forum has advocated for a public debate about this issue in Germany since last year. It managed to get the Federal Ministry of the Interior, Building and Community interested in this debate. Since when threat actors penetrated the IT systems of the German Parliament, security and intelligence agencies in Germany have been pushing for a legal framework enabling them to conduct active cyber defense.

Since then, technical and international legal experts as well as civil society and private sector representatives have been pushing back against this idea. For the last twelve months, this issue has been rather dormant due to unusually prolonged coalition talks after the federal elections last year, which prohibited the formation of a government.

While the new coalition treaty - the jointly agreed document specifying policy priorities of the governing parties - does not explicitly state active cyber defense as a goal, representatives of security and intelligence agencies are making their rounds to convince policy-makers and the public of the need to strike back in cyberspace. Draft concepts discussing specific measures which should be part of an active cyber defense legislation are currently drawn up in the respective agencies. The German debate is entirely focused on the civilian agencies in the public sector with the intelligence agencies currently being thought of as bodies for implementation.

Distinct from this, the new cyber division of the armed forces is legally allowed to conduct offensive cyber operations, following conventional and existing procedures: parliamentary approval and state of defense. It is not yet fully clear how the government is going to approach the legislation that aims to govern active cyber defense in the civilian sphere.

It is likely that a comprehensive change to the current legislative framework enabling said activities would require a two-thirds majority in parliament. Additionally, a good number of members from the SPD seem to not support this issue. We therefore expect most active cyber defense provisions to be injected in the planned legislation for protecting critical infrastructures -- the second version of the IT security law -- which we will likely see next year. This new agency will be tasked with identifying and funding cutting-edge research of offensive and defensive cyber technologies for both civil and military purposes.

The funding is supposed to be increased later on. The two main arguments for establishing such an agency were: less bureaucracy and more high-risk funding to catch up with the digitization and making Germany more secure. The new government has only formed a couple of months ago and the first major initiative after the summer break has to do with cyber security. That is good news and signals what priority this issue takes on the political agenda. Furthermore, Germany is willing to acknowledge that it has fallen far behind other countries when it comes to digitalization and especially to an extent with cyber security research.

Unfortunately, that is where the good news end. From the information available it is unclear why the already existing German institutions that are funding cyber security research should not receive additional financial resources and be enabled to engage with more risky research projects. In addition to giving the funding to those already existing agencies and allowing them to undertake more risky research endeavours, the establishment of a coordinating body would have probably been more efficient than an entirely new agency, because setting up an agency creates additional bureaucracy e.

After all, the security field of the 80 billion Euros EU research programme Horizon is funding similar projects already. Germany acknowledging and being willing to do more to advance German cyber security research is definitely a good thing. Whether this particular approach is fit to do just that remains to be seen. When competing with the likes of the United States, China and Israel, a consolidated EU approach seems much more promising. Expansion of cybersecurity research institutions, such as the Agency for Innovation in Cybersecurity and other cybersecurity research hubs.

In order to protect Germany from future cyber attacks and to ensure that the country will be a leading innovative force in the field of international cybersecurity, the German cabinet agreed on launching an "Agency for Innovation in Cybersecurity" in , led by the Federal Ministry of Defence BMVg and the Federal Ministry of the Interior BMI. Research projects will focus on cybersecurity technologies protecting national as well as international security with a special emphasis on radical and highly innovative approaches.

The main research topics that the government is looking to fund are IT concepts for Industry 4. In that regard, the US spends 13 times as much money on it compared to Germany. Its effectiveness would depend on its research focus which is not yet publicly known. Close cooperation on research topics across the Atlantic would be beneficial as well. A good development is the support of research hubs and universities that have developed at state level.

They receive more and more national and international recognition and funding. The expertise emerging from those hubs should be monitored globally. Firstly, in light of growing threats through cyber attacks, and due to a new mandate that was set in the coalition agreement of the governing parties CDU and SPD, the German Federal Office for Information Security BSI will cooperate more closely with the federal states. The BSI will offer its support and advice to the federal states on techniques to set standards and build structures in order to achieve a high level of cyber security state-wide.

Depending on the state, this can take different routes and the cooperation is defined in individual agreements with the states. It can mean, for example, that the BSI, based in Bonn, will create local offices across Germany to assist states in their cybersecurity efforts and actually provide on-site staff support. In other partnerships, the support looks more like a close coordination and information sharing effort. The BSI plans to share its know-how and best-practices and work closely with them but would not necessarily open an office in Bavaria.

Secondly, the coalition agreement imagined an expansion of the cyber defense center, a platform hosted by the BSI in which all relevant cyber experts from different government agencies meet and coordinate when a cyber attack occurs. Currently this is an information-sharing hub. This year it will be discussed to what extent the hub become a more operationalized unit and further include representatives from federal states and the private sector.

Operationalization may include the creation of a joint threat landscape which is currently still left to the individual ressorts. This is an interesting development and an attempt to bring cybersecurity expertise and cyber readiness on the state level. The approach that the BSI is setting up offices in states that need more support than others, is useful. It strengthens the agency overall. That some states create their own agency is normal in federalism and thus far not problematic if they are working closely with the BSI together.

It will however raise the competition for a skillful workforce. States should really start educating their own staff. The content of the strategy was developed over the past year with all cabinet members. Now the focus lies on the strategic implementation. For this the government has put forth some very specific indicators and some not so specific indicators to measure the success of the strategy.

It will be constantly updated and reviewed, which can be tracked on the website digital-made-in-de. Cybersecurity is seen as a cross-cutting issue. The implementation plan of the digital strategy is basically a more transparent document that outlines specific activities that are being done by different ministries and aims to achieve holistic governance despite clear separation of government departments.

There were no surprises when the plan was published. Nevertheless, it is positive that cybersecurity is seen as an important issue that spans across all policy fields and actions. However, we would have expected a more specific idea of how this looks in an implementation plan. The rise of e-government as a challenge, and reason for broader cybersecurity efforts.

All German government services will be available online by the end of Achieving this goal is a focal point of the digital implementation strategy and an ambitious goal for the upcoming years. It comes with two major challenges: cybersecurity and federalism. In order to ensure that this transition will run smoothly, the concern of the security of information is a focal point. Until the government wants to offer digital health records but data protection and data security experts as well as consumers and patients associations are sceptical about the security.

Cybersecurity in Germany becomes a prerequisite for those services to be adopted but also a reason to expand the portfolio of cyber attack responses. Moreover, the challenge is also that the cybersecurity agency, BSI, has only limited legislative allowance to demand standards or assist state level authorities with cybersecurity. This needs to be discussed among federal and state representatives. Not only the Federal Criminal Police Office demands a discussion on the need for active cyber defense.

Horst Seehofer, German Interior Minister, supported the idea of active cyber defense during the Nuremberg Digital Summit, saying that it should exist as an option of last resort and also his State Secretary and CIO Vitt mentioned that a discussion on the issue is needed. So far, active cyber defense - or a so called hack-back - is lacking a legal base in Germany.

A legal analysis by the research and legal until of the Parliament was made public and concluded that there are several issues concerning the legality of active defense when it comes to international law. Active Cyber Defense has been debated more openly since the hacking of the German parliament. Currently, there is no legal basis for active cyber defense apart from a military cyber response when invoking self-defense or as part of a parliament approved military mission.

Unfortunately, the public discussion has not evolved much in the past few years with hardliners on both sides spouting populist pseudo-arguments. We have drafted and published an overview of possible active cyber defense measures and consulted government officials and members of parliament on the issue.

While it will likely take constitutional changes requiring a two third majority in parliament to fully implement the active cyber defense requirements of the government, the opposition and possibly even one of the ruling parties are not expected to support the amendments. In the German government, the use of AI in cybersecurity is mainly discussed from the angle of using AI to secure systems better or detect cyber threats. The BSI uses technologies of artificial intelligence and machine learning to set and further develop national and international cyber security standards.

In civil society, academia and industry experts, the negative effects of AI on cybersecurity are discussed more and more. The so-called Adversarial Machine Learning, when an adversary manipulates an AI to achieve a certain outcome or the use of AI to deploy a cyber attack is becoming a focus of some cybersecurity experts and research groups.

Experts and students from the fields of law, anthropology, economics as well as social and political science discussed the challenges of land governance in the two countries and beyond. Hans Joachim Heintze trained a number of Afghan diplomats in international refugee law. The course, organized by the Max Planck Foundation , took place in Kabul. Charged with returning asylum seekers to Afghanistan, whose applications for asylum in other states have been rejected, the diplomats found the training to be highly relevant and useful.

It has been a pleasure to work with you and we are looking forward to seeing you soon! Oktober Both lectures start on 20 October The case concerned a complaint by Azerbaijani refugees, who found themselves unable to return to their former homes, due to the occupation of Nagorno-Karabakh by Armenian forces during the s.

The conference focused on the reasoning behind a decision that affects hundreds of thousands of refugees in the region. Francesco Bosso from Oxford discusses whether European States that facilitate third State migration control practices which result in foreseeable violations of human rights can be said to act consistently with their international refugee law and European human rights law obligations. Together with staff members and apprentices at GLS Bank, he also visited a refugee centre in Dortmund. It focused especially on diaspora organizations from Sierra Leone, Somalia and Syria.

Afterwards, the NOHA partners continued to discuss on joined curriculum development. To read her Bofax, please follow the [ link ]. Topics included, among others, how to go about planning an academic career and how to strategically place academic publications. They had the opportunity to discuss their current research projects with peers and invited senior academics, who chaired the roundtables and provided helpful feedback. We would like to thank all participants for making the workshop a real success! Tobias critically assessed the attack and possible consequences for its perpetrators from an international legal perspective.

If you would like to attend the conference, we kindly ask you to register with your full name and organization if applicable via email This email address is being protected from spambots. Participation is free. In his thesis on "The Human Right to Land" , Robin examines existing land rights in the domestic and international legal spheres, before assessing the dogmatic background, normative content and practical implications of a possible international human right to land.

The deadline for applications is 16 September You can find more information on the programme [ here ]. Dennis Dijkzeul co-published an article on knowledge-based action in humanitarian crises togehter with Prof. Dorothea Hilhorst, Prof. To read the article, please follow the [ link ]. Academics and practitioners provided the participants with an overview of the major aspects of the law of armed conflict.

You can find it at [ here ]. It will presumably take place in July. We will announce the new date in due time. Desktop Version. July Am IFHV ist zum Die Stellenanzeige finden Sie hier [Link]. Das IFHV sucht zum The conference brought together academics and practitioners from various research disciplines, serving as a platform for interdisciplinary exchange on the prevention and mitigation of slow and rapid onset disasters, crisis and disaster management, crisis communication, social networks, and community resilience.

We have just published two new Bofaxe by Tassilo Singer. Together with his colleagues, Prof. Last week, NOHA students across the network finished their first semester. Today, Bochum's central Dr. We have just published a new Bofax by Dr. Please follow the [link] to access "Some remarks on the label, field, and heuristics of Perpetrator Research". On 29 and 30 November , the IFHV celebrated its 30th anniversary with an international conference , attended by a number of renowened academics from the fields of law and social sciences as well as leading practitioners.

Today, Dr. On 7 and 8 September, Prof. More information on the summer school can be found [ here ]. The conference, held on 19 and 20 July, was co-organized by the host institution as well as the University of Johannesburg and the University Erlangen-Nuremberg. Nomos Professor Dr. The IFHV's Professor Hans-Joachim Heintze spoke at Andalas University of Padang Sumatra, Indonesia and gave a presentation on autonomy rules worldwide and the internal dimension of the right of indigenous peoples to self-determination. Darina Pellowska , associated Ph. We have just published a Bofax by Jan-Phillip Graf.

This week the IFHV welcomed its second semester students with a meet-and-greet between staff and our 15 new students from the NOHA International Association of Universities , the students hit the ground running with classes in Advanced Management. IFHV research associate Benedikt Behlert gave [ Migazin an interview ] about possible international legal problems with the suspension of family reunification for beneficiaries of subsidiary protection in Germany.

Despite the cold and the snow, we made it to Siegburg today for Engagement Weltweit! We just published a new Bofax! Today, the expert workshop on "The use of weapons and the right to life" was held at the Hertie School of Governance in Berlin. A piece by the IFHV's Professor Heintze on "Access to the victims in non-international armed conflicts and the humanitarian principles" has just been published. We have just published a new Bofax on the recent ruling of the Hague Appeals Court concerning the responsibility of the Netherlands in the Srebrenica massacre [Neues Urteil im Fall Mothers of Srebrenica v the Netherlands].

Last week NOHA students across the network finished their second semester. Please follow the [ link ] for more information on the programme. Please follow the [ link ] for more information on the Summer School. Today, Professor Peter M. Today, Tamirace Fakhoury, visiting Professor at the IFHV spoke on "Lebanon's coping mechanism with the Syrian refugee surge and the implications of this mechanism for regional and global refugee governance".

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More information on the conference can be found [ here ]. Please follow the link for more information on the programme. Please follow the [ link ] for more information on the workshop. IFHV's Prof. You can access the paper [ here ]. An interview with NOHA Bochum students Aasma Jabeen and Inisha Upadhyay has been published as part of a RUB series portraying students and staff with interesting and extraordinary hobbies, side jobs and honorary offices.

Please click [ here ] to access the piece in German.

Arbeitskreis Militärgeschichte e.V.

An interview with IFHV's Gisela Hirschmann has been published as part of a RUB series portraying students and staff with interesting and extraordinary hobbies, side jobs and honorary posts. On March, Prof. This week, Prof. From February, Prof. This week the IFHV welcomed its second semester students. Last week, we celebrated the graduation of 15 members of the NOHA class of On the weekend of 14 and 15 January, Prof. You can read the article [ here ]. We would like to thank IFHV graduate assistant Dilan Khoshnaw for his oustanding work over the last years and wish him all the best.

You can read Janina's working paper here [ link ]. On Wednesday, 14 December, Prof. On Tuesday, 22 November, Prof. On Wednesday, Prof Dr. On 9 November, the research project SecHuman on security in cyber space kicked off at Ruhr University. Check out the blog post [ here ]. Professor Dijkzeul contributed with an interview to an article in the Stuttgarter Zeitung Friday, October 28, on the desertification and drought in the Mediterranean. We would like to thank IFHV research associate Thea Coventry for her oustanding work over the last years and wish her all the best for the future.

On 19 October, Prof. You can access the article by following the [ link ]. Last week, IFHV research associate Robin Ramsahye presented his PhD outline, plans for case studies and first research findings during our monthly doctoral colloqium. Hans-Joachim Heintze and Prof. The book analyzes new developments concerning the prohibition of the use of force, self-determination of peoples, human rights and human security as well as international coordination of humanitarian assistance.

Last week, Prof Heintze attended the 77th conference of the International Law Association in Johannesburg South Africa with the title "International law and state practice - is there a north-sourth divide? The organizers aimed to attract participants from all regions of the world, some of which are under-represented in the work and membership of the ILA. Heintze was especially interested in the presentations of African scholers on the contribution of African states to the development and implementation of International Humanitarian Law.

Both sides agreed to intensify cooperation and discussed plans to establish a student and scholar exchange programme. As a first step to increase jointly conducted research, a Fordham scholar will also join the editorial board of NOHA's online Jounal on International Humanitarian Action. We are looking forward to further projects with you! We would like to thank IFHV Graduate Assistant Frieda Grashoff for her oustanding work over the last four years and wish her all the best for the future.

During the intensive, interdisciplinary programme , a diverse group of 28 German and international students attended lectures, seminars and exercises. Topics included the humanitarian system's role in alleviating current crises and several public international law themes, with a focus on armed conflict, criminal law, water and sanitation, as well as the plight of refugees and internally displaced people. The students applied and extended their knowledge during a two-day simulation exercise on a fictitious humanitarian crisis.

The programme ended with a Career Panel, in which humanitarian practitioners provided students with insights on their organizations and career advice in humanitarian action. A new piece by Prof. Martin Burgi, on the constitutionality of such an endeavour, and a new concept paper by the German Federal Ministry of Justice on a corresponding law. Please follow this [ link ] to access the piece. On 7 and 8 of July, Prof. The conference offers interested students the opportunity to get in touch with the representatives of more than 70 DAAD offices all over the world and to receive information on exchange options in selected countries.

On 13 July, Prof. Hakimi outlined some of the most important Afghan constitutional provisions and explained how widespread corruption is impeding their successful implementation.

Der neue Terrorismus

In her thesis, "The Unexpected Effectiveness of Alternative Human Rights Mechanisms" , Katrin Fenrich examines the procedure of diplomatic protection, the compensational practice of international criminal courts and international human rights law mechanisms for undiscovered potential. She thereby seeks to provide input for a more effective protection of Human Rights. On 5 July, Dr. The talk preceded the IFHV board of trustee's annual reunion. It was followed by a lively discussion on the attitudes of NGOs towards the summit, engaging IFHV staff and members of the board of trustees, many of whom work for NGOs in the humanitarian aid sector.

OG Massenbergstr. Last week, Professor Dr. We would like to thank all of our hosts for giving our students the opportunity to gain insights into their important work! On 29 and 30 June, Prof. Dennis Dijkzeul, Prof. Participants disussed current developments and challenges of humanitarian aid research from an interdisciplinary social science perspective, with a focus on recent publications on the relationship between practice research and theory.

In this vein, Prof. Dijkzeul and Prof. Radtke provided initial inputs for a roundtable discussion on humanitarian practice research. From 27 to 30 June, Prof. On 27 and 28 June, , Prof. These options are currently being discussed by the German government. Thielboerger's talk focused on the legal situation under German constitutional and public international law. JUNE You can find more information on the annual summer school [here]. The summer school is graciously funded by inSTUDIES, a Ruhr University project aimed at supporting students in creating an individual profile to succeed in their studies and the transfer to the job market.

Please follow the [ link ] for details. Mareike Meis has published an article on how media aesthetics and public discourse interact in the perception and interpretation of conflicts as crises using the example of mobile phone videos disseminated via YouTube during the Syrian civil war. Please follow the [ link ] to access a free abstract and the full article: Meis, Mareike : When is a conflict a crisis? On the aesthetics of the Syrian civil war in a social media context. In: Media, War and Conflict.

First published on June 15, as doi The purpose of her visit was to strengthen the collaboration between gFSC and the NOHA programme on curriculum development and training for students as well as determining possible ways of including NOHA students in practice-oriented research activities carried out by the gFSC and its partners.

Please follow the [ link ] for more information on this meeting. Ina Scharrenbach , member of the state parliament of North Rhine-Westphalia was then elected chairperson of the board. He provided an ovierview over the currently underresearched ramifications armed conflicts may have on the status and application of investment treaties. The one-hour talk, including a discussion, was an item on the programme of the 17th graduate reunion on international economic law, held on 11 and 12 June at Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main. Please follow the [ link ] for more information on this presentation.

The students assume the roles of different humanitarian actors in the context of a crisis situation. The exercise is an important opportunity for the students to gain a practical understanding of the complexities of handling diverse stakeholders with diverging interests. We would like to thank IFHV research associate Markus Weissert for his contributiuons to our Institute over the last year and wish him all the best.

The first World Humanitarian Summit WHS on May in Istanbul convened participants from Member States , including 55 Heads of State and Government , hundreds of private sector representatives, and thousands of people from civil society and non-governmental organizations. Dennis Dijkzeul , together with several other scholars from all over the world, signed a statement for the WHS on the role of research in humanitarian crises, including aid, policy and evaluation. Please follow the [ link ] to access the statement. MAY Due to illness, Prof. Huber will not be able to give the lecture.

Peter M. Informal registration via email is appreciated. Dr Adelheid Puttler and Prof. Hans-Joachim Heintze. On 23 May, Prof. Dennis Dijkzeul gave an interview to Nordwestradio on the expectations for and possible outcomes of the World Humanitarian Summit , the largest international forum to discuss humanitarian aid, which is currently taking place in Istanbul. Please follow the [ link ] to access the interview. Dennis Dijkzeul gave an interview to the online magazine "Spektrum der Wissenschaft - Die Woche" on the reasons for the rising number of conflicts in today's world.

The interview has now been published as the main topic of the journal's online-edition. The roundtables served as a build up to this year's World Humanitarian Summit in Istanbul. On 13 May , Prof. Dennis Dijkzeul has given an interview to "Spektrum" about his research on conflicts and humanitarian crises. Yesterday Prof. An article that highlights some of the main issues of the meeting has now been published on the website of the Humanitarian Practice Network HPN.

Please follow the [ link ] to access the article. Triumpf der Menschlichkeit? Heintze concludes with an outlook for the prospective role of the EU during the summit. MA , especially as regards teaching in the fields of human security and international humanitarian law. MA students, who are currently spending their second semester of the programme at the IFHV also extend warm congratulations to Prof.

Kedzia at their home institution. Miriam Amine , a PhD student, supervised by Prof. This baseline study examines the pre-intervention situation in the fields of private and financial sector development, vocational education and quality infrastructure and is based on extensive data collection in the country such as an enterprise survey including SME in 11 cities throughout Myanmar, 59 key informant interviews and a comprehensive literature review. Please follow the [link] for more information on both publications.

Maximilian and Theresa were both members of RUB's Jessup International Law Moot Court team , which advanced to the competition's international rounds and secured a spot among the world's 32 best teams. We are glad to have you with us and are looking forward to working with you. Naozo Kan. After the nuclear disaster in Fukushima, then Prime Minister Kan had argued in favor of a nuclear power phase-out for Japan, a position that eventually led him to resign from office.

It establishes the IFHV's scientific goals for this period. The new "Zielvereinbarung" will be published on both the rectorate's and the IFHV's websites shortly. The institute looks forward to close cooperation with the new rectorate in the coming years. Please click here [Link] for more on information on this issue's content. On April 28, Prof Dr. During the meeting, IFHV staff with legal, international relations, political science and social science backgrounds discussed ways for meaningful participation in the project.

APRIL The call for applications can be accessed [here]. Want to become a humanitarian aid worker or work at a humanitarian organisation? Apply now! Further information and the application form can be found at [link]. IFHV post-doctoral researcher Dr. Cornelius Wiesener gave a presentation on the possiblity of derogations from extra territorial human rights obligations at the IFHV research colloquium to his fellows and interested guests. The project was supervised by Prof. Horst Fischer on the occasion of his retirement on Monday, April 25th.

We would like to thank Prof. Fischer for his many important contributions to the IFHV and wish him all the best for the future. For the next three years, Prof. The election took place on 22nd April, in Brussels. The General Assembly is the highest authority within the NOHA Association; it is made up of one representative from each of the member universities.

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In six panels, researchers from around the world discussed topical issues of investment law and arbitration. The corresponding conference paper is to be published in the Bucerius Law Journal. On Friday, April 22, Prof. The report was issued for the upcoming World Humanitarian Summit, which is going to take place in Istanbul on May Cornelius Wiesener , to the Institute.

Wiesener holds a B. In Bochum, Dr. Dennis Dijkzeul made a research trip to Geneva on April 13 and 14 to discuss two projects. A large research project, it will offer a conceptual framework and dynamic platform for academics, practitioners, affected community leaders and policy makers to reflect on humanitarian concepts and practice for the 21st century. The second project involves "Here Geneva" , a thinktank, and focuses on exploring the ways in which the mandates of humanitarian organizations influence their roles and impact in crisis situations.

On April 2nd, Prof. Hans-Joachim Heintze spoke on the issues of compensation claims and enforcement mechanisms in International Humanitarian Law. His presentations were part of a seminar conducted by the German Red Cross Chapter for the State of Hesse, aimed at junior and senior legal practitioners. The transdisciplinary program allows for PhD students in engineering, natural sciences, the humanities as well as social sciences to cooperate with practitioners in order to conduct research on social challenges in the cyber context.

German and international NGOs are currently conducting a number of initiatives leading up to this important event. In this context, Prof. Hans-Joachim Heintze participated in a Pre-Summit-Information Workshop of the Malteser International relief agency in Cologne last week, speaking on several issues in Humanitarian Action of relevance to the upcoming summit.

The presentation was part of the Catholic University of Applied Science's discussion forum on the empowerment of refugees, held in Aachen on April 7th. The discussants explored initiatives to encourage participation of refugees in tackling societal problems, such as integration of other refugees and migrants. The first part of the course covered the history of the DRC and discussed the historical roots of corruption and the many armed conflicts in the country. The second part of the course centered on the role of humanitarian organizations in the public health system and discussed the limited extent to which these organizations can help to rebuild the DRC's war-torn society.

Adelheid Puttler. Heintze has published two articles in German language on the norm of self-determination of peoples. The second one is devoted to theory and practice of self-determination. Both articles are based on presentations given during two conferenes in Kiel and Innsbruck. Heintze, H. Together with Prof. Dennis Dijkzeul has published a chapter on the instrumentalization of humanitarian action. The authors address the difficult question to which extent humanitarian action needs to be instrumentalized in order to achieve some cooperation by other actors involved in a humanitarian crisis.

They distinguish different ways to deal with such instrumentalization in different types of crises. The chapter is part of an edited volume that addresses the challenges of cooperation in humanitarian crises, in which authors, such as Tom Weiss and David Chadler, discuss the problems and opportunities for cooperation in crisis areas. Dijkzeul, D. Having thus proclaimed his passion for the topic of privacy in the digital age, Prof. Cannataci went on to pose the question whether privacy is an end in itself or rather a means to an end. Conscious of the absence of any accepted legal definition of the term privacy, he then laid out some of the most important aspects of this right, also referring to a few of the underlying technical issues.

Lastly, he gave an overview of his 10 point plan to address the most pressing concerns as regards privacy in the light of current events. Following the presentation, a lively discussion ensued. Cannataci for his visit and are looking forward to welcoming Professor Dr.