He does not comment on every aspect of the Programme, presumably because the parts he leaves out he either agrees with, or they are corollaries to positions he has already dispatched with. But, to inform prospective readers, you will learn about why Marx does not believe in Rights, rejects equal rights, how he thinks revolutionary socialism will lead to communism, and what the differences between the revolutionary socialist state and the communist non-state ought to be.
Moreover, Marx deals with the concept of the state, and how one can never talk of freedom so long as a state exist thus Marx was an anarchist, but he was not an Anarchist. Marx, to my surprise, finds demands for state sponsored education, and criminal justice, an absurd joke, seeing the state as educator as inherently tyrannical and absurd. Moreover, he claims if socialist are to make demands for the female sex they ought to be explicit about said demands, and not ambiguous. Perhaps there was a feminist bone in him after all?
Throughout the text invective jabs will be made at Lassalle and the Bourgeoisie Engels claims he add to edit some out because of just how invective they were. I found it of interest that in the very opening Marx credits nature with the abundance of wealth given to man, and not labor wholesale. Most socialist and Marxist see labor as the ultimate creator of wealth, and use values, and Marx, long ago, rejected this claim.
Jan 01, Carlos rated it it was amazing. Este es el resumen del texto. Oct 02, Pablo rated it really liked it Shelves: no-ficcion , marxismo.
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Feb 19, Achealot rated it really liked it Shelves: to-acquire. Shortly before his death, Marx said "if they are Marxists, then I myself am not" in response to Jules Guesde and Paul Lafargue who at the time excercised idealistic rhetoric while claiming to accurately represent the materialist theory of Marxism. Similarly, today and in the past, there have been many who call themselves socialists but are steeped in strange contradictions and utopian thinking that run counter to their goals. In this uncharacteristically brief essay considering the verbosity of Shortly before his death, Marx said "if they are Marxists, then I myself am not" in response to Jules Guesde and Paul Lafargue who at the time excercised idealistic rhetoric while claiming to accurately represent the materialist theory of Marxism.
In this uncharacteristically brief essay considering the verbosity of his most famous work, Capital , Marx effectively picks apart some of the ideology that Germany's Social Democratic party stood for at the time, a platform already considerably more radical than any social democratic party today would support. The SPD would go on to address these criticisms seriously, formulating the new and improved Erfurt Program in after Marx's death in Regrettably, from the early 20th century onward, the SPD among other social democratic groups would be remembered mostly for suppressing revolutionary effort rather than advancing it.
Critique of the Gotha Programme remains a valuable look into the way Marxist theory has informed the critique of socialist efforts in the past, in this case from the man himself. All who fancy themselves Marxists today should reserve an afternoon for reading it. Apr 14, Moscatel rated it it was amazing. This book could be set as an introduction to anyone who wants to learn about communism and has little to no previous experience. What I really enjoyed is the simple way of distribution in a socialist society.
Those critiques are the first i have discussed in my first own book club meeting with non communists and they have really improved their knowledge about communism plus their perception of socioeconomic factors. Thank you Karl Nov 24, Hesham Mohamed rated it really liked it. Marx address in this critique the dictatorship of the proletariat, the period of transition from capitalism to communism, the two phases of communist society, the production and distribution of the social goods, proletarian internationalism, and the party of the working class.
Feb 02, Actually rated it it was amazing. An absolutely essential read. Feb 08, Bradley rated it really liked it Shelves: communism. Feb 12, Katherine rated it liked it Recommended to Katherine by: aleph. Jun 28, Andrew Feist rated it it was amazing. Brilliant and Important. Jul 01, Marta rated it it was amazing Shelves: favorites. Jan 02, Pechague rated it it was amazing. This book is gold, in the essence that is one of the only places on which Marx actually writes about life after capitalism.
Extremely insightful. Sep 07, Brandon Montgomery rated it really liked it Shelves: , marxism , philosophy , politics. Perhaps Marx's clearest vision of what a Communist society should and shouldn't look like. Apr 20, Alex rated it it was ok Recommends it for: No one, read Mises. Shelves: socialism , economics , capitalism-critique , politics. Pedantic critique of the theories of Lassalle, as put forth in the Gotha Program. When I say pedantic, I mean it. At one point, Marx points out that in the sentence: Promotion of the instruments of labour to the common property "Promotion" should actually be "conversion".
Why that is important, I don't know. The meaning of the sentence proposed by Marx is almost completely congruent with the one included in the Gotha Program. It's not much fun to read corrections on little errors that an author m Pedantic critique of the theories of Lassalle, as put forth in the Gotha Program. It's not much fun to read corrections on little errors that an author made, and Marx is full of that. He's the person that would point out a minor typo and call you an imbecile for it. Some of his critique is more substantial, but as his own position is just as wrong as that of Lassalle - more so, in fact, if we take his inconsistent theory of the stages of history into account - these passages weren't very interesting either.
What do I care if objective value originally comes from nature or from labor when the concept of objective value has been rendered completely obsolete? This was originally advertised to me as a critique against capitalism. Now, I'm not one who shies away from a challenge, so I read it, but found that there was preciously little in here that pertained to capitalism.
It's a very short read, and the passages relevant to capitalism add up to maybe a quarter or a third of this space if we're really benign in counting them. Here as in all other works of Marx that I've read, the critique of capitalism is clouded in strong and impressive terms, but neither based on a strong a priori argumentation nor on a proper historical analysis as David Osterfield showed in his essay in Requiem for Marx , Marx unwittingly criticized mercantilism rather than capitalism.
Marx gets two stars because this book is missing many of his worst blunders and because his discourse with Lassalle is not completely devoid of intellectual merit. I don't want to water down my one star judgements by including every book that I find bad. This review has been hidden because it contains spoilers. To view it, click here. Lassalle, Kautsky, Poulantzas, it is, more or less, the same story since the s. Marx hates the bourgeois state. For him, it is clearly a servant of the capitalist society, and as a structure cannot be reformed, let alone, used a tool for eradicating social injustice.
In the long run it must be destroyed. Any concessions that the working class gains from that state such as free education are only a truce, small victories that lift the spirit and strenghten class union, not a road to sociali Lassalle, Kautsky, Poulantzas, it is, more or less, the same story since the s. Any concessions that the working class gains from that state such as free education are only a truce, small victories that lift the spirit and strenghten class union, not a road to socialism. Yet, we still struggle with socialdemocratic programs of similar mentality in the 21th century Been reading more Marx recently in tandem with my commencement of studying Hegel.
This is a short text but an illuminating one nonetheless for those who've been wondering about Marx's conception of value, labour and the "coming" communist society. Maintaining a teaching of intensive agriculture contributes to this socio-technical lock in. The teaching of socially acute questions can contribute to unlocking to move towards agro-ecological transition, firstly, through innovative educational engineering and participatory learning which constitute niches for innovation and secondly, by entering teaching in a socio-technical landscape within late modernity.
Late modernity obliges to distance from the idea of progress or rationality and to consider the political and economic dimensions, uncertainties and risks and the values in agri-environmental issues. Agriculture has become considerably intensive since World War II thus increasing both its production and productivity. Intensive farming emerged when food was short and gradually profitability became the dominant focus. Various negative impacts were denounced in the early stages as is the case with so many Socially Acute Agricultural environmental or health Questions but despite the fact that this form of farming was called into question, a socio-technical lock-in stunted the development of alternative agricultural models.
It is only recently that French agricultural policy has started trying to generalize a different socio-technical regime, that of agroecology which in turn has become a Socially Acute Question. In this paper we analyse how the education system, in particular the teaching of SAQs, contributes either to the lock-in or, on the contrary, to a societal transition within the agricultural, agri-food and environmental fields. Within the framework of the theory of transitions, Geels and Shot propose a multilevel and structural perspective MLP for analysing transitions to sustainability.
They define three analytical levels: i niches the locus for radical innovations , ii sociotechnical regimes the locus of established practices and associated rules that stabilise existing systems , and an exogenous socio-technical landscape. Transition is a non-linear process that results in the shift from one socio-technical regime to another under the pressure and the interactions of the other two levels cf.
These technical, socio-cultural, economic and political systems develop alongside each other in a manner consistent with the equipment, organisation and skills. The sociotechnical regimes are characterised by the lock-in mechanisms which restrict innovations and transitions. According to Geels and Shot , at the micro level, niche innovation is developed within protected spaces laboratories, demonstration projects, new markets… by small, often marginal, actor networks. These niches are crucial to the emergence of sociotechnical transitions. In the case of the agro-ecological transition, niche innovation does not necessarily occur within protected spaces but rather takes place on innovative farms where a network of actors co-construct new distributed knowledge with or without the collaboration of researchers or agricultural development agents.
Figure 1. Multi-level perspective on transitions. The socio-technical landscape represents a macro economic, cultural and political context with a high force of inertia. This theory is based on a systemic approach which sheds light on the processes at play over time in the choice of a technological trajectory. The agro-ecological transition represents a change of socio-technical regime. The socio-technical regime may be unlocked by an incremental diffusion, in the form of transition, of niche innovations which can emerge in farm production systems Meynard et al.
By questioning the economic and political rationale we are able to identify and analyse the socio-technical lock-in points of an agro-ecological transition Baret et al. These authors identify the lock-in mechanisms of sociotechnical systems by analysing the network of stakeholders, the norms and the knowledge. This socio-technical system targets, first and foremost, an increase in productivity, an improvement in technical aspects, an intensification and integration of farming into the rest of the economy.
Scientific, technical, economic and political means have been mobilised to this purpose. The paradigm of productivism refers to a way of organising the economy with production as the primary objective and is based on the large-scale use of renewable and nonrenewable resources and inputs. The notion of a technological paradigm Dosi, ; Gaffard, was introduced to discuss the processes of technological change.
Thus, the technological paradigm represents a model of solutions to selected technical and economic problems. Technological innovation design is regarded as an activity for solving a particular problem. The technological paradigm defines how these innovations emerge and how they develop. In the area of pest control, agronomy gave way to the industrial pesticides industry international firms and their research and development departments. In this way, crop protection management was modernised and split into different sectors insect, disease and weed management.
Agronomy was applied to the task of intensifying crops by introducing a growing number of techno-scientific innovations based increasingly on the chemical paradigm: using pesticides is both implicit and systematic in crop protection strategies. These orientations led to a massive increase in standardised production. Productivist systems endeavour to reduce production costs resulting in increased labour productivity.
To do so they integrated techno-scientific innovations mechanisation, chemicalisation via specialisation and intensification, producing a large quantity maximisation of returns of standard foodstuffs. In the s, parallel to the advent of the farm supply and agrifood industries, the development of supermarkets accentuated this process of standardisation. So we shifted to a farming system, regulated to an increasing extent by a market dominated both upstream and downstream by industry and accompanied by the standardisation of food consumption habits.
Agricultural policy progressively, detached itself from market management. However, this intensive system raises questions. One can even consider that this type of approach in itself contributes to the lock-in effect inducing an economics-based reasoning. We should not forget that yield and the economic margin were two indicators used to validate the logic of intensification for farmers.
Yet they reveal signs of weakness in the conventional intensive systems: on the one hand yields are stagnating and profit margins declining for arable crops amongst others, and on the other hand price volatility means that prices no longer cover production costs within the context of a reduction in direct payments for production. How can we explain that the intensive farming model, based on the use of chemicals in crop protection management, has not yielded to criticism, to the proof that it has detrimental effects even on the very health of farmers and to the evidence of the success of alternatives to pesticides?
It is this question we discuss in the next section. With the advent of post war industrialised farming, a socio-technical system developed locking out the alternatives to synthetic pesticides. In keeping with the global agricultural intensification policy based on maximizing returns, chemical pest control took the upper hand because of its user-friendliness, its efficacy and also its costeffectiveness. Nevertheless, the underpinnings of this system pushed to its limits were to be progressively discredited.
The use of pesticides as an exclusive remedy soon revealed its limits. This resulted in a trajectory lock-in: alternative solutions to synthetic pesticides, even though they were based on robust evidence of their relevance, fail to impose themselves and are ruled out thus becoming inaccessible Lamine et al. This lock-out still prevents the socio-technical system the farmers, the farming sectors, the research-development-training framework, politicians and consumers from reorienting farming practices. The introduction of alternative techniques comes into confrontation with an existing socio-technical organisation.
The dominant agricultural advisory council is formatted and often funded by agrochemical firms that lock-in any change in agronomic practices for economic and technical reasons. We cannot change farming practices without considering what happens at the upstream and downstream levels, that is to say, what happens in the farm supply industry, but also in supermarkets and with consumers. To go beyond the traditional economic approach to intensification, Bonny points out that other factors are also relevant, such as knowledge, information, ecosystem services.
As far as knowledge is concerned, traditional knowledge and local knowledge have been discredited in favour of scientific and technical knowledge Jas, The prevalence of the latter can be explained both by the idea of progress, of which they were considered to be the driving force, and also because they were incorporated into goods and services advice, decision-making tools. Farmers broadened their knowledge of plant needs, of how to recognise pests, and how to use phytosanitary treatments during the course of the crop season.
Their knowledge of chemical pest control became more and more sophisticated; knowledge of alternatives to pesticides and ecosystem dynamics was set aside. Information on alternative systems remained confined to specific networks i. Information on environmentally friendly systems did not filter easily into professional circles. The specificity of the French agricultural education system lies in the fact that it is part of the Ministry of Agriculture and not of the Ministry of Education. In the early s and the Pisani Laws, agricultural education was already considered as a lever for the implementation of agricultural policies it being one of the training channels for future farmers and a means of getting them to adhere to the modernisation and intensification of farming.
Agricultural education was engaged in and indeed institutionalised, the entire process of an intensive and chemical form of agriculture. The aim of agricultural education was to promote intensification techniques which were also backed by firms, banks and professional organisations. The generalization of the techno-sciences was supported and relayed by schools ensuring that the farmers adhered to the intensive model of the thirty year post war boom. We can consider that, over a substantial period of time, agricultural education was one of the elements involved in the lock-in of an intensive agricultural system since education helped to reinforce the various political, scientific, technological, etc.
In the field of agronomy, new pesticide molecules also revealed their limitations; examples of resistance to pests are multiplying all over the world. However, because financial stakes are so high, the environmental or health risks are played down in the dominant political discourse. Society began to express strong concern, in particular about the increase in pollution, the media coverage of breeding conditions and the emergence of crises such as that of BSE in the early s.
The pressure of social demand has given rise to a new kind of institutional activism European or French, as the case may be in the defence, for example, of animal welfare or a reduction in the use of pesticides. It is within this context that the concept of organic farming emerged becoming officially recognised in with its own set of specifications. The notion of sustainable agriculture followed in the late s parallel with the concept of sustainable development and then more recently in "producing otherwise" emerged as the political ambition of the Minister of Agriculture and was approved in the French Act for the future of farming as a support for agro-ecological agricultural systems.
This legislation introduces the notion that agriculture must make sure that economic, social, and environmental and health performances converge. Furthermore, this project can be assimilated to a form of sustainable agriculture, since organic farming is considered to be one of the forms of agro-ecology. The evolution, complexity, multidimensionality and variation of the situations in which the concept of agro-ecology is used, make it an SAQ, just like sustainable agriculture or organic farming.
Strictu sensu, it would certainly be inaccurate to talk in terms of a weak or strong agro-ecology in the same way we talk about weak or strong sustainability. However, the term agro-ecology is used and viewed from different perspectives. With a view to food and energy sovereignty, the principles put forward in agro-ecology are: the respect for natural resources biodiversity, Amongst other aspects, agroecology corresponds to i the notion of organic farming, bio-dynamics or permaculture ii conservation agriculture concerning soils , which advocates no-till, simplified cultivation techniques and establishing vegetation mantles Iii precision farming, iv promoting the expression of ecosystem services such as the production of oxygen from the air, water purification, biomass production and recycling, improvement of biodiversity, reduction of water or nutrient losses, pollinator activity, etc.
Depending on our how we look at agro-ecology, it may or may not carry alternative principles in the field of agricultural development or in the socio-economic domain in the face of the consumer society integrating social and ethical dimensions. In this case, agroecology corresponds to an emancipatory social movement, but it can also be used as a "green" slogan to defend transgenic agriculture and its financial interests.
In the light of the theoretical framework presented here, the agro-ecological transition may be regarded as a change of socio-technical regime. The socio-technical regime can be unlocked by a gradual spread, in the form of transition, of niche innovations that may emerge in agricultural production systems Meynard et al.
By questioning the economic and political rationales we are able to identify and analyse the socio-technical lock-in points of an agro-ecological transition revealed through a socio-technical approach Baret et al. These authors identify the socio-technical lock-in systems by analysing the network of actors, the norms and the knowledge.
With the changes in European and French agricultural policies beginning in the s and the surge in environmental policies, the agricultural education system gradually integrated the new orientations, particularly those concerning the environment. Integrating, for example, organic farming, sustainable agriculture and finally agroecology into educational programmes is a significant aspect of the process of innovation and change: this process was first based on a few individual initiatives, then encouraged on specific or optional courses and finally recognized in the majority of diplomas and on the majority of the farms found in French agricultural high schools see box below.
These changes are noteworthy insofar as they have led to changes in all the curricula, to the introduction of various support measures, to training and to teacher networking the organic farming network, the education for sustainable development network, etc. The techno-scientific, social, political and economic choices made by the Ministry of Agriculture when re designing the curricula, may occasionally reflect a kind of schizophrenic attitude as a result of the need to accommodate economic interests and a farming system which remains largely intensive.
Indeed, parallel to the new agroecological rhetoric, the dominant productivist model is still largely prevalent today, especially in the fields of economics and management. This raises the question of the driving force, the magnitude and the nature of techno-scientific and educational change. In this paper we propose to demonstrate how the teaching of agro-environmental SAQ AESAQ acts as both a niche innovation and as a new socio-technical landscape.
The teaching of SAQs is based on different forms of didactic engineering. The term "engineering" used here may be similar to or incorporate what some call modalities, didactic systems, or didactic strategies depending on the ambitions and the specificities of the didactic situation. These forms of didactic engineering are specific and are based on a variety of levers and tools.
This introduces an element of doubt by calling into question the opinions and previous knowledge of participants, intercultural student exchanges Morin et al. But above all, what all these techniques have in common is that they encourage interaction between learners integrating what is "already there" into the process of knowledge construction and develop a critical reflexivity on knowledge, principles and values.
These didactic devices actually correspond to niche innovations insofar as they are implemented on the initiative of individuals or by a network of actors and are limited in time and space. All these techniques are combined in the process of innovation and the dynamics of change, to question the different components economic, cultural, scientific, political These techniques and SAQ didactics in general, have a specific epistemological framework in common which is new to the school environment and which in fact constitutes a new socio-technical landscape.
The link between the technosciences-companies, farming systems-companies, and their connections with education can be viewed from a socio-historical perspective. This amounts to positioning education within the ternary framework of pre-modernity, modernity and post-modernity. Does the ternary framework of pre-modernity, modernity, postmodernity reflect the gradual emancipation of the individual in society?
Modernity is connected with the ideal developed by the philosophers during the Enlightenment period. Authority and tradition are replaced by reason and science, which will allow progress based on so-called true and objective knowledge. Modern science should allow Man to dominate nature. Capitalism appears as a new mode of production and consumption supported by technological innovation. Modernity goes hand in hand with a growing trend towards individualisation. Education should free the individual through rational knowledge. Overestimated scientific knowledge is transmitted in a top-down process.
Scientists, techno-scientists, hold a privileged position; they are the experts who replace the priests of pre-modernity. The link between scientific reasoning and social, moral, ethical reasoning is not questioned. Modernity has favoured the emergence of the sociotechnical regime of intensive agriculture, which seems to be the finalised version of man's control over nature. For some, modernity is still prevalent and must be defended Habermas. Others consider that we have entered into a period of post-modernity.
The hope set on progress has been shaken up by the dangers associated with the technosciences nuclear weapons, pollution, health. From 17th to Global idea of The laypersons need to 20th century Enlightenment, of rationalist know more science to or even up to science. Rationality is appreciate and support today superior to other ways of good politics. Necessity to thinking. Logical positivism, Karl Understand science first, Popper.
Mertonian sense of the Social, moral, ethical important values of science reasoning is not questioned. Since the mid 20th century. Science is considered to be impregnated with power relationships. The link with society is problematic and complex. Science has a role, but is sensitive to economic, political and cultural dynamics.
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Ideologies, values are recognized. Post-normal science Funtowicz and Ravetz and even relativism. Risk Society Beck. Contextual and situated Education Complexity and uncertainty taken into account. Socio-scientific Reasoning, moral reasoning SAQ Sustainability education Scientific, economic and political education.
Hope in the future has been replaced by a concern for the future linked to the worries associated with the harmful effects of the capitalist model especially its effects on the environment. It has been acknowledged that research and its applications, cultural norms, socio-political and economic contexts influence each other. Scepticism, even pessimism, has replaced the optimism of modernity.
Relativism has developed alongside the recognition of true and objective knowledge. The traditional image of science has changed. Research is criticised because it has become increasingly affiliated with the financial interests of firms. The new idea seems to prone caution,. Beck refuses the post-modernist approach. He considers that we are in a period of new modernity, but that we remain within the modernity era.
He considers that we are shifting from industrial modernity to reflexive modernity. He describes this period as the "risk society". Beck , suggests that society is preoccupied with the risks related to the technoscientific solutions found to solve to our problems. The production of new scientific knowledge, particularly in the field of agriculture, ultimately addresses the multiple impacts waste, pollution, new diseases that have been generated by the technosciences.
The negative effects of intensive farming were denounced very early on, but because of the socio-technical lock-in, the alternatives were not considered or even heard about. The agro-ecological transition project is in keeping with reflexive modernity, whilst the emphasis is increasingly placed on the accumulation of the environmental and health risks. Beck believes that confronted with the risk society, crises and uncertainty, individuals will develop a reflexive modernity, alternative rationalities will come to light and new social movements, what he calls 'subpolitics' will emerge in the interstices of what is held to be the official society.
Their aim was to study whether or not the Danes lived in what Beck refers to as a risk society. They observed in their study that laypersons had different "risk habitus" p. They advocate an alternative paradigm of "ecological modernisation" with green lobbies to secure environmental interests. Ecological progress would therefore prevent the risk society from existing.
If this is the case, the techno-economic progress of modernity will take place, under the control of ecological progress. Giddens also rejects the notion of post-modernity. He refers to advanced modernity to describe where we are today. For him, no knowledge is definitively stabilised and progress is a myth. She considers that, people within the same culture, may not all have the same appreciation of risk.
According to Lipovetsky and Charles , a hypermodern society has emerged and replaced postmodern society because of the anxiety linked to an awareness of the serious problems caused by environmental, socio-economic, or health disorders. SAQs can be situated within the field of post-normal science PNS as defined by Funtowicz and Ravetz because they are a science closely related to human needs, involving significant uncertainties, problems and values, and requiring urgent decision-.
According to Ravetz , the question "what if?
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These authors emphasize that the decision-making process in the field of PNS should include an open dialogue with all parties concerned. They introduce the notion of an "extended peer community". It is important to train students to participate in this "extended peer community". As the word of the experts is not taken as gospel everyone must get involved in the decision-making and act both individually and collectively. Indeed, it is with this in mind that we view SAQs with great interest because reflexivity on modernisation is not straightforward.
This is in keeping with SAQs which advocate that citizens should remain vigilant, that they should not shirk this responsibility by relying on an ecological governmental form of control. To what extent should this reflexivity be developed? Should education prone exercising reflexivity on "expert knowledge" or allow students to generate their own knowledge on risks? In this respect, the SAQ approach defends an education which is humanistic, scientific, political and economic. In terms of SAQs, their model shows how, from a "late modernity" perspective, SAQ didactics are consistent with the agro-ecological transition.
Promoting the transition to the "teaching to produce otherwise" model, desired by the ministry in charge of agriculture should lead us to systematically question the different areas of the sociotechnical regime. SAQ didactics should contribute to the emergence of the critical education which is, in our opinion, essential to the development of emancipated eco-citizens. Curricula should be transformed in accordance with this critical education. We see this as a crucial step in addressing the challenges facing today's society as well as those it will face in the future.
Paris : INRA. Agroecology: the science of natural resource management for poor farmers in marginal environments. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 93, 1— Paris: Flammarion French translation. Innovation and sustainable development in agriculture and food Montpellier 28 juin - 1 juillet pp. DOSI, G. Technological paradigms and technological trajectories: A suggested interpretation of the determinants and directions of technical change.
Research Policy, 11, — Risk acceptability according to the social sciences. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Science for the Post-Normal Age. Futures, 25 7, Living in a post-traditional society. BECK, A. The multi-level perspective on sustainability transitions: Responses to seven criticisms. Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, 1, Research Policy, 36, — Current Sociology, 56 5 , — Green Agriculture: foundations for biodiverse, resilient and productive agricultural systems.
International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability. Transition pathways towards a robust ecologization of agriculture and the need for system redesign. Cases from organic farming and IPM. Journal of Rural Studies, 27, Les temps hypermodernes. Paris: Grasset. LIPP, A. LOWE, P. Regulating the new rural spaces: the uneven development of land. Journal of Rural Studies, 9, Economie rurale, , MOL, A. Environment, modernity and the risk-society: the apocalyptic horizon of environmental reform.
International Sociology, 8 4 , Chercheurs et questions socialement vives : quels contrats de communication? Dijon: Educagri. Cross cultural exchange to support reasoning about socio-scientific sustainability issues. Teaching Science, 59 1 , Recherches en Didactique des Sciences et des Technologies, 1, Simple scientific truths and uncertainpolicy realities. Studies in science education, 30 1 , Innovations environnementales dans la viticulture. Using a serious game to encourage the design of innovative environmentally friendly agricultural systems.
Digne les bains. International Journal of Science Education, 23 9 , Pour, , In J-F. We describe a study which aims to identify how future Quebecois and French teachers represent sustainable development and ESD. A theoretical framework built around the concepts of socially acute questions and critical pedagogy together with a critical-transformative posture guide the reading and interpretation of the results, highlighting the emergence of some areas of tension identified among the future teachers interviewed; these reflect the existence of two approaches to ESD: one transmissive and the other critical-transformative.
These tensions are related to questions of neutrality and teaching and learning goals. Based on results from twelve semi-structured interviews, this article is to illustrate how these tensions are manifested among the future teachers. It thus provides an in-depth, up-to-date clarification of the factors that support or hinder the teaching of socially acute questions in formal education systems.
Voici un extrait qui illustre bien ce raisonnement paradoxal :. Dans mes cours, on apprend, dans mes stages on ne peut pas teinter. Dijon: Educagri Editions. Croisements, enjeux et mouvances, Aster, 46, Theory and resistance in education: a pedagogy for the opposition. The Emergence of Environmental Education Research. New York : Routledge. A topology of the teaching concept. Studies in Philosophy of and Education, 3 4 , A Foucauldian analysis of environmental education: Toward the socioecological challenge of the Earth Charter.
Globalization and environmental education: looking beyond sustainable development. Curriculum Studies, 40 1 , 1— Probing Normative Research in Environmental Education. Ideas about Education and Ethics. WALS Eds. New York: Routledge Publishers. Theory and Research in Social Education, 14, Questions socialement vives dans l'enseignement et la formation. Dijon : Educagri Editions. Critical Pedagogy: A look at the Major Concepts.
New York and London: Routledge. The Example of Globalization. Journal of social science education, 4, Education for sustainable development in. Educational Research, 46 2 , TAN, P. WALS, A. Mirroring, Gestaltswitching and Transformative Social Learning: stepping stones for developing sustainability competence. International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, 11 4 , It is therefore a question of proposing a new presentation of works of researchers of the field, in terms of SAQ didactic process, as well as from a transformative perspective.
The objective of our work remains to contribute also to clarify the reflection and the practices of the actors of education and training, with a perspective of emancipation and transformation. Marquat, Y. Rafaitin, A. Lipp, M.
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Vidal, L. Morin, N. Cancian, A. Sarda, L. Simonneaux, J. Bader, E. Morin, G. Therriault, I. Girault Vidal et L. Simonneaux , p. Par ailleurs, L. Simonneaux , pp. Rafaitin, Y. Legardez, A. In Standing Nude with a Towel , for example, Cassatt began with a recognizable sketch of a woman, created by drawing on paper placed over a plate covered in soft ground. In her final revision, 31 she completely redrew the woman, adding abstracted strokes to give the sense of a defined interior space. Beginning with a recognizable image which she then concealed and revealed, Cassatt effectively reversed the typical approach of artmaking in order to test the various effects of materials.
Il a deux face…. Conquet, , Je ne suis pas aussi millionnaire que vos aqua-fortistes pour prodiguer le cuivre comme ils le font. Fingerprints replaced the Bertillon system, which identified criminals based on bodily measurements. See Mitchel P. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage, , — Zinc etching and aquatint on gray-colored, slightly textured wove paper of medium-heavy thickness. Soft-ground etching and aquatint on beige-colored, moderately textured laid paper of medium thickness Sheet: As the first of the nineteenth-century etchers to adopt Paris as his subject, Meryon initiated a concerted effort among his peers and successors to record the city as they knew it in the face of widespread change.
Although it took five years from the time Meryon executed his etching for demolition on the site to actually begin, and another five years before the relocation of the morgue, reports of its impending destruction were widespread in In the context of this series, which features monuments and bridges of central Paris still recognizable to the twenty-first-century viewer—the towers of Notre-Dame and the Palais de Justice each figure in five of the prints—the buildings pictured in La Morgue appear decidedly less remarkable. I have entered the Morgue twice: the first time was a long time ago and I was very young.
Having come to Paris for a few days, I did not want to leave without having seen all the monuments; the Morgue was described to me as a place of great interest…. Six years later, I dared to return…. I was serving as a tour guide to a young man from the country who expressed his ardent desire to see the inside of the monument.
Other accounts describe it less as a destination for the visitor and more a vital part of daily life for Parisians. Despite its humble appearance, the morgue must be viewed as an institution of nineteenth-century Parisian urban life. Meryon conveys the spectacular aspect of the morgue in his etching by staging a melodramatic scene in the foreground. A woman, accompanied by a child, reels her head back in agony as she recognizes the corpse retrieved from the Seine. The officer gestures behind him to a fellow uniformed guard as though instructing him to continue restraining another distressed woman trying to make her way onto the quay.
A crowd of observers gathers above the scene, leaning, sitting, and standing on the wall to catch a glimpse of the tragedy. It is this human drama that receives the most attention in the literature on this etching, though a number of scholars also note the immense presence of the surrounding buildings.
Cultural critic and theorist Walter Benjamin offers a compelling analogy for interpreting La Morgue.
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By creating a cast in wax or plaster directly from the face of the deceased, a death mask memorializes by retaining the physical features of the departed. A small corrective to Benjamin may be necessary, however, as the buildings that Meryon recorded and printed were still standing.
More accurately then , the etcher makes a life mask of a part of Paris that has been sentenced to death by Haussmann. Nevertheless, the function of the mask is the same: it is made for those left behind, as a token of remembrance. Meryon was not alone in his concern. In contrast to the impenetrability of the building as depicted by Meryon, Flameng presents an interior view.
Some stare intently through the large windows at the corpses displayed on slabs with their clothes hanging above, while others socialize casually as though standing at a neighborhood bar. Old Paris … is at the point of disappearing…. All that is disappearing, all that is departing. Old Paris is dying! In this context, the looming buildings in La Morgue stand as witnesses of Parisian daily life, and it becomes clear that with their destruction some knowledge of the city will inevitably vanish. Faced with the imminent demolition of some of the oldest structures in their city, a host of writers, artists, and photographers sought to record these vanishing spaces.
In choosing to depict sites in Paris under threat of demolition or change, Meryon, Flameng, and their cohort of etchers created prints that testified to the history of their city and its current state of contingency. David H. Vanessa R. Asher E. Francis E. The only student whom Meryon directly instructed, Gabrielle Niel, made twelve views of Paris, many of which focus on Gothic sites. Floury, , Also cited by Robert W. His essay is one of very few studies on this topic.
A discussion of photography exceeds the scope of this essay, though photographers certainly played an essential role. For recent scholarship on a key participant in documenting old Paris, see Sarah Kennel, ed. Etching and drypoint on beige-colored, moderately textured laid paper of medium thickness, watermark partial : Comp. Detail from Pl. Bailly-Herzberg, Janine. Paris: Leonce Laget, Beraldi, Henri. Paris: L.
Conquet, Bourcard, Gustave. Burty, Philippe.
Paris: A. Cadart, Cate, Phillip Dennis, et al. The Graphic Arts and French Society, — Cate, Phillip Dennis, and Marianne Grivel. Paris: Flammarion, Clarke, Jay A. Delteil, Loys. Hamerton, Philip Gilbert. London: Macmillan and Co. Helsinger, Elizabeth, et al. Chicago: Smart Museum of Art, Hendrix, Lee. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, Koehler, Sylvester Rosa. Lalanne, Maxime.
The Technique of Etching New York: Dover, Leipnik, F. London: John Lane, McQueen, Alison. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, Melot, Michel. The Impressionist Print. Translated by Caroline Beamish. Parshall, Peter, et al. Brussels: Mercatorfonds, Roos Rosa de Carvalho, Fleur. Prints in Paris From Elite to the Street. Stijnman, Ad.
London: Archetype, Weisberg, Gabriel P. The Etching Renaissance in France: — This publication would not have been possible without the collaboration and support of many individuals. Dunn, Gretchen Schultz, and Brian Shure, for their thoughtful essays on objects from the exhibition. Andrew Raftery also offered helpful technical advice on that part of the publication.
Smith for his support. Clarke; Donato Esposito; Jonathan C. Noble; and Jim, Cheri, and Josh Salsbury. All content including images, text documents, audio, video, and interactive media published in this publication are governed by the risdmuseum. Etching: The Creative Process.
Women Under the Influence. Albert Besnard, In the Ashes , Further Reading. Jay M.
Lalanne, A Treatise on Etching, 69 — Philip G. Hamerton, quoted in Stijnman, Engraving and Etching , Gustav Radeke Abraham Bosse French, —ca. Herbert N. Straus Rosenwald Collection Plate: Mary Cassatt American, — Telling Fortunes, ca. After M. Charles Marville French, — Vespasienne, rue de Rennes. Roos Rosa de Carvalho, Prints in Paris , Sheet: Beraldi, no. Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam. Morphine The writer Laurent Tailhade suggested that poets flocked to alcohol more readily than to morphine. Hinman B. Hurlbut Collection Stijnman, Engraving and Etching —, Rembrandt van Rijn Dutch, — Sleeping Puppy , ca.
John G. Johnson Collection, Philadelphia Museum of Art. Abraham Bosse French, ca. Jan Collaert I Flemish, ca. Purchase, by exchange, and A. Roger Marx in His Study, ca. Gift of E. Weyhe, The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Daumier , Image: Gift of Edward C. Plate: 8. He wrote about his self-education in the catalogue for an exhibition of his etchings: I shall never forget with what eagerness … I tried to make a few plates. Private collection. Cannelle d. Lent by James A. Bergquist, Boston Photography by Steve Gyurina.
Tara Donovan American, b. Dieter Roth German, — Small Sunset, Sausage on blue and white wove paper, encapsulated in plastic Image: David Hammons American, b. This process uses a fine dust made from rosin particles to create tone. Rosin is applied to a clean plate and fused to the plate with heat. The plate is then placed in an acid bath and the areas uncovered with rosin are bitten. The longer the plate stays in the bath, the darker the tone will print. The process of using a metal file to smooth the sharp edges of the plate.
This step creates an angled edge that prevents the plate from damaging the paper, blankets, and press during printing. After the artist creates the image in the ground, the plate is placed in a basin filled with acid. The longer the plate stays in the acid, the darker the image will print. A technique in which a tool with a curved edge a burnisher is used to smooth out marks on a plate, lightening or erasing them from the image. The permanent alteration of a printing plate, usually by its artist, so that any future prints are distinguished from those that are part of an edition.
A technique in which marks are made directly onto a plate with a sharp tool or scriber, without the requirement of ground or acid. Virtually any implement that scratches metal can be used. When the plate is scratched, it displaces metal along the sides of the line. The burr is delicate and wears out as the image is printed.
The coating on one side of the plate which provides a malleable surface into which the image is drawn. A mixture—often including asphaltum, wax, and rosin although ingredients can vary —is worked into a ball, heated, and melted onto the surface of the copper plate, then allowed to dry.
As an alternative, liquid ground, made by adding a solvent, can be painted onto the surface of the plate. A print, usually on paper, pulled from an inked printing plate. The process of applying ink to a plate. The printing ink—which is often oil-based and dense—first is worked on a flat surface with a putty knife. The ink is then spread onto the plate with a scraper or other instrument, forcing it into the etched areas. A tarlatan, or a pad of stiff cloth, is used to remove excess ink from the surface.
A plate needs to be inked before each impression. Line etching. In this technique, a needle is used to scratch lines through the layer of ground, exposing the surface of the plate, which is then etched by acid. A sharp tool used for drawing onto a metal plate or into a layer of ground. Plate tone. Printed tonal areas created by ink left on the surface of the plate when wiping. The process of removing imperfections from the surface of the plate, creating a shiny finish, as any scratches print as lines. Abrasives, charcoal blocks, and oil were used to polish plates in the nineteenth century.
The press used for intaglio printmaking employs a roller on either side of the bed to exert heavy pressure onto the plate as it passes through. A person who works with an artist to print his or her work. The final process in the making of a print, in which the image is transferred to paper or another support. The inked printing plate is laid face-up on the press bed. A dampened sheet of paper is placed on top of the plate, covered in a felt blanket, and run through the press. Printing plate. The surface onto which the artist creates an image for printing.
Etching plates are typically made of copper, but zinc or other metals may also be used. In this publication, the authors are referring to a state proof, which is an early impression of an image, printed to test the image while an artist is still making changes to the plate. A person or organization who finances the production of a print and facilitates the collaboration between the artist and printer. A tool with a textured revolving wheel. When rolled onto the surface of a plate, the roulette leaves a regular pattern. A coating on a plate, made by adding tallow or rendered animal fat to a hard ground.
Softground is applied to a heated plate. When the plate is cool, the artist can place a sheet of paper over it and draw on that surface; the ground is removed where the artist has drawn. Artists can also press textured materials, such as fabrics, into the ground, creating patterns or areas of gray tone. A variation on a printed composition, resulting from continued work on a plate after impressions have already been pulled. Some plates are printed in multiple states. Stopping out. A technique in which an acid-resistant material, such as ground or varnish, is applied to a plate before it is placed in the acid bath.
Stopping out protects those parts of the plate from being bitten by acid. Stopping out can also be used to vary tonalities; the artist can remove a plate from an acid bath and apply acid-resistant material to protect the covered areas while the other areas continue to deepen. In this process, a tarlatan, or a pad of stiff cloth, is used to remove excess ink from the surface of a printing plate, leaving a light tone.
The printer can completely remove the ink from the surface of a plate by using their hand to wipe it with whiting. Paris: Lanier et Vallet, Roger-Marx, Claude. Graphic Art of the 19th Century.