Consequently, in view of this causality-obscuring time lag, both the 'rewards' and 'punishments' for one's actions increasingly tend to be viewed as random, often with apathy and alienation as a result". A sense of meaning has been defined by Seeman as "the individual's sense of understanding events in which he is engaged".
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In this respect, meaninglessness is closely tied to powerlessness ; Seeman Ibid. Geyer xxiii believes meaninglessness should be reinterpreted for postmodern times: "With the accelerating throughput of information [ Normlessness or what Durkheim referred to as anomie "denotes the situation in which the social norms regulating individual conduct have broken down or are no longer effective as rules for behaviour".
Seeman adds that this aspect can manifest in a particularly negative manner, "The anomic situation [ This negative manifestation is dealt with in detail by Catherine Ross and John Mirowski in a series of publications on mistrust, powerlessness, normlessness and crime. Sudden and abrupt changes occur in life conditions, and the norms that usually operate may no longer seem adequate as guidelines for conduct". This is a particular issue after the fall of the Soviet Union, mass migrations from developing to developed countries, and the general sense of disillusionment that characterized the s Senekal, Traditional values that had already been questioned especially during the s were met with further scepticism in the s, resulting in a situation where individuals rely more often on their own judgement than on institutions of authority: "The individual not only has become more independent of the churches, but from other social institutions as well.
The individual can make more personal choices in far more life situations than before" Halman, These choices are not necessarily "negative": Halman's study found that Europeans remain relatively conservative morally, even though the authority of the Church and other institutions has eroded. One concept used in regard to specific relationships is that of parental alienation , where a child is distanced from and expresses a general dislike for one of their parents who may have divorced or separated.
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The term is not applied where there is child abuse. The parental alienation might be due to specific influences from either parent or could result from the social dynamics of the family as a whole. It can also be understood in terms of attachment , the social and emotional process of bonding between child and caregiver. Adoptees can feel alienated from both adoptive parents and birth parents. Familial estrangement between parents and adult children "is attributed to a number of biological, psychological, social, and structural factors affecting the family, including attachment disorders, incompatible values and beliefs, unfulfilled expectations, critical life events and transitions, parental alienation, and ineffective communication patterns.
Attachment relationships in adults can also involve feelings of alienation. Social isolation refers to "The feeling of being segregated from one's community". With increased isolation and atomization, much of our daily interactions are with those who are strangers to us and with whom we lack any ongoing social relationships. Since the fall of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War , migrants from Eastern Europe and the developing countries have flocked to developed countries in search of a better living standard.
This has led to entire communities becoming uprooted: no longer fully part of their homelands, but neither integrated into their adopted communities. Diaspora literature depicts the plights of these migrants, such as Hafid Bouazza in Paravion. Senekal b: 41 argues, "Low-income communities or religious minorities may feel separated from mainstream society, leading to backlashes such as the civil unrest that occurred in French cities in October The fact that the riots subsequently spread to Belgium, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, Greece, and Switzerland, illustrates that not only did these communities feel segregated from mainstream society, but also that they found a community in their isolation; they regarded themselves as kindred spirits".
Because of intense group solidarity and unique daily hardships brought by combat, many veterans feel alienated from citizens, family, and friends when they return.
They often feel they have little in common with civilian peers; issues that concern friends and family seem trivial after combat. Afghanistan veteran Brendon O'Byrne says, "We were really close.
Physically and emotionally close. It's kind of terrifying being in such an emotionally safe environment and then suddenly be expelled into an alienated, fractured society. They understood who they were. They had a sense of purpose. They were necessary. All these things that young people strive for are answered in combat.
More of everything. The experience of the Vietnam veteran was distinctly different from that of veterans of other American wars. It was extremely rare for a veteran to write to his buddies who were still in combat, and in strong contrast to the endless reunions of World War II veterans for more than a decade it was even rarer for more than two or more of them to get together after the war.
That the Vietnam War was ultimately lost on April 30, , furthered the sense of meaninglessness and malaise. One manifestation of the above dimensions of alienation can be a feeling of estrangement from, and a lack of engagement in, the political system. Such political alienation could result from not identifying with any particular political party or message, and could result in revolution , reforming behavior, or abstention from the political process, possibly due to voter apathy.
A similar concept is policy alienation , where workers experience a state of psychological disconnection from a policy programme being implemented. Self-estrangement is an elusive concept in sociology, as recognized by Seeman , although he included it as an aspect in his model of alienation.
Some, with Marx, consider self-estrangement to be the end result and thus the heart of social alienation. Self-estrangement can be defined as "the psychological state of denying one's own interests — of seeking out extrinsically satisfying, rather than intrinsically satisfying , activities Seeman recognized the problems inherent in defining the "self", while post-modernism in particular has questioned the very possibility of pin-pointing what precisely "self" constitutes. Gergen argues that: "the traditional view of self versus society is deeply problematic and should be replaced by a conception of the self as always already immersed in relatedness.
On this account, the individual's lament of 'not belonging' is partially a by-product of traditional discourses themselves". If the self is relationally constituted, does it make sense to speak of "self-estrangement" rather than "social isolation"? Costas and Fleming suggest that although the concept of self-estrangement "has not weathered postmodern criticisms of essentialism and economic determinism well", the concept still has value if a Lacanian reading of the self is adopted.
This can be seen as part of a wider debate on the concept of self between humanism and antihumanism , structuralism and post-structuralism , or nature and nurture. Until early in the 20th century, psychological problems were referred to in psychiatry as states of mental alienation, implying that a person had become separated from themselves, their reason or the world. From the s alienation was again considered in regard to clinical states of disturbance, typically using a broad concept of a 'schizoid' 'splitting' process taken from psychoanalytic theory. The splitting was said to occur within regular child development and in everyday life, as well as in more extreme or dysfunctional form in conditions such as schizoid personality and schizophrenia.
Varied concepts of alienation and self-estrangement were used to link internal schizoid states with observable symptoms and with external socioeconomic divisions, without necessarily explaining or evidencing underlying causation. Laing was particularly influential in arguing that dysfunctional families and socioeconomic oppression caused states of alienation and ontological insecurity in people, which could be considered adaptations but which were diagnosed as disorders by mainstream psychiatry and society.
Laing, In a related vein, for Ian Parker , psychology normalizes conditions of social alienation. While it could help groups of individuals emancipate themselves, it serves the role of reproducing existing conditions. Parker, This view can be seen as part of a broader tradition sometimes referred to as critical psychology or liberation psychology , which emphasizes that an individual is enmeshed within a social-political framework, and so therefore are psychological problems.
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Similarly, some psychoanalysts suggest that while psychoanalysis emphasizes environmental causes and reactions, it also attributes the problems of individuals to internal conflicts stemming from early psychosocial development, effectively divorcing them from the wider ongoing context. Zizek, Frantz Fanon , an early writer on postcolonialism , studied the conditions of objectification and violent oppression lack of autonomy believed to have led to mental disorders among the colonized in the Third World in particular Africans Fanon,  A process of ' malignant alienation' has been observed in regard to some psychiatric patients, especially in forensic units and for individuals labeled 'difficult' or who aren't liked by at least some staff, which involves a breakdown of the therapeutic relationship between staff and patients, and which may end in the suicide of the patient.
Differences between persons with disabilities and individuals in relative abilities, or perceived abilities, can be a cause of alienation. One study, "Social Alienation and Peer Identification: A Study of the Social Construction of Deafness",  found that among deaf adults one theme emerged consistently across all categories of life experience: social rejection by, and alienation from, the larger hearing community.
So he is not fooled, as are many observers, by the endless allegations of the alienating parent against the allegedly hated parent. Nor does he hesitate to put the obsessive denigrators in their place, if need be. My research turned up two sources of statistical evidence that corroborated Dr. Gardner's finding that roughly 9 out of 10 of the alienating parents are the mothers. PAS is one of those phenomena that the media seem incapable of reporting accurately and analytically, or even reporting at all.
Yet psychologists are coming to see that it is quite widespread. Indeed, PAS may account for a certain portion of the fathers who are said not to care for their kids. If you want to understand PAS, there is no better place to look than Dr. Gardner's book. Rezension anzeigen. Die hilfreichsten Kundenrezensionen auf Amazon.
Verifizierter Kauf. It would also help the adult child who was exposed to that kind of coercion by their caregiver, parent, or other close family member understand and begin to heal from those damaging forces. A parent who tries to keep their child from having affection for the other parent will make up the damaging evidence, often using a grain of truth, such as dad drinks a beer now and then, but they will convince, or try to convince, the child that dad is an alcoholic.
Many children see the lack of reason in these accusations ,or maybe the lack of evidence as in dad's drinking, but is afraid to contradict the controlling parent. This happens in divorce where the dad accuses the mother of whatever he thinks will best denigrate her and makes sure the child hears about it, or it is the mother who screams degrading obscenities at the father in front of the child, or, in or out of a marriage, will undermine the other parent's attempt to discipline their child. This is especially true if one parent has a borderline personality disorder, especially the narcissistic disorder for they see the world totally through their own eyes and how it relates to them.
Parents who alienate their children from the other parent are needy themselves, but chances are they do not recognize the fact. The original Parental Alienation book, by the original genius, and talented Psychiatrist Richard Gardner, who collected the evidence and data to make the public and mental health professionals aware of the pathology of Parental Alienation. A great part of what the other authors say about Parental Alienation is somewhat derived from the information, teachings, concept, and data collected from Richard Gardner.
FAB, New York. Format: Taschenbuch Verifizierter Kauf. Critical info for people going through a child custody situation. An excellent, only slightly dated, overview of the alienation phenomenon. Although it was updated a few years later, I wanted to review the original edition and was not disappointed. Add to cart. Be the first to write a review About this product. About this product Synopsis Parental Alienation is child abuse. Some have even argued it is legalized child abuse because the courts refuse to come near it and mental health professionals only meet it with a moderateacceptance.
It is a problem plaguing women and men alike in every country throughout the world. Your emotional health, attitude and perspective on life are your keys to surviving alienation as you travel through the rest of your journey. It is the difference between a life of self destruction and a life of victory, hope and love.
It is the key to self-forgiveness and the forgiveness or others. Show More Show Less. Add to Cart. Any Condition Any Condition. No ratings or reviews yet.