Er erlebt eine neue, seltsame Einsamkeit, und er leidet unter dieser Erfahrung. Liebe zu entwickeln braucht Zeit und entsprechend schwierig kann es sein, sie wieder abzubauen. Jener Mensch ist ein Fremder in einem Land, dessen Sprache er nicht spricht. Dieser hier so oft zitierte Satz bedeutet nicht in jedem Fall, dass der Sprecher seinen Trieben erlegen ist.
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- The Theory of German Word Order Aldo Scaglione Finereader | Linguistics | Syntax.
Der Egoist in diesem Fall ist berechnend und formuliert sein Anliegen perfekt bis ins letzte Detail. Wieder etwas, was gegen Perfektion spricht, oder besser gegen das streben nach ebensolcher. So wie Sommersprossen ein Gesicht liebenswert machen, so sind es mitunter die kleinen Fehler, die den Menschen einmalig machen und mitunter sind es genau diese Fehler, die geliebt werden. Es soll auch in der heutigen Zeit noch Menschen geben, die Freude am Schenken haben.
Ich kann diesem Land durchaus Positives abgewinnen, genauso, wie ich hierzulande viele Dinge einfach schrecklich finde. Nur leider geht das Leben oft einen anderen Weg. Auf eine erschreckende Art und Weise ist es erstaunlich, wie sehr die Liebe eines Menschen einen anderen verletzen kann. Und vor allem bedeutet ein "Nicht freundlich sein" nicht immer genau ein "Unfreundlich sein". Und zu oft sieht man, was man sehen will. So ist eben doch alles sehr subjektiv. Schon das Sehen allein ist keine Abbildung, sondern eine Konstruktion.
Und die Verarbeitung des Resultates birgt weitere Probleme. Und um es nicht zu vergessen, die Sprache entspringt der Kognition. Die Zukunft wird auch auf dieses eine Antwort haben. Leben und Leben lassen. Aber doch:. La vita e bella Nur soll man Tage bekanntlich nie vor dem Abend loben. Hilfe verprechen viele, auch Yahoo ist da mit von der Partie. Berauschend sind die Resultate bei weitem nicht. Es ist schon ein bisschen traurig, zu lesen, Zeichen das Minimum? Aber es gibt mitunter auch Ausnahmen - nicht viele, aber manche Vor allem gibt es Menschen ein Podium, deren Eigenschaften mitunter nicht sonderlich gesellschaftskonform gesehen werden.
So viel zu unserer angeblich doch so freien Gesellschaft - als Mensch wird man doch in sehr herbe Korsetts gepresst - versucht zumindest. Homo oeconomicus und ludens, die Heilsbringer unserer Zeit. Und mitunter leben in dieser Zeit zwei Gleichgesinnte jahrelang nebeneinander und keiner von beiden erkennt den anderen, da ein jeder nur auf der gesellschaftlich vorbestimmten Bahn dahin zieht und doch das andere sucht, aber nicht zu finden hofft, schon gar nicht zu fordern wagt - einfach traurig!
Es ist mitunter erstaunlich, wie einsam man auch unter tausenden anderen Menschen sein kann. Geliebt zu werden kann eine Strafe sein. Nicht wissen, ob man geliebt wird, ist Folter. Die Schmerzen sind immerhin noch ein grausames Zeichen des Lebens. Wie sagt man " Ich liebe Dich " auf Latin : Te amo : Vos amo Latin old : Ego Amo te 'Ego', for emphasis Latvian : Es tevi milu pronounced 'es tevy meelu' 'i in 'milu' has a line over it, a 'long i' : Es milu tevi less common Lebanese : Bahibak Lingala : Nalingi yo Lisbon lingo : Gramo-te bue', chavalinha!
Must be a point under 'S'. The 'i' must be without a point. Sheep: Numbers on Farms at June 1, to 1 3,, 2 3,, 3,, 4 3,, This estimate has been based upon returns from wool growers in all provinces. Total shorn wool production in Canada for was estimated at 13,, pounds as compared with an estimate of 13,, pounds in The estimate of pulled wool production lamb's wool will be published at the end of the year when the lamb marketings are available.
At the time of reporting June and July 73 per cent of the total wool production had been sold. Average prices received by wool growers for the months of June, July and August, , were cents per pound lower than for the same months of , and one cent per pound lower than in the same period of Maritime Provinces. To date there has been no wind and as a result the losses from this source will be at a minimum.
Although some light frosts have been reported, they have not been severe enough to cause any apparent damage. The weather for the most part has been warm during the day and cool at night with occasional scattered showers. Reports from Nova Scotia indicate the production of a near record crop. The fruit for the most part is larger than normal and judging from the high colour and lack of damage from either insects or disease, the crop should produce a higher percentage than usual of the better grades.
Picking is well advanced for this time of year, being ten clays ahead of normal. Reports show as high as 90 per cent of the crop harvested on October Export ship- ments are well in advance of last year and domestic demand remains brisk with prices good. The reports on the vegetable crops in Nova Scotia are somewhat varied. Potatoes are practically all dug and in some cases are showing considerable rot. Turnips, on the other hand, are still in the ground and are making good growth. The crop, generally, has greatly improved during the past ten days.
With the continued warm weather, cabbages have benefited considerably, the heads firming up well with little damage from insects reported. In Prince Edward Island, late blight of potatoes is widespread, but well-sprayed fields are showing very little damage. Turnips on the other hand are reported to be developing well and are of very good quality with yields heavy.
Harvesting is well advanced and is practically completed in the Montreal area. Severe wind and hail storms in September caused considerable dropping of the fruit throughout the province. Mcintosh suffered the greatest losses with Fameuse less affected due to better clinging qualities. The wind- falls will be taken up immediately by the local trade with a smaller percentage of the crop than usual going into storage. The estimates of the apple crop, by varieties, expressed as percentage of the crop, as supplied by the Provincial Bureau of Statistics on October 15, are as follows: Mcintosh 72 per cent Yellow Transparent 71 per cent Wealthy 82 " Melba 58 Duchess 87 " Other varieties 73 " Fameuse 69 " All varieties 72 " With cool, moist weather this fall, cabbage and cauliflower have greatly improved in quality.
The late crop of cabbage is expected to be heavy through- out the province, while cauliflowers in the Montreal area are reported to be rather small. The quality of both vegetables is good. Celery has improved con- siderably during the last month, but due to a tendency to develop heart rot, few crates are going into storage.
Carrots and beets are now being harvested generally and the quality is excellent. The onion crop is still suffering from the lack of drying weather, and rot continues to reduce the marketable supplies. Potato digging is being carried out in nearly all producing districts and from reports the crop is expected to be smaller than last year's.
Part of the reduc- tion is due to losses from disease as a result of the wet weather this fall. Turnips, on the other hand, are expected to exceed last year's production. With most of the crop still in the ground, growth continues to be excellent. The quality as a whole, is reported good. The size of the fruit is above average, with some dessert varieties too large for the export market, resulting in somewhat lower returns. Insects and fungus have been fairly well controlled in most commercial orchards.
The pack of No. There has been no frost injury to date, and the packing of Spys is well under way. A heavy wind on September 21 and 22 blew down 15 to 20 per cent of the crop in exposed orchards in the district east of Oshawa. In western Ontario weather conditions have been generally favourable for development and harvesting of all fruit crops. Apples are of exceptionally good size and colour. Hail damage is comparatively slight and confined to a few localized areas.
Damage by wind is practically negligible, with serious loss reported to only one orchard in the Georgian Bay district. Conditions were generally favourable for good development of plums. Some brown rot was in evidence in most varieties throughout the season but no serious loss was incurred. With the exception of some loss by brown rot in peaches, particularly in the Rochester variety, and a somewhat greater than usual amount of split pits caused by excessive moisture, the quality of the fruit was generally good.
The quality of pears in general was exceptionally good. They have been practically free from insect injury, and above average in size. Plums, peaches and pears have now all been picked. While hopper damage to grapes has been widespread in many vineyards, the quality of the fruit is good. Due to continued mild weather, the light crop is practically all harvested and because of the low bunch set, production is estimated at 45 per cent below that of last season. In eastern Ontario a large percentage of the potato crop has now been harvested.
The yield is a little disappointing in some sections, although the quality generally is above average. There are numerous reports that dry rot is developing in bins which have been filled lately. This is probably caused by too much wet weather. The onion crop was above average, both in quality and quantity, but growers had much difficulty in drying the crop because of the frequent showers.
Celery is now being harvested and is mostly of fine quality, as there was much less blight development this season than last.
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All other vegetable crops were above average. With no rain during the past ten days, the weather has been ideal for harvesting. In western Ontario weather conditions have been generally favourable for the development and harvesting of vegetable crops, although the quality of the onion crop was materially affected by wet weather earlier in the season, parti- cularly in Essex and Kent counties and the Bradford area.
This has resulted in a lower percentage of good storing quality. Potato foliage was damaged by frost early in September in the northern districts, and in some areas all vine crops were considerably damaged in the early part of October. On few occasions have freezing temperatures been recorded to date this fall, and then only a few degrees. Unfrozen tomatoes are reported in a number of gardens, and late cabbage, late cauliflower, Chinese cabbage, parsnips, spinach and turnips continue to develop and are being harvested.
These crops benefited slightly by light rains which fell during the week-end October 8 to 10 in the Winnipeg area. Owing to drought, however, the perennial plants, and especially fruit trees, ornamental trees and shrubs, and small fruits are not in a condition to withstand the severity of a Manitoba winter; they are being irrigated where possible.
Harvesting of most root crops including potatoes is completed. Losses occurred in fields of parsnips and carrots where feeder and tap roots had been severed by the soil cracking. Generally speaking, potatoes are of good quality but disease is reported in some bins where the tubers were stored early. Many other vegetables placed in common storage are not keeping well on account of the abnormally high temperatures experienced since harvest time. Market prices of most vegetables have been about the average for the post-harvest period, with supplies more plentiful than usual on account of the open weather.
British Columbia. Everbearing strawberries are still moving in quantity from Lower Mainland points. In the Okanagan and Kootenay districts the picking of Mcintosh apples is well advanced and shipments of Delicious apples have commenced. M 52,, 2,, 28, , 2. T o b a c c o 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 For certain crops, figures are not based on current indications, but are carried forward from previous reports. Netherlands Sweden Switzerland Czechoslovakia.
Other countries.. Total Twelve months August W u l y 31 bush. Total Twelve months August 1-July 31 bb l. The im- ports of wheat and flour expressed as wheat were, for the same periods, ,, bushels for and ,, bushels for I 79 40 Kentvi l le , N. Sask 95 29 90 37 87 37 Scott , Saak 88 30 L a c o m b e , Alta 90 32 89 38 Manyberries, Al ta 93 42 - 87 32 Ft. Vermilion, Alta 89 26 — Windermere, B. C 89 34 91 47 Agaasiz, B. C 93 37 Sidney, Vancouver I. S via Churchill bush. S t ia Canadian Atlantic Seaboard bush. S via Canadian Paci f ic Seaboard bush.
S via Canadian Paci f ic Seaboard bbl. S Tota l to United Kingdom and 'orders '. S via Canadian Pacif ic Seaboard bbl. Lake Ports Total 16,, Lake Ports Total 16,, ,, 7,, 10,, , 1,, Tota l same period, 17, Lake Poris Lake Ports U. Atlantic Seaboard Ports - - 42, Total 15,, ,, 9,, 9,, , 2,, Tota l same period, 16,, 57,, 9,, 12,, , 1,, II. Gar- net No. Am- ber Durum No. W Flaxseed— No. W Week ended Sept. Grain and Grade Week ended Monthly average Sept.
Flour, Ont. Bran per ton Shorts per ton Toronto— Flour, first patents jute bags per bb l. Flour, first patents co t ton bags per b b l. Bran per ton Shorts per ton Winnipeg— Flour per bb l. Bran per ton Shorts per ton Minneapolis— Flour per b b l. Bran per ton Shorts per ton Duluth— Flour per b b l. Beef cattle— Steers, choice : 1,, lb 12 19 12 22 12 02 12 18 12 15 12 45 12 48 11 22 12 35 12 38 1,, l b 12 06 12 05 11 68 11 90 11 92 12 25 12 25 11 88 12 02 12 10 , lb 11 50 11 65 11 18 11 48 11 45 12 00 12 00 11 45 11 68 11 78 lb 10 78 10 95 10 80 10 90 10 88 11 22 11 25 10 90 10 92 11 07 Heifers, choice, lb 10 47 10 60 10 52 10 65 10 56 10 88 10 88 10 88 10 88 10 87 Veal calves, choice 10 50 11 20 11 00 10 70 10 85 11 00 11 00 10 92 11 00 10 98 Sheep— 8 31 7 93 7 51 7 87 7 90 8 00 7 95 8 08 8 30 8 08 H o g s - Average cost, all packer and shipper purchase.
Heifers Calves , f ed. John Hams. Canada, Grade I. Hay, pressed, car lots, No. I Montreal- Hams, No. Toronto - Hams, No. Unit Aug. Stiltons u 0 20 0 20 0 18 Eggs, grade A, large doz. Gems, No. Dezember J. Die darin enthaltenen Einzelheiten werden fuer eine Reihe innerdeutschen Stellen von Interesse sein. Es darf daher entsprechende Weiterleitung anheimgestellt werden. Das Generalkonsulat Ottawa erhaelt Durch- schlag dieses Berichts. Dannenberg An das Auswaertige Amt B e r l i n. Thanking you in advance, I am, Yours very truly.
Statistician - Cropc: C. Wilson, Ph. Statistician - Live Stock: J. Rutherford, M. For all the provinces, except Alberta, British Columbia.
Cards were returned by about one in every five farms throughout Canada. For the remaining crops, the acreages fcrr- are estimated as follows, with the figure', for within brackets; Peas 80, 84, ; beans 7 0 , 6 0 0 6 7 , 6 0 0 ; buckwheat , 3 9 5 , 5 0 0 ; mixed grains 1,, 1,, The—arwas by provinces are given in Table I. Horses 0 2,, 2,, ; total cattle 8,, 8,, ; sheep 3,, 3,, ; hogs 3,, 3,, ; hens and chickens 53,, 53,, : turkeys 2,, 1. Sheep in increased by 75, while hogs decreased by , Hens and chickensL geese and ducks show decreases of ,, 67, and 38, respectively; turkeys increased by 41,, making a net decrease for all poultry of ,, By provinces, horses show increases in Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia.
Decreases are indicated in Saskatchewan and Alberta, while the other provinces show little change. Total cattle have declined in all western provinces, but increased in the eastern provinces except Prince Edward Island where numbers are practically the same. Increases are indicated in! Spring wheat 6 9 , 6 0 0 69 , Flaxseed Oats , , Potatoes 18, 18, Barley 15, 1 3 , 7 0 0 Turnips, etc. Hogs: Hogs, over 6 mos. Horses 28, Statisticianj Agricultural Branch: Chas. The Dominion Bureau of Statistics issues to-day a bulletin giving by provinces the first estimate of the farm value of field crop production for as compared with the values for and The values per unit assigned to each crop represent average prices received by farmers up to the end of November and have been determined by the Bureau after consultation with the Provincial Departments of Agriculture.
It should be observed that these estimates are subject to revision and that they do not represent cash income received from sales but are gross values of farm production. Several of the crops, such as mixed grains, turnips, fodder corn, etc. The values of the harvest were the highest since Very low yields in and sharply reduced prices in have resulted in successive reductions in value in the past two years. Farm prices for oats in have averaged 25 cents per bushel as compared with 43 cents in ; for barley, 28 cents as compared with 51 cents and for rye 28 cents as compared with 72 cents per bushel last year.
With the exception of turnips, fodder corn and sugar beets, values for all other crops are below those of a year ago. This gain, however, is more a reflection of the very low value in due to the extremely severe drought, and the value is still nearly 44 million dollars less than in Gains in the value of the hay and clover crop in New Brunswick and of the potato crop in Prince Edward Island were responsible for the increases over in these provinces.
Full text of "Beliefs and superstitions of the Pennsylvania Germans / by Edwin Miller Fogel."
The average prices received by farmers for the crops up to the end of November are now estimated as follows, with the prices of crops within brackets: Gents per bushel - Wheat 57 ; Oats 25 43 ; Barley 28 51 ; Rye 28 72 ; Peas ; Beans ; Buckwheat 59 72 ; Mixed grains 38 51 ; Flaxseed ; Corn for husking 43 Cents per cwt.
Ihr sehr ergebener feez. Berlin 8, den Windeis An cks Auswaert ige Amt B e r l i n. Am Januar d. Auf Grund dor am e r s t e n Tag der Konferenz g e f a s s t e n Ent - schl iossung i s t zu erwarten, dass d i e Dominion Regierung ersucht werden wird, f u e r die naeohate Ernte den Weizen- farmern im besten mindestens den g le ichen Weizenpreis zu gewaehren wie f u e r d ie l e t z t e Ern te. Montreal , vom I.
Februar d. The ' cortference, after its first day's deliUerations, issued a copy of a respfution incorporating its unaniigBus view in respect to the wheat policy. It has been made possible through the co-operation of the several Services of the Dominion Department of Agriculture, the Commercial Intelligence Service and the Dominion Bureau of Statistics of the Department of Trade and Commerce, assisted by representatives of Provincial Departments of Agriculture and Colleges of Agriculture.
The purpose of this publication is to provide a brief state- ment of facts which will assist farmers in adjusting production and marketing plans in accordance with changing conditions of supply and demand for farm products in both domestic and foreign markets. Grains Wheat.. Rye Seed. Clover, Alfalfa and Grass Seed. Beef Cattle Hogs Sheep and Wool. Horses Dairy Products. Strawberries Raspberries Processed Fruits. Industrial production, employment and payrolls were relatively favour- able at the end of and it is reasonable to anticipate continuance of these conditions throughout Canadian exports increased sharply in September and October of Retail sales showed only a minor recession in and moderate im- provement is anticipated for Raw material prices, other than agricultural, showed a tendency to increase in the fall months of Ample supply of short term commercial credit is available and interest rates remain low.
Unfavourable The low level of farm prices is a factor retarding general economic re- covery. There has been little inclination on the part of industry to increase borrowings for expansion in anticipation of improving business con- tions. International Trade Conditions Favourable Features The decline in world prices of primary products which continued through the first half of appears to have been checked in the latter half of the year.
An increase in the number of trade agreements, especially those based on the most-favoured-nation principle has been a forward step in lessening trade restrictions. Larger supplies of wheat and other farm products in Canada will probably result in a greater volume for agricultural exports in The new trade agreements between the United States and the United Kingdom, and the United States and Canada should lead to an ex- pansion of international trade.
Unfavourable Features 1. The decline in world movement of trade has been accompanied by an accumulation of world stocks of foodstuffs and raw materials. International exchange rates were decidedly unsettled at the close of Many restrictions on world trade in the form of quotas, exchange con- trols and clearing agreements were renewed in after some re- laxation in Lower prices of foodstuffs and raw materials in relation to manu- factured goods have made trading between nations more difficult. Grains Wheat 1. An all-time record world wheat crop was produced in The Cana- dian crop of million bushels was the largest since Carry-over stocks were moderately higher in August, , and with the surplus over requirements from the crop, the world wheat carry-over in August, will again be close to the record levels of and With the return of a large surplus, wheat prices have declined to roughly half the level of a year previous.
In appraising the world outlook for the season, consideration should be given to the fact that some decrease in the world wheat acreage is expected. Governmental policy in major wheat exporting and importing countries has been an important factor in determining prices received by growers in recent years. Durum Wheat 1. World supplies of durum wheat in are plentiful for the second consecutive season.
The spread between the prices of the bread wheat grades and the durum grades is relatively unchanged. Flaxseed 1. The flaxseed crop in Canada was more than double that of , despite a decrease in acreage. Flaxseed prices have not fallen proportionately with other grains, and returns from flax production compare favourably with returns from wheat. No appreciable surpluses of flaxseed are in prospect.
Rye 1. The rye crop was almost double that of despite a decrease in acreage. Canadian exports in may exceed those of the previous year when domestic supplies were low. Rye prices fell proportionately with other grain prices during Seed Grain 1. The seed grain supply in the Prairie Provinces is regarded as satis- factory for the first time in several years. The supplies of seed oats and barley are adequate.
Supplies of registered and certified grades of seed grain are practically double those of a year previous. Clover, Alfal fa and Grass Seed 1. Production of clover, alfalfa and grass seed in was for most kinds larger than in Prices for the seed crop are sharply lower than in the previous year. Export demand has declined owing to a larger than usual world supply. Feed Situation 1. Feed grain supplies per animal unit for are about 38 per cent greater than for the previous crop year. Feed prices have declined in relation to live stock prices and it is expected that the relationship will remain favourable for feeding throughout the crop year.
Production of tame hay, fodder and roots was slightly higher in compared with No extensive movement of feed supplies from surplus to deficit areas will be required. Live Stock Beef Cattle 1. Cattle marketings to mid November, were materially below those of and Further declines in marketings are expected during and While marketings of grain-fed cattle from the Prairie Provinces will be heavier in the early part of , the increase will be offset, in part at least, by a reduction in marketings from Eastern Canada.
Some improvement in prices during may be expected due to pro- spective improvement in industrial conditions and reduced marketings. Hogs 1. The output of hogs in will show an appreciable increase over that of , especially in the latter part of the year. While hog prices will be influenced by the increased supplies, improved domestic and export demand may be an offsetting factor.
There is some indication that exports of pig products to the United Kingdom market in may exceed those of by a considerable volume. Horses 1. There was a further decline in numbers of horses on farms at June 1, , chiefly in Saskatchewan. Larger foal crops in recent years may bring about a reversal in the downward trend in numbers of horses. Prices of horses after rising sharply from to declined in the spring of , but not to the same extent as prices of other farm products.
Sheep and Wool 1. Sheep numbers in Canada showed a slight increase in Inspected slaughterings during were somewhat smaller than in The movement of feeder lambs to the eastern feedlots was reduced in the fall of The reduced supply in the spring of should tend to maintain firm prices. Wool prices in showed little change although there was a steep decline in the fall of Eggs and Poultry 1. Egg prices were slightly higher in than in The decline in feed prices has resulted in a distinct improvement in the position of egg producers.
The favourable egg-feed ratio is expected to result in increased hatchings in the spring of This would mean larger supplies of eggs and poultry later in Provided that the United Kingdom poultry market remains unchanged, poultry prices in should be about the same as in There will be fewer cows available for milking in , but with the possibility of a greater percentage of the cows being milked and greater production per cow, production in should be at least equal to that of Lower butter prices in the winter and spring months of as com- pared with the same period of may tend to divert milk from creameries to cheese factories.
Storage stocks of butter were particularly heavy late in For the first time on record, stocks exceeded 60 million pounds. Cheese production declined approximately 7 per cent in as com- pared with Production in the Prairie Provinces, while still small, has been steadily increasing. Cheese prices average slightly higher in as compared with Should cheese prices remain firm relative to butter prices an increase in cheese production may be expected in There was an increase of 23 per cent in the production of concentrated milk products during the first nine months of Stocks at the close of were higher.
This will probably result in lower prices or a check in the expansion of the industry. Fruit Apples 1. The upward trend in apple production, continued in , the crop being per cent above the five-year, 3, average. Heavy plantings of apple trees have taken place in all years since Exports of apples in the fall months of were sharply higher than in the same period of Exports in were slightly below the five year average.
The general trend of prices of apples to producers was downward from to Since that date, however, there has been some improve- ment in prices. Peaches 1. Heavy plantings in recent years have increased the number of bearing peach trees and production has been increasing since Prices for peaches fluctuate largely as a result of changes in supply.
The larger crop sold at prices below those of Other Fruits 1. Pear production was sharply higher in , reflecting increased plant- ings in recent years. Prices to producers were lower. The plum and prune crop was per cent above that of the previous year. Production of grapes was lower in , especially in Ontario.
Prices to producers were higher. Cherry production was higher in but only 85 per cent of the five- vear, , average. Prices received bv growers were lower than in The strawberry crop was per cent below but per cent above the average. Potatoes 1. The potato crop of million bushels was the lowest since Prices opened higher in the fall of and have continued to rise throughout the early winter.
Higher returns for the crop will probably result in an increased acreage in Exports of potatoes are expected to be lower for because of short supplies. Honey 1. The Canadian honey crop of was substantially higher than that of Production in other countries was also higher.
Domestic and export prices have been depressed by the large supplies. The number of colonies in Canada in was the highest in the past 5 years. Maple Products 1. Production in Northern Ontario, Quebec and the Maritime? Prices were lower than in the previous year, but the total returns were the highest in recent years. Exports during are the highest in ten years and little carry-over is expected.
Tobacco 1. The marked upward trend in tobacco production continued in The crop of 96 million pounds was the largest ever produced in Canada and was 24 million pounds above that of Stocks of flue-cured tobacco increased during the year. Stocks of burley were reduced and those of other types remained about the same. The negotiated minimum price for the flue-cured crop was set at cents per pound, 2 cents below the negotiated minimum. Exports of flue-cured to the United Kingdom were much higher in , and stocks of Canadian tobacco in the United Kingdom are now at a high level. Current rates of progress, however, would have to be accelerated materially in order to produce a return to peak levels within the coming year.
Consumer purchases as reflected in retail sales recorded only a minor recession in and may be expected to register moderate improvement in Prices of non-agricultural raw materials used in industry showed increases in the fall of Although the low level of prices of f a rm products is a factor retarding general economic recovery, some improvement may be expected in as a result of anticipated increases in demand.
Business activity in Canada is closely associated with conditions abroad and will be affected by any change in the foreign situation. The gradual revival of industrial production in Canada during the latter half of coincided with similar movements in the United States and the United Kingdom. In this connection, it appears significant that Cana- dian exports in September and October, , increased sharply and compared much more closely with the figures than did those in the preceding months.
A considerable surplus of notice deposits over current loans provided evidence of ample supplies of short-term commercial credit. However, improvement in the business outlook has not yet been sufficient to cause any appreciable increase in the volume of industrial loans. Production of most agricultural products showed a substantial increase in Prices of f a rm products declined much more rapidly than did those of other commodities and the continued low level of f a rm product prices is an unfavourable factor in the domestic situation.
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This was a reversal of the previous sharp decline of 17 per cent which occurred in the final quarter of and the opening months of Fairly broad improvement was shown by September manufacturing returns, although October figures indicated a minor contraction. Textile manufacturing suffered a more severe contraction than manufacturing generally during the first three-quarters of , and the industry is still operating on a part-time basis. Pig iron production showed less severe contraction and a moderate upturn in September, which was not paralleled by steel.
The automobile in- dustry anticipates a considerably better year in than was experienced in due in part to distinctive model changes and lower prices and reduction in inventory of second-hand cars. Comparatively low inventories in the hands of merchandise wholesalers, an abundance of available credit, the lower level of industrial-material prices in relation to prices of manufactured goods and a well maintained volume of employment, favour the extension of this view to industry generally.
Prices, however, have not yet followed the uptrend in industrial activity. Some decline from fall levels of industrial activity may occur during the winter months, to be followed by an increase again in the spring of The record volume of Canadian mineral production during offset to a considerable degree declines in the manufacturing field. The output of copper and lead established new records, adding greatly to the activity in the several mining districts concerned. Although prices declined during the early part of 11 , increasing requirements for defence purposes and for the automobile industry in the second half resulted in the strengthening of prices.
The gold mining industry expanded rapidly, breaking all previous records in both volume and value, but the coal mining industry, in which large numbers are employed, was less active than in Forest products showed a sharp decrease in production because of curtailed exports of lumber and newsprint, as well as less activity in the furniture and construction industries. Construction contracts awarded during the first ten months of were nearly 20 per cent lower than for the same period of The volume of residential building shrank only slightly, however, and it should be stimulated by the recent decline in building-material prices.
Since the new National Housing Act went into force in August, loans on new houses showed an increase of more than 70 per cent over those in the same period in and loans under the Home Improvement Plan were only slightly lower during the first ten months of compared with the same period in Recently these loans have been running above those in the corresponding months of In view of expected increases in industry in , the demand for farm products should be somewhat greater than in It is unlikely however that the increase in general activity during will be sufficient to restore business to the levels.
Domestic Consumption. This was borne out during the first nine months of when dollar volume of retail sales generally recorded an average decline of only 2 per cent from levels. This decline would have been somewhat greater except for the higher prices which prevailed for groceries and meats. September figures of retail sales reflected improvement in industry, and pointed to a moderate increase over sales in August, which were in excess of the usual seasonal rise at that time of year. Furniture, hardware, music and radio firms, however, failed to register increased sales during this period.
Sales at country general stores in September were more than 3 per cent greater than in August, but this was less than the improvement for the same months of , which amounted to more than 6 per cent. The greatest increases in country stores sales occurrred in Saskatchewan and Alberta, the only provinces re- porting business at higher levels than in September, This was more an indication of the low levels of business in these provinces than of the existence of satisfactory conditions in In September, however, the deficit was reduced to 2 per cent, and wide- spread interest in new models points to sales expansion in months to come.
For the first three-quarters of , passenger automobile sales were almost equal to those in the corresponding period of Sales of trucks and buses were considerably above levels, but 14 per cent short of figures. The moderate uptrend in industrial production is favourable to a slight improvement in employment levels, although the comparatively small recession in employment when industrial activity was curtailed early in , would point to correspondingly minor advances in future months.
However, stability of employment and wage rates should result in a well maintained volume of consumer purchases in Financial Factors. A considerable surplus of notice deposits over current loans, and record prices for high-grade government bonds offer ample evidence of plentiful funds in both short and long-term money markets. There has been some increase in current loans by chartered banks during the past thirty months, but the total remains comparatively low.
Undoubtedly this is due in part to industry financing a growing proportion of its needs from reserves, but it also suggests a reticence particularly on the part of smaller concerns, to borrow extensively in view of current prospects for future business returns. Industrial bond prices, unlike high-grade Dominion issues, were lower in than in , and this coincided with a smaller volume of new corporation issues in Conflicting trends were also evident in the common stock market. November prices were materially higher than the year's low levels established in March.
It is true also that losses suffered during the international crisis in September were quickly recovered, but from mid-October to the end of November, markets remained practically stationary. Live stock prices in October averaged approxi- mately 18 per cent lower, although averages for the first ten months were down only 11 per cent from the same period of The decrease was mainly in cattle prices, hog prices averaging slightly higher than in Prices of butter, tobacco and wool also showed substantial recessions on the basis of October comparisons, although ten-month averages for butter and cheese were both above the comparable figures.
Of the more impor- tant farm products, only for eggs and potatoes did October prices average higher in than in the previous year. A much greater production of grains in partially compensates for the depressed prices. Meanwhile prices paid by consumers for basic family living needs were practically the same in October as in October The consumers' position has been eased by moderate declines in retail food prices which in September commenced to react to lower wholesale prices. Price movements have also adversely affected Canada's foreign trade position during the past year, the decline of over 20 per cent in export prices being more than double the drop recorded for prices of imports.
On the other hand, prices of non-agricultural raw materials showed decided strength in September and October. The severe recession in prices of agri- cultural products appear to have ended, although grain markets are still dom- inated by large world wheat stocks. From the long-range viewpoint, it should not be forgotten that monetary reserves in the United States continues to increase, and are sufficient to support a marked rise in price levels.
This is of peculiar significance to Canada, since Canadian price levels have followed those in the United States very closely throughout the past sixty years. The Agricultural Situation After five years of a low volume of output of food and feed crops, of which the two years and were abnormally low, with output falling to 66 per cent of the average, a fair measure of recovery was recorded in The physical volume of production of food and feed crops for the season reached 90 per cent of the average, an increase of 37 per cent over the low level of This recovery in production, however, has not been fully realized in higher cash income.
Increases in supplies, and reduced 13 demand have combined to cause a very steep decline in farm product prices. In this decline has carried farm prices below the pre-war relationship with the general price level and has seriously interrupted the strong agricul- tural recovery which commenced during The principal declines have taken place in prices of farm crops. While prices of live stock and animal products have also declined, they have not suffered to the same extent.
As a result, those farmers converting feed into meat animals and animal products will be in a more favourable position than those who are selling cash grains. In general, from the standpoint of income, the regional agricultural situa- tion of is relatively the same as in On the basis of estimates of cash income for the calendar years and , farmers in the Maritime Provinces have received greater cash returns from the sales of potatoes and apples, and live stock, but have not had as large incomes from hay and grain crops. Agriculture in the central provinces has benefited from larger income from potatoes, tobacco and live stock, but reduced income from other crops.
In many local areas the farmer's cash position was little changed from While there were more ample sup- plies of feed, the liquidation of live stock as a result of the drought did not enable the producer to take full advantage of the feed situation. Agriculture on the Pacific coast suffered from lack of rainfall during the season, and small crops were harvested.
This will mean larger cash outlays for feeds to supplement the home-grown supplies. Income in the fruit farming areas for was lower than in On a commodity basis, the following summarizes the outlook for income from the sales of the more important farm commodities. With more hogs to market in as a whole, and prospects of a steady demand at home and in export markets, the income from hog products in should not be any less than that obtained in , even though the average price paid for hogs during may be somewhat lower.
Income from beef cattle should be approxi- mately the same in as in as reduced marketings are expected to be offset by higher prices. Returns from sheep and wool in are not likely to be very different from that obtained in It is likely that the gross cash income from all dairy products will not be any higher in , and because of current prospects for lower butterfat prices, it is possible that it might be slightly lower during the early part of The probability of a favourable export market for eggs and poultry and the outlook for some improvement in business conditions in Canada in are f factors which, in spite of prospects for increased supplies, favour as large a gross income from poultry and eggs in as was obtained in The gross income from the sale of the spring wheat crop will possibly be somewhat larger than that obtained from the small crop of The reduced prices for fall wheat, oats and barley will mean a smaller total income from these grains in spite of somewhat larger crops.
Cash income from the crop of Durum wheat will be less as a result of a smaller production and of lower prices. Relatively large apple crops, particularly in Nova Scotia and Ontario, quality above average in most regions, favourable export and domestic demand and reasonably good prices, should result in a larger total income from the apple crop than was obtained from the crop produced in A sub- stantial increase in potato prices, as compared with those at which the crop was sold, should result in a larger total income for potato growers, in spite of the relatively small crop produced in The increased production of tobacco, red and alsike clover, and honey in , should result in larger total returns from these commodities, in spite of lower prices than were obtained from the crops produced in Since land values are a reflection of farm earnings, they serve as a measure of the recovery of agriculture in various regions.
Average land values in the Maritime Provinces and the central Provinces have shown an increase since Land values have recovered slightly in Manitoba and have remained stationary in Alberta, since In Saskatchewan and British Columbia land values have continued to decline. Prices of land have been increasing in those areas favoured by good crops, which have sold at remunerative prices.
There are, however, many areas in which land values have shown very little tendency to recover. In the event of a rise in the general price level, carrying farm product prices upward, a rise in land values can be expected, providing that prices of goods used by farmers in production do not increase as rapidly. Farm Machinery and Equipment. The reductions announced will be of some benefit in enabling farmers to purchase much-needed equipment. Further improvements on implements now being used and developments of new types of machines have been frequent during the past two or three years.
These will likely result in increased sales and also some considerable changes in farm organization in the next few years, especially in Ontario and Quebec. Farm Labour. Reduced farm income in and a decline in urban employment resulted in a small reduction in farm wages, although the volume of employment was increased by the necessity of harvesting larger crops.
The supply of farm labour during may not be as large as in because of an anticipated increase in industrial production. An upward tendency in farm wages might, therefore, be expected. This will be most marked in the central Provinces where the demands from industry and agriculture compete more directly in the labour market. Farm wages in the Prairie Provinces have not increased very much since the low depression years.
As a result of depressed conditions, there is a large supply of labour available in rural areas in Western Canada. The decline ill world movement of trade has been accompanied hy an accumulation of world stocks of foodstuffs and raw materials. Restrictions on world trade in the form of uotas, exchange controls and clearing agreements were relaxed somewhat in , hut were renewed in many cases during World prices of primary products reflected the recession of business activity and suffered a severe decline in the first half of This decline appears to have been checked in recent months.
International exchange rates were subjected to considerable strain throughout and were still decidedly unsettled at the end of the year. An increase in the number of trade agreements, especially those based on the most- favoured-nation principle has been a forward step in the lessening of trade restrictions. In the new Canada-United States Trade Agreement, valuable concessions have been obtained for a wide range of Canadian primary products exported to the United States. Larger supplies of wheat and other farm products in Canada will probably result in a greater volume of agricultural exports in as compared with International trade of the present day is largely on a different basis from that of pre-war, or even pre-clepression, days.
Trading between nations was formerly based chiefly on comparative advantage in production. It was automatically regulated by the movement of capital and the flow of gold between nations, and by the changes in price levels. In recent years these methods of self-adjustment have given way in large degree to various methods of state control of trade—evidenced in the use of quotas, exchange regulations, clearing agreements and other measures.
In many cases, the direction in which trade now flows, or is made to flow, is governed more by political and financial considerations than by price competition or other commercial factors. Further, the industrial development of the new world and the shift of the United States from debtor to creditor status, coupled with the sharp decline in international lending, have had far-reaching effects upon trading conditions.
Again, changing national programs in European countries have led to a severe reduction in the demand from these countries for foodstuffs from overseas 'sources. For example, world net exports of wheat from net exporting coun- tries, which averaged million bushels for the five years to , have fallen to an average of million bushels for the five years to This and other changes in agricultural commerce are of vital concern to countries that are still essentially producers of primary products for export.
While the long-time outlook for international trade depends on many more elements that can be taken into account here, the year-to-year developments will, in the absence of serious political disturbance, continue to be subject mainly to such factors as trade policies, production, prices and exchange, which are discussed in the following paragraphs.
Trade Policies. Many countries had reduced duties and quota restrictions during the period of rapid recovery prior to the mid-summer of The progress of recovery during this period also brought with it some reduction in the stringency of exchange controls and 15 —34 clearing agreements. In at least ten countries, duties on grain and other food- stuffs were reduced or suspended in This action was largely due to crop shortages.
Bountiful harvests in , and the recent world-wide decline in business activity and trade caused some countries to revert to former levels of protection, but up to the autumn of a number of the reductions were still in effect. Reductions in duties have been made under trade agreements as well as by the independent action of individual countries. In the past year or two, there has been an increase in the number of agreements based on the most- favoured-nation principle.
During recent years, the United States has negotiated 20 such agreements. Valuable concessions have been obtained for a wide range of Canadian primary products exported to the United States. Canadian trade will not only benefit directly from these concessions, but Canada as a leading exporting nation stands to gain indirectly to a large degree from the impetus to world trade which will result from the reductions in duties provided for in the two Trade Agreements. By virtue of the operation of the most-favoured-nation principle, the reductions are extended to a great many other countries besides those directly participating in the Agreements.
While the preferences on a number of Canadian products imported into the United Kingdom and British Colonies have been reduced by the United King- dom-United States Trade Agreement, the general principle of tariff preference for Empire products is still retained on the great range of products shipped to the United Kingdom and other Empire markets. While the movement for lowering duties by means of most-favoured- nation agreements is going forward, a number of countries—chief among which are Germany and Italy, and latterly Japan—maintain rigid control over external trade.
Foreign exchange control is still widely in effect, and in many cases goods can not be imported from a given country unless a credit balance is available from the proceeds of exports to that particular country. This method of trading tends to force commerce into new and strange channels rather than to allow it to follow the course determined by ordinary business competition. As regards trade in agricultural products, the immediate outlook—having in view the present low level of prices and the increased supplies, especially of wheat— lends but limited encouragement to the prospect for early reduction of such trade barriers.
Trade, Production and Stocks. Compared with , total primary production was 10 per cent higher, the output of foodstuffs 6 per cent and the production of raw materials 19 per cent higher. World industrial activity during also surpassed that of The physical volume of world trade made significant gains in and reached the level in the last quarter of the year. A break in the prices of raw materials, and a sharp fall in security prices occurred in the United States in April, This was followed by a serious decline in business activity in that country which caused a severe contraction in American imports—especially imports of raw materials.
Meanwhile Ameri- can exports remained at high levels. These developments depressed commodity prices in world markets, and adversely affected countries which exported to the United States. Decline in business activity spread to many other countries. While primary production continued at a high rate in most countries and prices of raw materials declined immediately, industrial production was curtailed and prices of finished goods remained comparatively high.
The buying power of primary producing countries was thus reduced, making it more difficult to pay for imports from industrial countries. By the second quarter of , the physical volume of world trade had fallen to 86 per cent of the level and 17 marked accumulation in stocks of foodstuffs, particularly raw materials, had taken place.
Prospects for indicate some improvement over The upturn in business activity in the United States, which commenced in the third quarter of , is the most encouraging element in the outlook for international trade. Insofar as Canada is concerned, the immediate future is clouded by the fact that world stocks of wheat and cotton have risen considerably above the low point of and are again threatening to get out of hand.
Prices and Exchange. Most recent indications are that the decline lias been checked, but prices are still well below those of a year ago. The indexes of wholesale prices in most of the major trading nations of the world have shown a downward movement during the past twelve months. Exceptions to this trend are found in France, where further currency devaluation kept in- ternal prices rising and in Germany, where the decline has been very slight. The United States Bureau of Labor statistics index declined from in August, , to in August, , and the Canadian wholesale index from in August, to in September, The relation of the pound to the dollar for the twelve months ended June, , was comparatively stable, the pound holding strong at S4.
A notable occurrence in the field of exchange during the past year has been the marked fall in the exchange value of the franc. The Canadian dollar has 18 maintained a level close to par in relation to the United States dollar, the fluctuations being within such narrow limits as to have little effect on trade between the two countries. As regards the "free" rate, the Argentine peso wa3 depreciated further early in the year. This was followed by devaluation in November when the official selling rate was changed from 16 pesos to 17 pesos to the pound sterling.
Taking the exchange situation as a whole, the present outlook is decidedly unsettled. Exports of Farm Products and Foreign Demand. The value of exports for the year ended March 31, , however, fell considerably below that of the previous year. The decline continued during the period of April to September, Short crops and depleted wheat stocks were largely responsible for the early decline, but later a decrease in cattle, hog and pork exports occurred.
The export demand for Canadian farm products depends on many factors. Industrial activity, general level of prices, production and stocks of commodi- ties, as well as political conditions in a number of countries all have a bearing on the quantity and price of goods shipped from this country. Perhaps the major economic factor clouding the outlook is the fact that the world wheat crop is the largest on record, with the result that supplies are far in excess of world requirements. Economic conditions in the United Kingdom and the United States are of prime importance in their direct effect upon the export demand for Canadian agricultural products.
Moreover, their influence upon the course of world trade at large is so pervasive and so powerful that, by their indirect as well as their direct effects, they are of basic concern in any attempt to reach a sound appraisal of Canada's position and prospects with respect to export markets generally. Conditions in the United Kingdom. The contraction in demand from the United States for British imports had an adverse effect upon some export industries.
Much of the contraction of imports in was due to lower prices rather than to shrinkage in volume. This was particularly true in the case of foodstuffs.