Studies show that children in politically interested or active families are more likely to develop partisan feelings at an early age.
Furthermore, children then typically express the same party affiliation as their parents, especially if both parents are supporters of the same party Campbell et al. As a child experiences the world seen through a partisan filter, party ID is likely to gain strength with age. However, this does not result in a system of beliefs that is impenetrable and immune to any new and different views.
Adolescent party identifiers may especially experience a clash between personal opinions or attitudes and party affiliation as part of their coming of age process. Most often, such conflicts are resolved over time because of the superior position of party ID compared to short-term preferences. Only very serious cases of conflicting individual perceptions and party line can permanently alter party loyalties. In the U. Campbell's theory has been criticized by scholars for several reasons.
Instead of the Ann Arbor Model, other approaches have been considered. Rational Choice theory is an approach that accepts the notion of the salience of psychological attachment for party identification, but identifies other motivational sources by applying economic to politics Kamieniecki , This theory has also provoked some criticism, mainly concerning the application of the concept of information in a Rational Choice model of party identification.
This rather functionalist view, however, does not account for variables like normative predispositions, beliefs or the attachment to parties as institutions in a democratic system Wattenberg , Weisberg, provides a third approach to party ID. In his approach to party identification, Weisberg and some scholars who work with his model, criticize three fundamental assumptions of the Michigan School psychological model: 1 the assumption that people can identify with only one party rather than investigating their attitudes towards both parties; 2 the assumption that political independence is the exact opposite of party identification; 3 the assumption that opposition to political parties in general is equivalent to independence.
He tries to show this using the example of sports. His argues that it is possible to identify with teams from rivalling cities at the same time, e. Transferred to party identification, this model proposes that. Some might be Independents because they like both parties equally, and still others might be Independents because they positively value political independence. The standard operationalization of the measurement of party identification is the seven-point scale introduced by Campbell et al.
To determine whether a person identifies with a party, the Michigan School uses self-classification.
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