This all goes back to the ABCs that we learn from day one of nursing school. Other side effects, while important, take a back seat to the ABCs. In general, I recommend learning medications, side effects, and considerations following this order of organs:. This keeps you focused on the ABCs. You should also have a deep basic understanding of what each system will do and why meds would be given to that system.
These are the pharmacologic and therapeutic classes respectively. When learning a new medication, it is important to look at and remember the nursing considerations. Some things that might be included in here are: how slow to administer Zofran, how fast to administer Adenosine, pregnancy categories, telling a patient not to eat grapefruit. Again, you are looking for considerations that could be detrimental to the patient, will allow them to self administer, or interfere with intended results. As the nurse, you are the one RIGHT there with the patient administering or teaching the patient how to administer the medication.
A prescription or order does not mean you MUST give the medication. Be a clinician!!!!!!! You are the eyes and ears of the medical team. You must know your considerations and know the current state of the patients condition and make a sound clinical decision. Knowing the considerations and assessing are paramount to this. Repetition is king when it comes to learning new information. Learning nursing pharmacology is no exception. Creating your own drug cards is the best way to learn this stuff. Download the Drug Card Template. Your knowledge of the important information grows and you become a more focused nurse.
Early on in my career as a nursing student I began to notice some patterns. Some meds are given and tested on far more than others. Why is that? The FDA had approved 1, drugs as of , if it were possible to know each of those drugs intimately, you would be the most amazing pharmacist in the world. You should begin making the same lists. When you are on the clinical floor, keep a note of all the medications you are giving. As you begin to notice, week after week, that you keep giving Heparin, Insulin, Protonix and others.
These are the medications and pharmacological classes that you need to know well. Focus your attention on learning those that you must know as deeply as possible. However, as stated above, this will vary by unit, by hospital, and by physician so you should also compile your own list. Download the complete list of the 50 most commonly prescribed medications for free here:. Grab the Free Cheatsheet. You can view that book here:. View Must Know Meds. Okay, now that we are clear on what each letter in our SOCK acronym means, I want to cover the correct order for actually working through this method so that you can become a master of nursing pharm.
This will help to keep you focused as you move through the system. If you take the time at this stage to do this. Become a master of nursing considerations for the drugs you give most often. Use the template offered above and take a focused study session to create a nice pharm binder that includes a drug card for each of you must know medications.
When you are learning side effects it is important to focus on the method outlined above. If you do this you will be a safe nurse who has a deep knowledge of pharm. Treatment consists of minimizing symptoms with medication and complete surgical removal of the tumor. Radiation Colitis — Symptoms and Differential Diagnosis. Radiative colitis is an enteropathy syndrome that may develop after radiation therapy to the abdomen or pelvis. Radiation therapy is a treatment option for cancers in that area. Symptoms start weeks to years after initial radiation dose and include diarrhea, malabsorption, abdominal pain, and nausea.
Therapy involves treating symptoms and allowing the bowels to heal. In severe cases partial colectomy may provide the best chance at recovery. Whipple's disease is a rare infection affecting several tissues throughout the body including the GI tract, central nervous system, and heart by the bacteriaTropheryma whipplei. Symptoms include malabsorption, weight loss, and diarrhea with extra GI symptoms including arthritis and joint pain.
The following article contains all important facts about the Whipple's disease. Peptic ulcer disease may lead to several complications, including an upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Celiac disease, also called gluten-sensitive enteropathy or nontropical sprue, is a type of malabsorption syndrome. Relevant exam topics include the symptoms of gluten sensitivity and the clinical presentation of chronic malabsorption.
Diagnosis is led by the characteristic histological findings and specific autoantibodies. Diarrhea — Differential Diagnoses and Treatment. Diarrheal diseases are a very common reason why patients consult their doctor. Acute diarrhea lasts no longer than 2 weeks and has usually a rather mild course; however, if the diarrhea becomes more severe or is persistent, it can pose a serious health problem. Diarrheal diseases are most commonly due to infections. In the following article, we will present you with all the important information you might need for clinical exams and clinical practice.
Colorectal cancer originates from the colon and rectum in the body. It is a very common type of cancer in the United States. The molecular pathogenesis of colorectal cancer involves complex pathways. There are different types of colonic polyps associated with colorectal cancer; mostly are precancerous in nature.
In this article, different pathological mechanisms, colonic polyps, symptoms, diagnostic tests, treatment and prognosis of colorectal cancer will be discussed in detail. Mucoviscidosis or Cystic Fibrosis is the most common congenital and early lethal metabolic disease in Europe. Only if diagnosed early do those affected stand a chance of living beyond young age. The following article summarizes all the facts on formation, diagnosis, therapy and prognosis of mucoviscidosis. This will prepare you comprehensively for clinical exams, practical trainings and your final exam.
This article treats the mesenteric infarction as a potentially life-threatening disease, which constitutes an emergency in vascular surgery. It includes both, the epidemiology as well as the etiology, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of this ischemic intestinal disorder. The Hepatic Portal System. The usual course of the blood starts from the heart into the arteries, through the capillaries, then into the veins and back to the heart.
In a few cases, however, it does not flow immediately into the venous limp, but instead it flows through a second capillary bed. This is called the portal vessel system. In addition to the liver, it can also be found in the anterior pituitary and in the pancreas. Diverticulosis diverticular disease is an extremely common disease of the colon. The colonic wall is exposed to high luminal pressure which forces the wall outwards to form outpouchings called diverticula.
This is a painless condition, but patients can become very worried as it can cause rectal bleeding. This condition is very prevalent in Western society because of the low fiber diet. Diverticulitis is a much more serious condition and occurs when a diverticula becomes inflamed. The outpouching becomes very painful due to the inflammatory response and can continue to grow in size. If the outpouching is not treated rapidly, it can progress to rupture and lead to peritonitis, sepsis and death. If diagnosed and treated in time, a patient with esophageal carcinoma can be cured.
However, the symptoms are often non-specific and only appear once the tumor is already advanced. Therefore, it is all the more important not to overlook any relevant indications in clinical practice. Questions about esophageal carcinoma occasionally come up in exams, especially on etiology and clinical symptoms. Therefore, it pays to read on to learn more! It is transmitted through exchange of body fluids such as semen and blood. The presentation is marked by deteriorating immune system organized in WHO stages beginning with constitutional symptoms such as lymphadenopathy in early stages to advance into WHO stage IV characterized by AIDS defining illnesses.
Anatomy, Functions, and Diseases of the Pancreas. The pancreas is an organ that actually consists of two glands: one exocrine and one endocrine gland. The glandular epithelium is a specialized epithelial tissue which produces and excretes substances to control our bodily functions. The exocrine gland secretes its fluids via ducts into the intestinal lumen , while the endocrine gland secretes its substances via the extracellular space into the vascular- and the lymphatic-system. The two parts of the pancreas differ both in structure and function. The following article should give you an overview about the histological features of the two glandular parts.
Oral Cavity and Gastrointestinal Tract: Overview. Digestion is the mastication and breakdown of nutrients and their subsequent incorporation into an organism. Thereafter, the bloodstream carries all nutrients to the cells of the body. This article is a compact overview of the anatomy of the oral cavity as well as the specific features of the gastro-intestinal tract and the liver.
Over the past several years, more and more individuals attract malignant gastric cancer. In many cases, however, the initial symptoms of the disease are so non-specific that the tumor is not diagnosed until it is in an advanced stage, resulting in the prognosis being worse. Which risk factors promote the development of gastric cancer, and what are the treatment options once the diagnosis of gastric carcinoma has been made? In the following article, you will find out everything you need to know about gastric cancer.
Increased production of stomach acid or damage of the gastric mucosal barrier may irritate the sensitive gastric mucosa or stomach lining to the degree that gastritis occurs. Gastritis may develop over a longer period of time, but may also occur suddenly and have many causes.
As gastritis is one of the most common stomach diseases, this article will provide you with on overview of the various types of gastritis and also address very rare forms of this disease. In clinical practice, Boerhaave and Mallory-Weiss syndromes rarely appear. However, you should have these two syndromes in mind when dealing with patients in acute pain or bleeding after an episode of violent vomiting in order to make a correct diagnosis at the crucial moment. Questions about this subject are also likely to be asked in tests.
Therefore, medical students should be able to keep these two syndromes apart, particularly their epidemiology and clinical symptoms. Diverticula can be found in various organs, in particular in the colon, but also in the duodenum or ileum, and in the esophagus. Every medical student should internalize the differences between true and pseudo-diverticula. Zenker's diverticulum, in particular, is often quizzed in exams. Achalasia Cardiospasm — Diagnosis and Surgery. Achalasia cardiospasm is a functional disorder caused by narrow position of lower esophageal muscles.
It is marked by reduced or absent peristaltic movement of esophagus and relaxed lower esophageal sphincterat swallowing. This abnormality result in functional obstruction at the junction of esophagus and stomach with symptoms such as dysphagia, regurgitation, heartburn, stomach pain and weight loss.
It is diagnosed by the help of barium swallow, esophageal monitoring and endoscopy. Pharmacological and non-surgical interventions are adopted to treat achalasia. Anatomy of the Torso: Thoracic and Abdominal Muscles. The complexity of the musculoskeletal system is often a big issue for medical students. To learn about muscles effectively, a clear and logical grouping into systems with unique structures is needed.
In this article, in addition to detailed descriptions of the origin, insertion, action and innervation, medical students will obtain an overview in tabular form for visualization of the muscle groups. Attention: Due to conflicting information in primary literature about the muscles' origins and insertions, it is advisable to always consult the latest copies for studying. Bacterial Infections: Gram-Positive Cocci.
Although there are countless types of bacteria, it is of particular importance for a physician to know the most common ones. Knowing them includes the typical clinical picture they cause, as well as the basics about their structure, virulence, morphology and bacterial culture in order to be able to recognize and distinguish them from other bacteria and to treat and target them properly. Anatomy of the Abdominal Wall and Pelvic Floor. Do not fear the pelvic floor—although this topic is popular amongst examiners and seems to be complicated at first glance, there is no need for fear.
Here, you get a compact overview and learn everything you need to know about the pelvic floor, the abdominal wall and the inguinal canal. Digestion is the process of breaking down large food molecules into smaller ones. This involves the digestive system, which breaks down the nutrients obtained from food into a form that body cells can absorb and that can be used to form ATP and body tissue.
Below is a concise overview of the physiology of digestion: from ingestion to the act of swallowing, to the digestive organs that are involved and to the absorption of carbohydrates, fats and proteins.
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The gall bladder Latin: vesica fellea or vesica basilaris is the storage organ for the bile and has a storage capacity of 40 — 50 ml. On its way from the liver to the duodenum, the bile runs through a duct system which is referred to as the bile ducts. The function of the gall bladder and the bile ducts is an elementary prerequisite for the complex process of digestion and can be impaired by typical diseases which a physician should know and understand.
In order to understand the process of digestion, the spleen and the pancreas are also important. Anatomy, Functions, and Diseases of the Esophagus. The gullet Greek 'oesophagus' is a hollow organ, approximately 25 cm long, assigned the task of actively sending our food to the stomach. The following article will provide you with a compact overview of the anatomy as well as the most important diseases of this organ and explains the physiology of the act of swallowing in understandable steps.
Stomach: Anatomy, Functionality and Diseases. The stomach Latin: ventriculus, Greek: gaster is more than just a muscular sac with storage function. It is also an important organ of the digestive system as it produces enzymes and hydrochloric acid which acts as a disinfectant. Many patients consult their doctor because of "stomach pain" who then has to figure out what the cause of their symptoms is. Here, you will find a compact overview of the structure, functions and diseases of the stomach.
Endocrine and Exocrine Functions of the Pancreas. The pancreas is two in one: exocrine and endocrine gland. It is essential for digestion and the carbohydrate metabolism. Thus, a loss in pancreatic function leads to severe clinical symptoms. In this article, you will get a compact overview of the structure, functions, and diseases of the pancreas. The large intestine lat. It is divided into the caecum with vermiform appendix, colon, and rectum.
Thus, it is forming the terminal part of the human digestive tract.
Particularly relevant for the exam are the relation of distinct intestinal sections with regard to the peritoneum, the differences between large and small intestine, and the general understanding of anatomy and physiology. The overview below provides all important basics about the large intestine. The following article comprehensively sums up the most important facts about this central part of the gastrointestinal tract and its three sections — the duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Anatomy, Functions, and Diseases of the Liver. The liver Latin: Iecur, Greek: Hepar is the generalist among all organs — acting universally as center of metabolism, storage unit, detoxifying- and excreting organ.
Medical staff is frequently confronted with diseases such as liver cirrhosis, hepatitis and fatty liver. Read this compact overview on structure, functions and diseases of the liver. Function and Anatomy of the Spleen and Splenomegaly. The spleen from Greek: splen; Latin: lien has the shape of a coffee bean, weighs about grams, and is located in the left posterior upper abdomen epigastric region.
Next to such large topics as heart, liver, or lung, the spleen is sometimes a bit neglected in the curriculum; therefore, many students struggle in exams when it comes to questions about the ligaments or blood circulation of the spleen. This article provides a compact overview of the anatomy, functions, and diseases of the spleen. Gallstones — Causes, Risks and Treatment.
Gallstones are common in the United States, especially among the Hispanic population. They are common among the fatty fertile females in their forties. The gallstones are mostly asymptomatic that do not need treatment except in certain high-risk groups. The symptomatic patients present with right upper quadrant abdominal pain and cholecystectomy is the primary treatment option in these patients. Due to its high prevalence amongst the west industrial countries and its increasing incidence, medical students are expected to come across symptoms associated with this condition all the more often in daily clinical practice.
That is why you should definitely be well-prepared for such an occasion. Pancreatic Enzyme Replacement Therapy. Patients with chronic pancreatic insufficiency develop improper digestion due to the lack of digestive pancreatic enzymes. Such patients might complain of diarrhea and multi-nutrient deficiencies. Children with cystic fibrosis are at an increased risk of developing pancreatic insufficiency, while adults can develop chronic pancreatitis due to gallbladder disease or alcohol consumption.
Regardless of the etiology, these patients might develop exocrine pancreatic deficiency and are at risk of developing malabsorption. Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy is indicated in patients with malabsorption due to exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Gastrointestinal Motility — Clinical Presentation and Treatment. Patients with intestinal motility disorders, whether hypomotility or intestinal dysmotility syndromes, might need a diverse array of medications for symptomatic relief.
These medications fall into one of the following categories: antibiotics, antidiarrheals, opioid antagonists, cholinergic and promotility drugs. Additionally, antiemetics might be needed as these patients can complain of nausea or vomiting. Gastrointestinal Pharmacology: Antiemetics. Antiemetics are used to prevent or stop vomiting; they act on the esophagus, stomach, intestines and even on the central nervous system where the vomiting center is located. Other important pharmacological and therapeutic aspects of individual drugs will also be noted.
Pediatric Allergic Proctocolitis. This article explains the main clinic-patho-physiological aspects of the disease. Pediatric Meconium Ileus — Signs and Symptoms. The nomenclature attests to the tarry, black appearance of meconium which resembles raw opium preparation.
Meconium ileus implies the presence of an intestinal obstruction in-utero or in neonatal period secondary to abnormally thick meconium. This article expatiates on patho-physiological aspects of meconium ileus and expounds on clinical features of the same. The article concludes with treatment, complications and prognosis of meconium ileus. Drugs for Acid Peptic Diseases. Acid peptic diseases are common gastrointestinal disorders, which include gastroesophageal reflux disease, peptic ulcers, non-ulcer dyspepsia and stress-related gastric mucosal injury. Drugs commonly used in the management of these disorders include antacids, H2 blockers, proton pump inhibitors and mucosal protective agents.
In this chapter, pharmacology of these drugs will be discussed, followed by brief description of their roles in the management of common acid peptic diseases. Pediatric Vomiting and Diarrhea. Pediatric gastrointestinal disturbances are common, often simple to manage and yet, unfortunately, life threatening in some instances. Sometimes, seemingly innocuous vomiting can be a harbinger of a serious underlying disease.
This article expounds on various patho-physiological aspects of pediatric vomiting and diarrhea, and expatiates on the rapid aggressive treatment of accompanying dehydration. Pediatric Constipation and Encopresis — Diagnosis and Treatment. Constipation is a very frequent, rather tantalizing presentation in the pediatric population. One needs to be wary of organic causes of constipation and treat the same judiciously. This article expatiates on pediatric constipation and encopresis. Autonomic Nerves of Abdominopelvic Organs. The primitive embryonic foregut, midgut and hindgut form the gastrointestinal tract.
The foregut extends from the mouth to the proximal two thirds of the duodenum. The midgut extends from the distal one thirds of the duodenum to the proximal two thirds of the transverse colon, while the hindgut extends from the distal one third of the transverse colon to the anus. The autonomic nervous system with its sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers and their opposing actions control all these organs.
Wilson disease is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder related with copper metabolism. This rare condition is characterized by excessive deposition of copper in target organs like liver, brain, and other tissues. Pyloric stenosis, also known as infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis IHPS , is a condition that is characterized by pyloric muscle hypertrophy and hyperplasia, which leads to gastric outlet obstruction.
Infants usually present in their third week of life with repeated, projectile vomiting, that is often associated by an abdominal olive-like palpable mass. The clinical picture is usually enough to make the diagnosis, but ultrasonography can help confirm the diagnosis of pyloric stenosis in most of the patients.
Surgical correction with pyloromyotomy is the treatment of choice.
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Pediatric Hirschsprung Disease occurs when there is an absence of the ganglionic layer in the myenteric layer of the anus and the submucosa of the colon. This leads to the failure of relaxation of the colon, delayed passage of meconium, abdominal distension and constipation. Laboratory investigations are helpful if the patient develops enterocolitis where leukocytosis might be evident.
Barium enema studies and histologic examination of biopsies confirm the diagnosis of Hirschsprung disease, and surgical resection of the aganglionic part of the colon is the current treatment of choice. Pediatric Appendicitis — Symptoms and Surgery. This article will describe the incidence of appendicitis the younger children, and how can be diagnosed and managed.
Intussusception — Symptoms and Differential Diagnosis. Intussusception occurs when a distal segment of bowel telescopes into the lumen of proximal bowel. This can happen at any age, but is most common in infants between three and eighteen months. It is the most common cause of bowel obstruction in three months of age to six year old children. This article gives you brief information about the epidemiology, etiology, pathology, signs and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of pediatric intussusception.
Pediatric colic is a very common symptom that occurs in infants during the first few months of life, and tends to disappear by the fourth month. Its causes are poorly understood and there are various theories explaining it as a reaction to food allergies, parental stress, gastrointestinal immaturity, maternal smoking and other factors. This article gives an overview of the condition with its epidemiology, etiology, symptom, diagnosis and differential diagnosis, and treatment. Acute abdominal pain is common in the pediatric population. Abdominal pain is usually associated with fever, vomiting of bile, bloody diarrhea, rigidity and tenderness in the abdomen.
The etiology and differential diagnosis depends on the age of the child. For instance, Infants and toddlers will have congenital anomalies, school aged children may have gastroenteritis and other infectious causes. Appendicitis is the most common cause behind onset of acute abdominal pain in children. Anatomy of the Posterior Abdominal Wall. The abdominal cavity is bounded by the abdominal wall which is divided into an anterior wall, lateral wall and the posterior wall.
The posterior abdominal wall is a musculoskeletal structure formed by the posterior abdominal muscles, their fascia, the lumbar vertebrae and the pelvic girdle. It is related to the lower thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, the abdominal aorta, the inferior vena cava as well as important retroperitoneal organs like the kidneys, the suprarenal glands, the pancreas and the duodenum. Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a common cause of chronic liver disease in patients with ulcerative colitis.
It is an autoimmune disorder and patients usually present with jaundice, fever, abdominal pain and elevated alkaline phosphatase. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is the best diagnostic tool to confirm the diagnosis of primary sclerosing cholangitis. Multiple strictures and dilations of the biliary system is usually observed. Symptomatic treatment, immunosuppression and ursodeoxycholic acid are used in early stage PSC. In later stages, liver transplantation might be the only option available to alter prognosis and survival. Duodenal Atresia — Symptoms and Treatment.
Duodenal atresia is one of the most common inborn defects of the digestive system, namely of the intestine, that is often associated with other congenital malformations and genetic pathologies 21 trisomy. The frequency of occurrence of this disorder is affected by the hypoxia of the fetus in the first trimester of pregnancy and is caused by severe chronic respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, stress, diabetes, drug and alcohol abuse during pregnancy.
Nowadays, duodenal atresia is one of the most common congenital defects in the neonates. Moreover, it is well-diagnosed and curable in most of the cases, if timely detected and not neglected. Alcoholic liver disease occurs as a result of excessive alcohol consumption. The amount, pattern and duration of alcohol consumption along with inflammatory changes in liver, diet, nutritional status and genetic predisposition of the patient predicts the severity and prognosis of the disease. Blood test, liver function test and liver biopsy are helpful to establish the diagnosis. Liver transplantation is preserved for patients with severe liver cirrhosis.
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, one form of the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease spectrum, has been associated with obesity and lipid dysregulation. The patient usually presents with abnormal lipid and liver profiles. The most evidence based treatment for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis involves around weight loss, glycemic control and avoiding liver insulting drugs. Our current understanding of the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis is still limited but novel and more specific treatments are being developed.
The gastrointestinal tract GIT is a long tubular structure having an important role in digestion, absorption, and elimination of food and waste. In patients with end-stage liver disease ESLD , the definitive treatment is a liver transplant. In the United States, the most common indication for liver transplantation is hepatitis C followed by alcoholic liver disease.
Immunosuppression is indicated post-implantation and the most common complications are rejection and infection. Ischemic Colitis — Physical Examination and Diagnosis. Ischemic colitis ischemic disease of the colon was first described in It occurs when there is an occlusion of branches of the superior mesenteric SMA or inferior mesenteric arteries; the vast majority of cases describe the lesion in the splenic flexure and left colon.
This severe illness is very common among the elderly with pronounced cardiovascular disorders. An acute stabbing abdominal pain and rectal bleeding with diarrhea in most of the cases follow the onset. Ischemic disease of the colon requires immediate actions; the sooner the treatment is administered, the more benign the outcome is.
Schatzki Ring — Signs and Symptoms. Esophageal rings are the most common esophageal abnormality and Schatzki rings represent the majority of them. Schatzki rings occur in the lower end of the esophagus and can be classified into types A and B rings. Type A ring is a muscular ring while type B is mucosal constriction. Schatzki rings respond very well to dilation therapy. Difficile Enteritis — Symptoms and Treatment. Hospitalized patient receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics are at risk of developing Clostridium difficile infection CDI.
Antibiotics change the normal colonic bacterial flora and C. Even though clindamycin has been traditionally linked to the development of C. Pancreatic Pseudocysts — Diagnosis and Treatment. Pancreatic pseudocysts are a complication of acute pancreatitis, and they are more common when the etiology is alcohol-related. These pseudocysts do not have an epithelial wall, and their fluid content is rich in amylase, lipase and trypsin. Abdominal CT scan is the diagnostic modality of choice to confirm the diagnosis of pancreatic pseudocysts and exclude complications.
MRI or ERCP can be used to assess communication between the pseudocyst and the pancreatic duct, and if present, transpapillary drainage of the pseudocyst can be attempted.
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AIDS cholangiopathy is an advanced fatal disease caused due to biliary obstruction resulted from opportunistic infections of biliary tract strictures. Its symptoms are right upper quadrant and epigastric pain, fever, diarrhea and sometimes jaundice. The severity of pain depends on the lesion of biliary tract. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography establishes the diagnosis of cholangiographic abnormalities.
Antimicrobial therapy is sometimes ineffective and highly active antiretroviral therapy is the best therapy for AIDS cholangiopathy. Surgical intervention is recommended to patients with terminal disease and intractable pain in abdomen. Approximately, 5. End-stage liver disease affects mainly the middle-aged population and is considered as the seventh commonest cause of death in the United States. The majority of these patients die due to the limited availability of donor livers. Several complications are encountered in end-stage liver disease and include ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, malnutrition and renal failure.
Hepatocellular carcinoma is another possible complication in chronic liver cirrhosis. Anatomy of the Peritoneum. The peritoneum is a transparent serous membrane lining the interior of the abdominal cavity. It is extensive and encloses almost all the intra-abdominal organs. It is a neuropsychiatric syndrome characterized by disturbances in consciousness, behavior, personality, fluctuating neurologic signs and distinct EEG changes.
Gastroparesis — Causes, Diagnosis and Diet. Gastroparesis is defined as a chronic motility disorder where there is a delayed emptying of the stomach without an apparent mechanical obstruction. Usually, both solids and liquids are affected. Gastroparesis is usually of undetermined causes, but can also be linked to previous abdominal surgeries or diabetes mellitus. Symptoms include nausea, vomiting and early satiety. Once diagnosed, the patient is instructed to follow a diet that has more liquid, promotility agents could be prescribed and antiemetics are used for symptomatic relief.
Esophageal Stricture — Symptoms and Treatment. Meckel's Diverticulum — Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatments. Meckel's diverticulum is named in honor of Johann Friedrich Meckel, who, in , described the intrauterine origin of the condition, which is one of the most common inborn defects of the baby's small intestine stipulated by the partial obliteration of the vitelline duct omphalomesenteric duct. Dumping Syndrome — Causes and Treatment. Symptoms of this condition can be separated into vasomotor symptoms such as palpitations, flushing or diaphoresis and abdominal symptoms such as diarrhea, nausea or cramps.
The symptoms often resolve within several months. Medication is often helpful and surgical intervention is rarely necessary. These usually manifest during the middle years and are, most of the time, chronic. Approximately 3. Acute or fulminant liver failure is basically the end point of severe liver damage brought about by many different causes. It is characterized by a rapidly developing dysfunction in the hepatocytes.
Affected persons may or may not have known past experiences of liver disease. The manifestations of fulminant liver failure can manifest systemically and are caused by changes in the integrity of hemostasis and mental status. Being a fatal condition, a rapid and accurate diagnosis of acute liver failure when a case is present should be done.
This can be done clinically by using key observations in the history and physical examination. The timely use of other supplemental tools to reinforce the diagnosis should also be instigated. Hepatorenal Syndrome — Classification and Treatment. Aside from the many metabolic and synthetic functions of the liver, it also plays a crucial part in the maintenance of other organ systems. This is why any alterations in its functions, such as in liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension can result in detrimental effects on the major organs and tissues remote from the liver such as the lungs, heart, and kidneys.
Although liver diseases can affect different extrahepatic organ systems, there is somewhat a similar pattern when it comes to the development of the pathophysiology. One of the many extrahepatic syndromes that can manifest in patients having liver problems such as cirrhosis and portal hypertension is the hepatorenal syndrome. Liver Diseases of Pregnancy. There are so many changes in the anatomy and physiology of the female human body during pregnancy. Aside from the profound reproductive system changes, there are also many reversible modifications in the other internal organ systems, all of which happen in order to accommodate the changing needs of the childbearing woman all throughout the 3 trimesters of pregnancy.
One of the organs that change during pregnancy is the liver. Space-Occupying Lesions in the Liver. Another reason to fully understand the characteristics of the different space-occupying lesions in the liver is the fact that the treatment varies depending on the type of lesion found in the liver. Here, we briefly discuss the epidemiology and features of the different space-occupying lesions in the liver.
Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis — Symptoms and Treatment. The most prominent complications of having liver diseases such as cirrhosis include ascites. Aside from liver diseases, it can also be caused by a wide range of reasons necessitating different means of definitive management.
Therefore, the identification of the nature and development of the fluid collection in the peritoneal space of a specific patient is very important. Once the population of bacteria in the intestinal lumen reaches certain numbers, they tend to translocate to the mesenteric lymph nodes, leading to the eventual invasion and colonization of the bacteria in the ascitic fluid. The development of varices in the esophagus and the gastrointestinal tract is only one of the 3 complications caused by increased pressure within the portal system, the others being ascites and hepatic encephalopathy.
All of these conditions are essentially brought about by diseases that impair the flow of blood through the liver such as in liver cirrhosis. The presence of collateral blood vessels in the portosystemic circulation allows for a normal blood flow into and out of the liver. However, these collateral do not hold blood well in times of increased portal pressure, making them vulnerable to massive dilatation and rupture.
Alcoholic hepatitis is a progressive disease characterized by inflammation and damage of liver caused by long term excessive intake of ethanol. Non-Alcoholic fatty liver disease is the also progressive disease of liver characterized by accumulation of fat in liver without the abuse of alcohol.
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Both the disease show similar pathological changes resulting in fibrosis or scarring of liver. The extensive fibrosis of liver due to continued abuse of alcohol is called alcoholic cirrhosis. These diseases remain asymptomatic at early stages and common symptoms are slight discomfort at right side of upper abdomen with fatigue and unexplained weight loss. Lifestyle modification and alcohol abstinence is essential for management along with required therapeutic and surgical interventions. Mostly they are unfamiliar with the consequences of the usage, which then may lead to severe and painful irritable bowel conditions.
Cramping, bloating, constipation, abdominal pain, gas, and diarrhea are some of the common problems that are to be tackled for the patients of IBS. One must have an eye on the signs and symptoms of IBS to reach to its severe conditions. Have a detailed description of IBS here. Liver Cancer: Types of Hepatobiliary Tumors. Liver tumors are some of the more common neoplasms and are classified as either primary or secondary. Management varies depending on several factors such as type, size, and the spread of the cancer. Continue to read this article to learn key facts about the tumors of the liver including incidence, pathology, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment.
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is one of the rare conditions that affect the duodenum or the pancreas. Tumors gastrinomas form in the duodenum or the pancreas, which secrete huge amounts of gastrin leading to excess acid production in the stomach. This excess acid results in the formation of related symptoms as well as peptic ulcers. Can you master the differences between the axial and paraesophageal hiatal hernia? How do the patients present clinically? And when is surgery indicated? This and all other relevant test content about this topic can be found in this article.
As an elastic and muscular hollow organ, the esophagus supports food intake. Disorders particularly affect the passage of food and the functioning of the sphincters. Cardinal symptoms of esophageal diseases are dysphagia, regurgitation, pyrosis, retrosternal pain, and coughing. They form a functional unit and are part of the digestive system, which controls defecation.
If this function is disturbed, fecal incontinence occurs. Hemorrhoids and anal fistulas are also diseases of the straight intestine that a physician will often be faced with in practice. Read a compact outline about the structure, function and diseases of the final part of the digestive tract here. Anatomy, Function, and Diseases of the Oral Cavity.
The oral cavity Latin: Cavitas oris is the beginning of the human digestive tract. The articulation of sounds and food comminution with the teeth are two of the main functions of the oral cavity and the saliva of the mouth starts the process of breaking up food components. Pathological changes in the oral cavity, like redness in the area of the pharynx or bad breath, can be indications for certain clinical pictures. In this article, you will get a compact overview of all there is to know about the oral cavity.
Viral Hepatitis — Epidemiology and Symptoms. Viral hepatitis can be caused by different kinds of viruses which include hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E. These viruses cause targeted inflammation of the liver. In the acute stage, patients develop non-specific symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, anorexia and abdominal pain. Later on, jaundice becomes evident. During this stage, supportive therapy is important. Antiviral therapy is indicated in the acute and chronic stages of hepatitis B and C.
Appendicitis — Definition and Surgery. Appendicitis is a common and serious gastrointestinal disease that affects many people every year. It can be very acute and painful and, if it is not treated quickly, it can be fatal.
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We will explore the mechanics behind appendicitis; the causes, treatments and complications that can arise. Appendicitis is commonly examined as it is fairly prevalent, acute and can be very serious. Autoimmune Hepatitis — Causes and Diagnosis. Autoimmune hepatitis is a progressive necroinflammatory process leading to chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis. It is characterized by the presence of circulating autoantibodies and high serum globulin concentrations. The pathogenesis of autoimmune hepatitis is unclear; however, a proposed mechanism suggests overactive T cells in genetically susceptible patients.
Autoimmune hepatitis is characterized histologically by certain non-specific findings, making the measurement of autoantibodies and gamma globulins essential for diagnosis. It is also essential to differentiate autoimmune hepatitis from other forms of hepatitis. Hemorrhoids Piles — Symptoms and Treatment. Hemorrhoids cushions are normal structures of the lower rectum. They are very vascular and pathology develops when that vasculature becomes engorged especially the veins. Itching and pain are common symptoms of hemorrhoid pathology.
Hemorrhoids are classified on their origin relative to the dentate line: external below the dentate line , internal above the dentate line , and prolapsed internal hemorrhoids. Most hemorrhoids are treated with dietary modification increase fiber and stool softeners, but occasionally surgery is required. Our musculoskeletal system is a complex machinery of bones, joints, muscles, and their auxiliaries, which serve as the body's supporting structure and give the body the ability to move. Our skeletal muscles provide the moving strength and may be low or high in their muscle tone. In the following article, you will receive a concise overview of 10 important muscles of our musculoskeletal system.
Load more. Gastrointestinal Anatomy 25 articles 25 free. Gastrointestinal Anatomy quiz questions 60 free. Gastrointestinal Physiology 6 articles 6 free. Gastrointestinal Physiology 71 quiz questions 11 free. Gastrointestinal Pharmacology 6 articles 6 free. Gastrointestinal Pharmacology 23 quiz questions 10 free. Gastrointestinal Pathology 84 articles 84 free. Gastrointestinal Pathology quiz questions 93 free. Geoffrey Meyer, PhD Prof. Craig Canby, PhD Dr. James Pickering, PhD Dr. He has worked extensively developing and improving medical curriculums, as well as serving in leadership roles as a Medical Physiology course director and Organ System team leader.
He currently helps students prepare for medical board exams, in addition to his teaching and scientific pursuits. Pravin Shukle, MD Dr. By Nicholas W. Great complementary tool to school lectures. By bertha s. May for Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis. By Yasho S. May for Inguinal Canal — Inguinal Region. By Leo R. By Harsh Y. It made GI physiology very easy to understand. By Andreas F.
April for Cirrhosis — Liver Diseases. Hay un peritoneo parietal y peritoneo visceral. Y tambien se dividen en un saco mayor y un saco menor. By Eunice M.
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February for Abdominal Cavity — Peritoneum. By Eleftherios B. February for Autoimmune Diseases. By Ana G. February for Inguinal Hernias — Inguinal Region. By Hatem Q. January for Gastrointestinal Pharmacology. By Mathew C. By Meera A. January for Inguinal Canal — Inguinal Region. By Sree D.