Using liberal amounts of humor and drawing, at times, on the literary style of the Icelandic sagas, Nansen produces an intense and suspenseful work which places his accomplishments, and those of his crew, in a historical and national context. Facing extremely difficult and life threatening situations while on the ever changing sea ice—including numerous encounters with polar bears and walruses and the killing of sled dogs in order to survive—Nansen and Johansen make their way to land and establish a winter camp in the Franz Josef Land archipelago.
Fifteen months after leaving the Fram, they meet up with the English explorer Frederick Jackson. Nansen and Johansen make a triumphant return to Norway in , around the same time that the Fram returns safely with the rest of the expedition members. He also outlines the work that remains to be done.
Fridtjof Nansen, First High Commissioner for Refugees
Demonstrations of the virtue and value of patience and perseverance in planning and preparing for and carrying out polar expeditions run like a litany throughout this narrative. Which exploration narratives have you heard of or read? Examine the overriding structure of Farthest North, paying close attention to the beginning and the end. In what ways is it cyclical? Is there a marked difference between part one and part two? If so, try to account for this difference. Which themes are repeated time and again in the work? What function do the flashbacks have? What type of picture does Nansen paint of himself?
Details if other :. Thanks for telling us about the problem. Return to Book Page. Fridtjof Nansen 10 October — 13 May was a renowned Norwegian explorer, scientist, diplomat and novelist, who won the Nobel Peace Prize in Nansen and Lieut. Get A Copy. Kindle Edition , pages. More Details Friend Reviews. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. To ask other readers questions about The Works of Fridtjof Nansen , please sign up.
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Be the first to ask a question about The Works of Fridtjof Nansen. Lists with This Book. This book is not yet featured on Listopia. In , he was part of the Norwegian delegation to the Paris Peace Conference and argued for the recognition of the rights of small states and minorities. He became one of the first delegate of the League of Nations, the forerunner of the United Nations, after its creation on January 10 th They have not only been through the usual deprivations and anxieties, but have suffered in every way imaginable, from the cold, starvation, disease, lack of care and overexertion.
The armistice signed on November 11 th put an end to the global conflict that had been decimating troops and civilian populations for the last four years. Europe was devastated, century old borders and political regimes had collapsed, and the political climate remained highly unstable.
The repatriation of former prisoners of war was one of the numerous talking points of the diplomatic negotiations between the former belligerents. The International Committee of the Red Cross had worked to assist prisoners of war during the conflict. As it came to an end, the humanitarian organization sought to help those whose repatriation had not been arranged via international agreements.
In early , the ICRC was particularly worried by the fate of the hundreds of thousands of former prisoners still detained in Siberia. If they were theoretically free, these men remained physically unable to return to their homeland as they were deprived of all material resources and had no means of transport. Montandon and Mr.
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Jacot-Guillarmot, underlined the urgency of their situation. Well acquainted with the Siberian region and its hostile weather conditions, he was also the citizen of a neutral state. As a man known for his strong sense of ethics and integrity, he had a reputation on the international scene few could claim. His past exploits as an explorer had made him a truly sympathetic figure everywhere in Europe, Russia included. It is thus no surprise that the Bolshevik authorities accepted to discuss the repatriation of prisoners with him personally.
He negotiated the logistics of the repatriation with governments and collected the funds, boats and provisions necessary. In less than two years, their joint action allowed close to , former prisoners of war to return to their homeland, saving them from a certain death. This first humanitarian success had important repercussions for the League of Nations and contributed to place humanitarian aid at the heart of its mandate.
On June 25 th , Nansen presented the League of Nations with a report of his action for the repatriation of prisoners of war. On June 27 th , a mere two days later, the Council of the League of Nations decided to appoint a High Commissioner for Refugees and offered him the position. Since they were not recognized as refugees and often did not own valid identity documents, they faced insurmountable obstacles when trying to settle down in a host country, secure employment and exercise their individual rights.
Hundreds of thousands of men, women and children suddenly became stateless. On February 16th and 17th , the ICRC organized an informal conference to discuss how this humanitarian crisis could be addressed. They agreed that no state or humanitarian organization would be able to face this issue on its own and that an international mobilization was imperative. On February 21st, acting on the conclusions of the conference, the ICRC sent a memorandum to the Council of the League of Nations and shared the alarming observations of humanitarian actors on the fate of Russian refugees.
He set up what would become the basic structure of the HCR: a main office in Geneva with local representatives in the different host countries. Present in the cities of Central Europe where thousands had taken refuge — Athens, Belgrade, Budapest, Constantinople — the ICRC delegates worked to provide them with food and necessities and to organise their transport.
Officially created on July 5 th at a Conference of the League of Nations in Geneva, the Nansen passport was soon adopted by over fifty states. For the exiled Russian citizen, the Nansen passport was a most prized possession, the first step toward a return to security and independence.
In June , Nansen concluded two diplomatic agreements to consolidate the measures of legal protection for refugees he had successfully negotiated and extend them to new groups of displaced persons, including Armenian, Turkish and Assyrian refugees. Non-legally binding, they nonetheless implied a general recognition by the international community of the individual rights of refugees and reaffirmed the principle of their international protection.
For those reasons, they were key sources of inspiration of the founding text of international refugee law, the Convention relating to the status of refugees signed July 28 th