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How to Make a Monster Am. Tends to arouse disrespect for the law. Human Monster, The Monogram B Objection: Excessive brutality and gruesomeness; explicitness in depicting methods of committing crime. Human Wreckage Cinema Service Corp. IFE Objection: This picture, in the story it tells, condones immoral actions and in treatment seriously offends Christian and tra- ditional standards of morality and decency by reason of sug- gestive costuming and situations.

Furthermore, it contains grossly suggestive sequences which seriously offend Christian and traditional standards of decency. I Was a Teenage Werewolf Am. B Objection: Tends to give credence to certain philosophical theories whose acceptance can lead to serious moral harm. B Objection: Illicit romance sympathetically presented; suicide in plot solution. B Objection: Suicide in plot solution.

B Objection: Suicide sympathetically portrayed. C Objection: This picture, in the story it tells, condones immoral actions and by reason of gross suggestiveness offends Christian and traditional standards of morality and decency. I'm from Arkansas Producers Releasing Corp. C Objection: This picture in the story it tells is immoral in treat- ment. It presents indecent and suggestive situations. Also the dialogue is suggestive and immoral actions are condoned. India Speaks now titled Bride of Buddha J.

Observation: The classification of this film is applicable only to prints shown in Continental U. Inn of the Sixth Happiness Fox A-I Title and Distributor Rating Year of Review Inside Detroit Col. Invasion of the Saucer Men Am. Invasion U. Columbia B Objection: Suggestive sequence. C Objection: This picture in the story it tells seriously offends the Christian and traditional concept of the sacrament of matri- mony. Moreover, it is offensive to religion and the name of the Deity.

Suggestive sequence. It's Great to Be Youig Columbia ;. B Objection: A low moral tone which pervades this film is further accentuated by grossly suggestive dancing and costuming. Reflects the acceptability of divorce. Only a biographical back- ground upon which the story elements are based averts a more serious classification. Republic A-I Jesse James vs. B Objection: Excessive brutality; over-emphasis on gangsterism. B Objection: Suggestive costuming and song; light treatment of marriage. B Objection: Suggestive sequence; insufficient moral compensa- tion.

Jungle, The Lippert Prod. This classification is ap- plicable only to prints shown in continental USA. Jungle Stampede Republic C Objection: Although this film purports to be documentary and educational in nature, nevertheless, the treatment of the subject matter native customs and habits is considered to constitute a serious moral danger to general motion picture audiences. Jungle Woman Universal B Objection: The subject material and treatment in this fantasy indicate some acceptance of the possibility of changing through science an ape into a human being. Moreover, it contains suggestive situations and blasphemous dialogue.

B Objection: Excessive brutality; suggestive costuming and situations. C Objection: This picture contains material morally unacceptable for entertainment motion picture theaters, and in its treatment constitutes a serious danger to Christian and traditional stand- ards of morality and decency. Karl Fredrik Reigns Swedish S.

Keeper of the Flame MGM B Objection: The film tends to leave the impression that the lead- ing feminine character, who sought to protect her country and her husband's reputation, and who could have had recourse to lawful authority, acted ethically in omitting purposely to inform him of known mortal danger, and thus contributing to his death. Khyber Patrol United Artists A-I Kid Comes Back, The Warners A-I Kid Dynamite Monogram A-I Year of Review Tide and Distributor Rating Kid for Two Farthings Br. King and I, The Fox A-I Year of Review Title and Distributor Rating Year of Review King and the Chorus Girl, The Warners A-II King Creole Para.

Excessive bru- tality. B Objection: Suggestive dance and situations. Moreover, it contains excessive brutality and sug- gestiveness in costuming, dialogue and situations. C Objection: Series of suggestive and immoral situations consti- tute principal plot material. Kiss Tomorrow Goodbye Warners B Objection: Tends to glorify a criminal; excessive brutality; suggestive sequences.

Kitty Foyle RKO B Objection: While recording the appreciation of the changes which have been made in adapting the story material to the screen, the Legion finds the film objectionable in part because of divorce and the remarriage after the divorce. There is also a suggestive situation.

Kivinnas Ansikte, En Swedish A. B Objection: A suggestive scene. Notation: This is a documentary film about the Moi tribe of Indo-China. Foreign-Cinema Arts, Inc. Objection: Suggestive costuming, situations and dialogue. Revi- sions made in this picture are deemed sufficient to warrant a change in classification. This classification is applicable only to prints shown in continental U. La Strada Ital. Trans-Lux B Objection: Tends to arouse undue sympathy for immoral characters.

B Objection: Suggestive sequences and dialogue; inadequate moral compensation. Kingsley C Objection: This film, both in its development and solution of the plot, condones adultery. As such it constitutes an un- conscionable attack upon a fundamental tenet of Judaeo-Chris- tian morality. This is all the more reprehensible when such an attack comes through a mass medium of entertainment which in our American society is devoid of reasonable safeguards for the young and the impressionable.

Ladykillers, The Br. UA B Objection: Suggestive sequences. Arthur Rank-U. Crown B Objection: Suggestive costuming. A-I Larceny, Inc. C Objection: Suggestive scenes and dialogue; sensual atmosphere throughout; murder and suicide in the plot solution.

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The reason for the objection now is as follows: Suggestive dancing and costuming. Substantial revisions made in this picture war- rant this change of classification. This classification, however, is only applicable to prints shown in Continental U. Last Stagecoach West Rep. B Objection: Indecent language and suggestiveness. Latin Lovers MGM A-II Title and Distributor Rating Year of Review Latuko Irving Lesser C Objection: Although this picture might be judged to have cer- tain scientific value, nevertheless, it contains morally unsuitable material for entertainment motion picture theaters and for this reason constitutes a serious danger to Christian and traditional standards of morality and decency.

The Monogram A-I Law vs. Le Plaisir French Mayer-Kingsley C Objection: This film which consists of a group of episodes, pre- sents in both theme and treatment a sympathetic portrayal of immoral actions. Moreover, it contains material morally un- suitable for entertainment motion picture theatres and is offen- sive to religion. Leonardo da Vinci Pictura Films A-I Year ot Review Title and Distributor Rating Year of Review Leonardo Da Vinci's "The Last Supper" Eternal Films A-I Observation: The classification of this film has been changed from A-II to A-I.

This classifica- tion is applicable only to prints shown in Continental U. Tohan C Objection: This film, a trilogy, contains in the first two epi- sodes a frivolous, disrespectful and grossly comical presentation of religion and religious characters. Its exhibition in entertain- ment motion picture theaters is seriously objectionable and con- ducive to a misunderstanding of religious practices.

DCA C Objection: This film seriously offends Christian and traditional standards of decency by reason of gross suggestiveness in costuming. B Objection: Low moral tone, tends to condone illicit actions. B Objection: Presents as justifiable essentially immoral actions.

E Objection: Tends to condone illicit actions. Lighthouse Producers Releasing Corp. B Objection: Reflects the acceptability of divorce. Line Up Col. This classification is predicated on a revised version of the film. The Producers Releasing Corp. Objection: Suggestive costuming. DCA Objection: Light treatment of marriage; suggestive dialogue, situations and costuming. Objection: Suggestive dance.

A-I Lost Continent Ital. B Objection: Low moral tone; suggestive costuming and situations. Kingsley Intl. C Objection: An unrelieved emphasis on sensuality of a highly gross nature makes this film a serious threat to public and private morality. The suggestiveness in costuming, dialogue and situa- tions is an open flouting at Judaeo-Christian standards of com- mon decency. Lovers and Lollipops Trans-Lux A-II Year of Review Title and Distributor Rating Year of Review Lovers' Net Fr.

Times B Objection: Suggestive situations and costuming. C Objection: The story told in this film condones and glorifies illicit actions. Moreover, this picture in treatment is seriously contrary to traditional standards of morality and decency. It contains sequences offensive to religion. It is disrespectful toward religion and contains suggestive sequences. Loving You Para. B Objection: Suggestive actions and dialogue; light treatment of marriage. Glorification of the criminal. B Objection: Suggestive situations and costuming.

B Objection: Method of crime too minutely detailed; excessive brutality; low moral tone. All the evils in the world, however, are not material evils. There are moral evils. Religion has its God-given role in combatting evil in the world. B Objection: This picture, although positive in approach and spiritual in theme, nevertheless, contains suggestive costuming and morally objectionable situations. C Objection: This picture, in the story it tells, seriously offends in both theme and treatment Christian and traditional standards of morality and decency. Moreover, it dwells constantly on a farcical presentation of the virtue of purity.

Mademoiselle Ma Mere French J. Hoffberg, Inc. B Objection: Light treatment of marriage and suggestive dialogue. B Mademoiselle Striptease Please! Balzac Fr. DCA C Objection: The completely immoral atmosphere in which the theme of this film is developed, plus gross suggestiveness in costuming, dialogue, dancing and situations, constitute a serious threat to moral standards and proper behavior patterns.

B Objection: Suggestive situations; tends to condone immoral actions. Magic Bow, The J. Magic Fire Rep. A-II Observation: The marital status of the principal male character must be judged in the light of the quasi-documentary nature of this film. Continental C Objection: The subject matter of this picture both in theme and treatment seriously offends Christian and traditional standards of morality and decency by reason of a sympathetic presentation of immoral actions and grossly suggestive dialogue and situations.

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Shaw attitudes of irreverence and cynicism toward religious matters and marriage, together with ideological confusions and subtleties render this film capable of conveying false and dangerous connotations. Observation: This classification is applicable only to the English language version of this film. Mam'zelle Pigalle Naughty Girl Fr. Man Inside Col. A-II Man of Evil British United Artists B Objection: Suggestive sequences; inadequate moral compensa- tion; dueling is accepted as a proper and justifiable medium for solving personal disputes.

Man on a Tightrope 20th Century-Fox A-II Man on Fire MGM B Objection: Although this picture presents some strong indictment against divorce, nevertheless, the solution of the plot tends to negate a positive thesis by reason of a sympathetic treatment and justification of remarriage. It treats in terms of morbid sensationalism with narcotic addiction and in so doing fails to avoid the harmful implica- tions relative to this moral and sociological problem.

It also contains suggestive costuming, dialogue and situations. B Objection: Tends to condone immoral actions; suggestive cos- tuming. Manhattan Angel Columbia A-II Title and Distributor Rating Manhattan Butterfly Imperial Distributing Corp. C Objection: This picture condones immoral actions. It seriously offends Christian and traditional standards of morality and decency; contains material morally unfit for entertainment mo- tion picture audiences.

B Objection: Suicide is presented as justifiable. Maracaibo Para. Marcelino Sp. Crown Pics. C Objection: This picture in the story it tells condones illicit actions. Moreover, in treatment it seriously offends Christian and traditional standards of morality and decency. A-III Mark of the Gorilla Columbia A-I Mark of the Hawk U-I A-I Year of Review Title and Distributor Rating Mark of the Lash 'Screen Guild Prod. Observation: This picture offers a sympathetic and approving representation of the life and times of Martin Luther, the 16th Century figure of religious controversy.

It contains theological and historical references and interpretations which are unaccept- able to Catholics. B Objection: The free will of others is usurped for the accomplish- ment of evil. A-II Masked Raiders RKO A-I Masked Rider, The Universal A-I Year oi Review Title and Distributor Rating Year of Review Masquerade in Mexico Paramount B Objection: Plot solution by divorce.

Meet Me in St. C Objection: The treatment of the immoral theme of this picture in which an offensive analogy is employed, creates a constantly suggestive atmosphere. Moreover, this film tends to condone immoral actions. Film-Lloyd C Objection: Travesties conjugal fidelity; suggestive scenes; objec- tionable presentation of cleric. DCA C Objection: The virtue of purity throughout this film is ridiculed by reason of an unmitigated emphasis on illicit love, suggestive costuming, dialogue and situations. Light treatment of marriage.

B Objection: Suggestive sequence; tends to misrepresent Christian principles of social justice. Miracle of St. A-I Miranda J. Mirror Has Two Faces Fr. B Objection: Reflects acceptability of divorce. Notation: This film has been advertised in an objectionable manner and has been exhibited with a Condemned picture. The Legion, acting within the scope of its mandate of decency, gave the film the mature audience rating. Concurrent with this rating the following separate nota- tion was released: "This film represents the personal observa- tions and opinions of ex-Ambassador Joseph E.

Davies as ex- pressed in his book, Mission to Moscow, upon which the film is based. Mister Rock and Roll Para. B Objection: Suggestive costuming, dancing and songs. Zenith Intl. C Objection: This film in the story that it tells seriously offends Christian and traditional standards of morality and decency by reason of gross suggestiveness in situations, costuming and dialogue.

A-I Moby Dick War. A-I Title and Distributor Rating Year of Review Model and the Marriage Broker, The 20th Century-Fox B Objection: Although this film in the story it tells indicts some evils consequent on divorce, nevertheless, it presents the mar- riage bond as dissoluble; it is opposed to traditional Christian teaching. Mutual Prod. B Objection: Tends to condone immoral actions; reflects the acceptability of divorce; suggestive sequences. Moreover, the treatment of the subject as presented in the film is most objectionable for entertainment motion picture audiences.

It ignores completely essential and supernatural values associated with questions of this nature. Monkey on My Back UA B Objection: This picture contains a sequence which is judged to be morally unacceptable for general entertainment motion pic- ture purposes. This rating applies only to prints shown in the United States.

A suggestive sequence. The divorce from the main character is so presented as to appear justified. Moon Is Blue, The United Artists C Objection: The subject matter of this picture in its substance and manner of presentation seriously offends and tends to deny or ignore Christian and traditional standards of morality and decency and dwells hardly without variations upon suggestive- ness in situations and dialogue. A-I Moonlighter, The Warners ,. Mountain, The Para. A-I Mr. Ace United Artists B Mr. A-n Mr. Celebrity Producers Releasing Corp.

A-II Mr. Dynamite Universal A-I Mr. Hex Monogram A-I Mr. Perrin and Mr. Traill J. Universe Eagle Lion Classics, Inc. O'Malley and Mr. Additional dialogue in- dicting light treatment of marriage in this film warrants a re- classification. B Objection: Tends to condone immoral actions by reason of a flippant treatment of the virtue of purity ; suggestive costuming, dialogue and situations. B Objection: Suggestive lines. C Objection: This film presents justification of illicit love and condones crime.

Naked Africa Am. B Objection: Although this picture is presented in a travelogue form, nevertheless, it accentuates unnecessarily suggestive rites and ceremonies. B Objection: This film is a pseudo-documentary purporting to record native life and customs. It contains material which is sensationally and meretriciously presented. Naked and the Dead War. Furthermore, the A-III rating is based on the picture content and is not to be interpreted as a sanction of proposed advertising. Naked Night, The Swedish Times Film C Objection: This film by reason of grossly suggestive costuming, dialogue and situations throughout is judged seriously dangerous to Christian and traditional standards of morality and decency.

It is completely lacking in morally compensating values. Naked Paradise Am. B Objection: Suggestive situations; excessive brutality; low moral tone. Times C Objection: This picture, in the story it tells, seriously offends Christian and traditional standards of morality and decency. Naughty But Nice Warners. Kingsley C Objection: The extremely sensuous atmosphere, in which the theme of this film is developed, is accentuated by an unmitigated emphasis on suggestive costuming and situations.

B Objection: The suicide in the plot solution is presented as an act of heroism. Night of the Hunter United Artists B Objection: Suggestive sequences; tends to degrade the dignity of marriage. Nightmare Alley 20th Century-Fox B Objection: This film tends to confuse religion and religious acti- vity with the fraudulent practices of charlatans. It tends to foster belief in superstition. There is a lack of sufficient moral balance. The film, moreover, evidences no con- cern with the moral aspects of the problem.

Inadequate moral compensation. B Objection: Reflects the acceptability of and tends to justify divorce. It contains suggestive costuming, dialogue and sequences; presents sympathetically suicide in plot solution. B Objection: Although this film in the story it tells indicts some evils consequent on divorce, nevertheless, because it presents the marriage bond as dissoluble, it is opposed to traditional Christian teaching. Kingsley B Objection: Low moral tone and suggestive situations. B Objection: Tends to arouse undue sympathy for wrongdoing. The enemy doctors, pre- sumably from the action of the film guilty of murder, are sum- marily killed without any judicial process, when they could have been taken prisoners and brought for trial to the rear, which rear, subsequent action of the film indicates to be still within the control of the guerrillas.

The film, in one sequence, beyond a proper appeal to patriotism and the defense of homeland, pre- sents an appeal to the revenge motive. B Objection: This picture does not present sufficient moral indict- ment of the wrong-doing upon which the theme is based. Monks Rep. A-II Observation: This entertainment film, noble, sensitive, reverent and inspiring in its production, is a theologically sound and pro- found analysis of the essential meaning of a religious vocation through the story of a person who objectively lacked a funda- mental qualification for an authentic religious calling.

If the film fails to capture the full meaning of religious life in terms of its spiritual joy and all-pervading charity, this must be at- tributed to the inherent limitations of a visual art. Note: This classification is applicable only to prints exhibited in the U. Oath of Vengeance Producers Releasing Corp. A-II Year of Review Title and Distributor Rating Year of Review Of Human Bondage Warners A-II Of Human Bondage Reissue Warner-First National B Objection: Sordidness and suggestiveness in situations. C Objection: This picture in the story it tells is offensive to reli- gion, condones immoral actions and contains suggestive sequences.

Of Love and Lust Swed. Films Around World B Objection: Certain elements in this picture are judged to be morally unacceptable for general entertainment motion picture purposes. C Objection: This film, which condones and glorifies immoral actions, seriously offends Christian and traditional standards of morality and decency. Moreover, it is offensive to religion. Republic A-I Oh, Susanna! B Objection: Suggestive song, dialogue and situations. One Girl's Confession Columbia B Objection: Tends to condone taking the law into one's own hands; suggestive costuming and situations.

C Objection: This film, in the story it tells, condones immoral motives and actions. It contains elements which are offensive and disrespectful to religion, and moreover contains suggestive sequences. Onionhead War. Ordet Danish Kingsley A-III Observation: The miracle, upon which the plot solution of this film depends, is presented, not as a divine approbation of a religious sect, but as a divine reward of the faith of an in- dividual in God.

The possibility of such a miracle is in con- formity with Catholic belief. Out of the Clouds Br. The reason for the objection is as follows: Although re- visions have been made in this film, it still presents immodest. The producer has pledged that all prints of thL subject hereafter presented for public exhibition in the United States shall contain the changes pro- vided in the revised version.

B Objection: Tends to arouse sympathy for immoral actions. B Objection: Suggestive situations; low moral tone. Outrages of the Orient Bell Pictures Corp. Sacramental confession through a layman for presentation to an absent priest for for- giveness is contrary to Catholic teaching and practice. B Objection: Suggestive costuming and sequence. Paid in Full Paramount B Objection: Reflects the acceptability of divorce; tends to con- done use of illicit means to accomplish good end; contains ma- terial unsuitable for general motion picture audiences.

Pajama Game War. Pal Joey Col. Note: This rating is predicated upon a revised version of the film. B Objection: Low moral tone; suggestive costuming, dancing and sequences. Panic in the Parlor Br. Panic in the Streets 20th Century-Fox -. Papa, Mama, the Maid and I Fr. A-I Paratroop Command Am. B Objection: Suggestive costuming and situations; tends to con- done immoral actions.

C Objection: This picture in the story it tells seriously offends Christian and traditional standards of morality and decency. Suggestive costuming and situations. B Objection: This picture contains material considered to be morally unsuitable for general motion picture audiences. C Objection: This picture glorifies immoral actions.

Suggestiveness and immodest costuming pervade the film. Parisienne, La Fr. UA B Objection: This film, a light and farcical comedy, has been substantially revised in treatment for its American exhibition. However, it still contains suggestive situations, costuming and dialogue which are seriously offensive to Christian and tradi- tional standards of morality and decency.

A-I Party Crashers Para. The producers have informed the Legion that from the negative and all existing posi- tive prints has been removed the sequence upon which the Legion's objection "the unethical killing of helpless enemies is sympathetically presented," had been based.

Maya Film Distributing Corp. C Objection: Immoral in treatment. Dialogue, costumes, and situ- ations are objectionable. Kingsley C Objection: The theme and treatment of this film dwell almost invariably upon subject matter which is morally unacceptable and seriously offensive to the virtue of purity. Revisions made in this picture are deemed suffi- cient to warrant a change in classification. This classification, however, is applicable only to prints exhibited in the United States of America and its possessions, the Philippine Islands and Canada.

August 19, A-I Pather Panchali Ind. Payoff, The Producers Releasing Corp. Pharoah's Curse UA A-II Tide and Distributor Rating Year of Review Phenix City Story, The Allied Artists B Objection: Suggestive sequence, excessive brutality. Phffft Columbia B Objection: Reflects the acceptability of divorce; light treatment of marriage; suggestive sequences. B Objection: The unrestrained emphasis on lustful actions, dialogue and situations throughout this film tends to debase the virtue of purity and to condone immoral actions.

It is susceptible of misrepresenting proper moral standards. Pickup Columbia B Objection: Suggestive sequences; tends to condone immoral actions. Pick Up Alley Col. B Objection: Suggestive dialogue and situation; tends to condone immoral actions. Pillow to Post Warners B Objection: This film contains an expression which has an obscene origin and reference.

Pilot No. B Objection: Suicide in plot solution; suggestive costuming. B Objection: Reflects the acceptability of divorce; suggestive sequences.

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Playgirl Universal-International B Objection: Suggestive costuming and dialogue; reflects the acceptability of divorce. Balzac Mademoiselle Striptease. DCA C Objection: The completely immoral atmosphere in which the theme of this film is developed, plus gross suggestiveness in costuming, dialogue, dancing and situations, constitutes a serious threat to moral standards and proper behavior patterns. Trans-Lux B Objection: Suggestive dialogue and situations.

A-I Port Afrique Col. Portrait of an Unknown Woman U-I B Objection: Light treatment of marriage; reflects the accept- ability of divorce; suggestive sequences. A-II Portrait of Maria formerly Maria Candelaria CLASA Films- International-MGM A-II Year of Review Title and Distributor Rating Year of Review Possessed Warners A-II Observation: This picture contains a misinterpretation of Scrip- ture. Diabolical possession described in this film is identified with insanity. This is contrary to the traditional Christian in- terpretation of the Scriptures.

Possessors Fr. Continental C Objection: In spite of the satirical nature of this Zola film, the immoral behavior pattern of the principal characters condones licentious living and is accepted without recrimination. Further- more, in treatment there are numerous instances of gross sug- gestiveness in costuming and situations.

B Objection: Suggestive lines, situations and costuming. B Objection : Suicide in plot solution ; suggestive sequences. Prodigal, The MGM B Objection: This film, based on a Bibical incident of the New Testament, while positive in its conclusion, contains grossly suggestive costuming and situations as well as excessive brutality. A-II Promoter, The British Universal-International A-I Year of Review Title and Distributor Rating Year of Review Proud and Profane, The Para.

Proud and the Beautiful Fr. Kingsley B Objection: Suggestive costuming and situations; contains mate- rial morally questionable for a mass medium. Public Deb No. Queen Bee Col. Fox B Objection: Suggestive costuming and situations. Queen of Broadway Producers Releasing Corp. Queen of Sheba Lippert Prod. B Objection: Illicit situation presented without compensating moral balance; excessive brutality.

The emotional arguments of the sympathetic characters in the film are directed toward justifying this practice both morally and legally. In a allocution to the Second World Congress on Fertility and Sterility, the late Pope Pius XII taught that "artificial in- semination violates the natural law and is illicit and immoral. Ramona 20th Century-Fox A-I Ramparts We Watch RKO A-I Ramrod United Artists A-II Rancho Grande Republic A-I Title and Distributor Rating Year of Review Rancho Notorious RKO B Objection: Tends to condone the taking of the law into one's own hands.

Rasputin French Max Glass-Concord Films C Objection: The detailed portrayal of the hypocrisies and de- baucheries of Rasputin, pseudo-monk, tends to create confusion and false impressions. Moreover, the film tends to promote disrespect for religion; suggestive dialogue and situa- tions. Razzia Fr. Kassler B Objection: Although the theme of this film is developed in a quasi-documentary atmosphere, its sensational treatment con- tains serious violations of decency and morality.

Moreover, it tends to condone the immoral actions of the sympathetic character. Arthur Rank-Eagle Lion B B Objection: Excessive brutality; suggestive costuming. Note: This classification applies only to prints exhibited in con- tinental United States. B Objection: Dueling sympathetically portrayed; contains a se- quence offensive to religion. Revenge of Frankenstein Col. It tends to glamorize and arouse undue sym- pathy for an immoral character. Furthermore, it contains sug- gestive dialogue and situations. The reason for the objection is as follows: Tends to arouse undue sympathy for criminals and criminal activities.

Suggestive sequences. Road Racers Am. Robbery Under Arms Br.

THE FIRST 100 YEARS 1893–1993

Rank A-II Robe, The 20th Century-Fox A-I Observation: While this film deals with incidents of Sacred his- tory in a reverent and inspirational manner, it is to be noted that it is a fictional narrative and contains variance from and omissions of Scriptural and historical accuracy.

C Objection: Crime is presented as attractive; virtue is ridiculed and adultery is condoned. B Objection: Suggestive situations; tends to over-emphasize a spirit of fatalism. Continental B Objection: The treatment of this film involves gross suggestive- ness in costuming, dialogue and situations. It, moreover, tends to arouse undue sympathy for an adultress.

Room for One More Warners B Objection: Suggestive sequences; contains material morally un- suitable for entertainment motion pictures. Room 43 Br. Cory B Objection: The subject matter of this film is morally unaccept- able for entertainment motion pictures.

C Objection: This film in the story it tells condones and justifies immoral conduct; suggestive sequences; suicide in plot solution. Rooney Br. Jacon Films C Objection: This film in the story it tells flouts Christian and traditional standards of morality and decency. Moreover, in treatment, it contains grossly indecent costuming and suggestive situations. Royal Affairs in Versailles Fr. Times B Objection: Suggestive costuming; light treatment of the virtue of purity. Tends to con- done immoral actions. A-II Ruggles of Red Gap Reissue Paramount A-I Year of Review Title and Distributor Rating Rulers of the Sea Paramount A-I Rumble on the Docks Col.

B Objection: Tends to glamorize criminal activities and to lower respect for established law and order. Reason for the objection is as follows: Tends to condone im- moral actions; suicide in plot solution. Revisions made in this film are deemed sufficient to warrant a change in classification. This classification, however, is applicable only to prints ex- hibited in continental U.

RX Murder Fox A-III Year of Review S. Submarine Italian Screen Guild Prod. A-I S. Observation: The story told in this film is based on an incident in the New Testament. However, it differs from the Scriptural account. Moreover, in treatment, it seriously violates Christian and traditional standards of morality and decency and is offensive to religion. Sayonara War. A-II Observation: Certain moral elements which are found in the treatment of this film must be interpreted in the light of be- havior patterns indigenous to a pagan culture. A-II Scandal in Paris, A United Artists B Objection: Cynical attitude toward virtue and morality; sug- gestive song, dialogue, situations and costumes; lack of adequate moral compensation.

Scarred Italian Casolaro Films Dist. C Objection: This picture in the story it tells condones immoral actions; contains material offensive to religion; suggestive sequence. B Objection : This film of low moral tone contains grossly sensuous dancing which is judged to be morally offensive to accepted standards of decency; suggestive costuming, dialogue and situations. B Objection: The undue emphasis on the power and effect of hypnotism, as presented in this picture, without clearly establish- ing the necessary moral precautions can lead to serious mis- interpretation.

Inferentially it tends to create belief in the erroneous doctrine of reincarnation. Search for Danger Film Classics, Inc. E Objection: Reflects the acceptability of divorce. Second Fiddle 20th Century-Fox A-I Year of Review ? Secret of Dr. C Objection: This picture in the story it portrays dwells without variation upon suggestiveness in situations, costuming and dia- logue and, as such, in the manner of treatment seriously offends Christian and traditional standards of morality and decency.

Serenade War. A-II Seven Deadly Sins, The French and Italian Arlan Pictures C Objection: This film consists of a group of episodes, certain of which gravely offend Christian and traditional standards of morality and decency through the presentation of incidents of gross suggestiveness, together with highly offensive portrayals and references to religion and religious persons.

A-II Title and Distributor Rating Year of Review Seven Miles from Alcatraz RKO A-II Seven Sinners Universal B Objection: Creates an atmosphere of glamour around the heroine of questionable morals and makes her advances appear amusing and harmless, thus causing the audience to react sympathetically to her. Seventh Voyage of Sinbad Col. Shadow of Fear Br.


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A-II She Shall Have Music Imperial A-II Year of Review Title and Distributor Rating She Shoulda Said No Wild Weed Hallmark Prod. C Objection: The subject matter of this film is considered morally unsuitable for entertainment motion picture audiences. More- over, it contains suggestive sequences. Tends to condone immoral actions. B Objection: Suggestive dialogue and gesture.

Short Cut to Hell Para. B Objection: Low moral tone; suggestive sequence. Sierra Stranger Col. DeMille-Paramount B Objection: The version used in this reissue still contains sug- gestive sequences and costumes and some suggestive dialogue. U-I B Objection: Light treatment of marriage; suggestive dialogue.

Indecent and suggestive scenes. Sing a Jingle formerly Lucky Days Universal.. C Objection: This picture glorifies illicit actions and contains ma- terial morally unsuitable for entertainment motion picture audi- ences. Sins of the Borgias Fr. Aidart C Objection: The theme of this film is of low moral tone through- out and in treatment it is replete with serious offensiveness in costuming and situations. Furthermore, religious practices are presented in such a way as to misrepresent ecclesiastical pro- cedure. C Objection: This film deals with a subject most objectionable for presentation in entertainment motion picture theaters.

More- over, the treatment of the subject as presented in the film is most objectionable for entertainment motion picture audiences. It ignores essential and supernatural values associated with prob- lems of this nature. Suggestive scenes and dialogue. Sins of Youth Progressive-B. Judell B Objection: Suggestive scenes. Sirocco Columbia B Objection: Light treatment of marriage; low moral tone.

B Objection: The subject matter of this film presented in entertain- ment motion picture theaters is judged to be morally dangerous. Furthermore, it contains suggestive costuming. Smiles of a Summer Night Swed. Rank C Objection: Both in theme and treatment this film seriously vio- lates Christian and traditional standards of morality and de- cency by reason of an unmitigated emphasis on illicit loves and sensuality.

Suggestive costuming, dialogue and situations. Smiley Austrl. Snafu Columbia B Objection: The title of this film is an expression which has an obscene origin and reference. Portions of the film contain inti- mations of the obscene origin and reference of the expression. A-II Title and Distributor Rating Snow Creature United Artists A-I Snow Dog Monogram A-I Snow Was Black Fr. Continental C Objection: The subject matter of this film and the atmosphere in which it is portrayed are judged to be completely morally unacceptable for entertainment motion picture audiences.

Furthermore, this film contains suggestive dialogue, costuming and situations which are seriously opposed to Christian and traditional standards of morality and decency. A-II Year of Review Title and Distributor Rating Year of Review Son of Sinbad Howard Hughes— RKO C Objection: This film, in its character and treatment, is a serious affront to Christian and traditional standards of morality and decency because of its blatant and continuing violation of the virtue of purity.

Throughout, it contains grossly salacious dances and indecent costuming. This picture is a challenge to decent standards of theatrical entertainment and as an incitement to juvenile delinquency, it is especially dangerous to the moral wel- fare of youth.

Furthermore, in treatment, there are serious offenses in costuming, dialogue and situations. Furthermore, its treatment dwells almost without relief on gross suggestiveness in costuming, dialogue and situations. B Objection: Sadistic sequences; suggestive costuming. Louis Warners B Objection: Suggestive lines and costuming.

A-I Space Master X-7 Fox A-II Title and Distributor Rating Spaete Liebe German Wien Film A-II Spain in Arms S. Observation: A documentary film containing propaganda for the Franco side in Spain. Spanish Affair Para. B Objection: Low moral tone; suggestive situations. Louis War. Louis Blues Para. A-I St. Matthew's Passion Swiss Academy Prod. B Objection: Illicit relationship presented without compensating moral balance. Burstyn C Objection: This picturre, in the story it tells, seriously violates Christian and traditional standards of morality and decency by reason of gross suggestiveness in costuming, dialogue and situations.

B Objection: Light treatment of marriage; suggestive costuming. The highly propagandistic nature of this controversial film book burning, anti-Communism, civil liberties offers a warped, over- simplified and strongly emotional solution to a complex problem of American life. Its specious arguments tend seriously to be misleading and misrepresentative by reason of an inept and dis- torted presentation.

Note: A Separate Classification is given to certain films which, while not morally offensive require some analysis and explana- tion as a protection to the uninformed against wrong interpreta- tions and false conclusions. Storm Over the Nile Br. C Objection: This film treats a subject most objectionable for pre- sentation in entertainment motion picture theaters.

The treat- ment of the subject as presented in the film is most objectionable for entertainment motion picture audiences. Moreover, it ignores completely essential and supernatural values associated with questions of this nature. Story of Dr. B Objection: Suggestive sequences; tends to create sympathy for immoral actions.

Story of G. Joe, The Lester Cowan Prod. A-I Observation: The story elements of this film must be judged in the light of fact and fiction. B Objection: Suggestive sequences; low moral tone. Straight from the Shoulder Paramount A-I Year cf Review Title and Distributor Rating Straight, Place and Show 20th Century-Fox A-I Straight Shooter Victory A-I Strange Adventure Rep. Manning Rep. Strange Mr. B Objection: Excessive brutality and suggestive sequences; tends to arouse disrespect for lawful authority. A-II Stranger from Arizona Columbia A-I Stranger from Pecos Monogram A-I Year of Review Title and Disiiibuicr Rating Year of Review Stranger from Ponca City Columbia A-I Stranger from Santa Fe Monogram A-I C The treatment of the sub- ject as presented in the film is most objectionable for entertain- ment motion picture audiences.

Moreover, it ignores completely, essential and supernatural values associated with questions of this nature. B Objection: This film reflects the acceptability of divorce and through its emotional impact justifies remarriage. In addition it tends to condone immoral actions. Summertime United Artists B Objection: Tends to arouse undue sympathy for immoral ac- tions; suggestive sequences.

B Objection: Suggestive song, dances and costumes. Swan, The MGM A-I Swanee River 20th Century-Fox A-I Year of Review Title and Distributor Rating Sweater Girl Paramount A-II Swedenhielms Swedish A. Syncopation RKO A-II Year of Review Title and Distributor Rating Year of Review System, The Warners B Objection: Reflects the acceptability of divorce; tends to create undue sympathy for a criminal. Taming Sutton's Gal Rep. Tangier Universal B Objection: Suicide in plot solution.

Tank Commandos Am. However, the solution of the plot still tends to arouse undue sympathy for and to condone immoral actions. In addition, it contains suggestive sequences. Kendis- Continental B Objection: Atmosphere of suggestiveness. Teenage Rebel Fox B Objection: Although purporting to show the ill effects visited upon children through a broken home, this film, nevertheless, tends to reflect the acceptability of divorce and to justify re- marriage.

Teenage Wolf Pack Ger. Teenager From Outer Space War. Tension at Table Rock RKO A-II Tentacion Spanish Films Mundiales C Objection: Indecent scenes and dances, suggestive remarks; the moral evils committed by a leading character are presented as resulting not from the choice of his free will but from the force of circumstances. B Objection: Reflects the acceptability of divorce; suggestive dia- logue. That Other Woman 20th Century-Fox A-II That Texas Jamboree Columbia A-I Title and Distributor Rating Year of Review That They May Live French Forrester-Parent-Mayer-Burstyn A-II That Uncertain Feeling United Artists B Objection: Suggestive lines; light treatment of marriage.

B Objection: Tends to present illicit killing as justifiable. Import Corp. C Objection: The highly questionable subject matter of this film, dealing as it does with perversion, is judged to be morally dangerous and unacceptable in a mass entertainment medium. Furthermore, the thesis is proposed in such a way as to elicit sympathy for an immoral solution to a domestic and social problem.

Reason for B Classification: Suicide is presented as justifiable. B Objection: Suggestive situations and dialogue. The film, moreover, reflects ideas contrary to the Christian concept of marriage. Notation: The many and important cuts which were made in the original version of the film have been deemed sufficient to warrant a change in classification from "C" — Condemned 41 to "B" — Partly Objectionable.

The cut version of the film has been rated as Partly Objectionable because of the original theme — emphasis on which, however, has been con- siderably lessened. Three Desperate Men Lippert Prod. A-II Title and Distributor Rating Year of Review Three Faces of Eve Fox B Objection: Suggestive costuming, dialogue and situations; reflects the acceptability of divorce.

Moreover, it portrays with undue intensity material morally unsuitable in entertainment motion pictures theatres. B Objection: Divorce and remarriage in plot solution. Three in the Saddle Producers Releasing Corp. Graetz B Objection: Suggestive costuming. Three Secrets Warners B Objection: Reflects the acceptability of divorce; suggestive dia- logue and situation. C Objection: This film in the story it tells condones and glorifies illicit actions.

Moreover, it contains material morally unsuitable for entertainment motion picture theaters. Observation: A minister of religion is depicted as opposed to scientific progress. In the film's presentation of its message of courage and optimism, there are traces of deism and naturalism whereby the impressions are gathered that God is a being far from this struggling world, and that man by himself can make the better world of the future.

Thunder Town Pproducers Releasing Corp. Tia de las Muchachas, La Spanish J. Its import together with accompanying narration is anti-Reli- gious, anti-Christian and historically false. It constitutes, in the main, an ideological perversion of the subject to purposes of Marxian Communism. Time Is My Enemy Rep. C Objection: This film consists of a group of episodes, several of which gravely offend Christian and traditional standards of morality and decency by reason of a condonation of immoral actions, suggestive costuming and situations, and a sympathetic treatment of suicide.

Tonight at British Continental Distributing, Inc. Too Busy to Work 20th Century-Fox A-I Year oi Review Title and Distributor Rating Year of Review Too Hot to Handle MGM A-I Too Late for Tears United Artists B Objection: Suggestive lines and situations. B Objection: Tends to create undue sympathy for immoral actions. I go to visit Jon on the A. I sit in one of the two-seat sections, between a door and the front of the train. Occasionally, a text drops down, obscuring the top of the PDF.

The messages are all from the same person. I will be meeting this person for dinner later this evening. All this is certain. The person texting me is my closest friend. I am his editor. I should have read his story earlier. The sneakers have orange treads. I do not care much, although my heart is racing, and somehow I want everyone to know. I live at the bottom of the ocean. I am capable of quick motion but do not warm. I live among the bristlemouths, the viperfish, the anglerfish, the cookiecutter sharks, the eelpouts. The A train is moving as efficiently as one could wish, but I know that I am going to be late.

Across from me are two teenage girls who are rapidly becoming the heroes of this trip. They are tough and impeccably dressed. One of them causes a Fidget Spinner to spin. They are talking about alcohol. They do some work on their phones then conscientiously put the phones away. They focus on one another; the one girl, the taller, the prettier one, manipulates a black and gold Fidget Spinner.

I swoon for them. I imagine they will move to Los Angeles at some point because there is nowhere in New York for them to live now. Chinatown is too expensive. Williamsburg overrun by Europeans. For these reasons, there is nowhere to go and they must become Angelinas. One of them will make a lot of money. One will have kids. They are placid and gorgeous and discussing how they will obtain what sounds like gin. It is very fair. I can tell. A text drops down. Then my friend sends a link to something on Twitter.

I will read these messages in situ later. I absolutely will not click on the Twitter link, I tell myself, as I click through to an image of a tiny black cat whose highly visible pink tongue extends from its all but invisible mouth. I try to think of what I will say in response to this vision. The animal would ideally like to appear to me as its IRL self, corporeal and gleaming, speaking its own strange language. And what I therefore also mean is, much as the animal desires physical proximity to me, so does my friend. He cannot hide his desire, not with all the Twitter links in the world. Yes, there must be.

Because, in fact, you cannot hide. Not from me. Although I seldom mention this to anyone I know. I live at the bottom of the ocean and Jon wants to play tennis. Therefore Jon is trying, in some sense, to match up our respective familial situations. In other words, Jon thinks we have stuff in common. I encounter him over email, at parties, in fancy bars.

I salute him in passing on social media. But here we are beneath fluorescent lights in a reception area straight out of something. I have, suddenly, a memory of what it was like to be a child in the s, when I was the small charge of upwardly mobile parents. I express some vague concern about being an unauthorized visitor, treading on hallowed athletic ground, but he brushes it off. The sounds of tennis — pops and little cries — are apparent.

He nods toward the court where his lanky daughter is demolishing a boy who looks to be a year or two older than she is. The pairing is incongruous and therefore extremely impressive. I have to rush to keep up with Jon. Or I mean, Open parenthesis. Or, Speak now, memory.

By which I mean, to the bottom of the ocean. Where, as mentioned, I happen to live. Here is the story: Imagine that you have died weird , and after your death you awake into what is apparently another world. Meanwhile, it turns out that you are no longer a body. You find yourself on a shoreline made of clean, gray ash. There is water sitting hazily in a great expanse before you. You can barely hear anything. You realize that you are not the only soul here. There are countless other souls hovering in this place, gazing out across the water.

Then you realize that there are lives here, too. Not just souls. All along the shoreline sit countless lives in the bank of clean ash. You begin to examine the different lives. There are so many. The soul must choose. It has to live eventually, but it does not have to live a life it does not select. And so the soul searches, and it lands. As this ancient story purports to show, everyone has, at some level, chosen the life they live.

The story also claims — leaving out the reincarnation bit, which I care less about — that none of us could avoid choosing. I think, by the way, returning to sports, that the way my father dealt with this problem was to play tennis. Because, to be clear, having chosen to be male does not exempt one from the difficulties! But these are probably only the reasons he was conscious of. It was a form of leisure for him but, given his broader cosmological setup, did not mean that he was either free or having fun. Jon and I are sitting together outside the bubble.

Below us, near the water, reeds and cattails grow. Jon keeps laughing at me, but about some things he is deadly earnest. At this moment both of us happen to be staring at a giant blue word, columbia painted on a cliff. I realize that Jon plays his tennis here because he is an alumnus. I think you were correct about the androids needing to go.

I got too excited when I saw that Times article. I try to reassure Jon that although I suggested cutting the android part, it was still pretty good. I tell him that maybe he should devote a whole story to androids. He clears his throat, and I can tell he is about to say something he considers important. They have to be a side issue. Oh, yeah. When Jon was in grad school, he spent a lot of time observing people. Literature, as everyone knows, is a massive info leak, while scholarship mostly purports to reveal helpful stuff people really ought to know, and all Jon wanted to do while he was obtaining his degree was to give away destabilizing secrets regarding academia.

This desire made it difficult to concentrate, among other difficulties. Jon got very interested in sociology, as well as cybernetics. He liked vaguely paranoid theories based on the schematization of the social sphere. Jon, by contrast, was brilliant and somewhat young. But these, as Jon might say, are side issues. In fact, he was pretty similar then to the person he is now, except that he was unmarried and did not have a daughter.

Also Jon had to take classes for a few years, and because of this he came into contact with other students. This young woman had a problem. It was a problem that interested Jon, given his social-scientific explorations, because it both was and was not her problem. She had a nice face, nice hair. She spoke with an amount of self-assurance that was neither excessive nor too puny. No, the young woman was perfectly visible and in no particular way repulsive, but nevertheless this did not prevent her from being largely unrecognizable in the eyes of others. Graduate school, it seems, is an interesting setting in which to observe such a problem play out.

The reason for this is that graduate school, particularly in the humanities, is where people go to learn how to introduce themselves. This is perhaps the main skill taught to students of the humanities. The lesson was long and particularly difficult for the young woman who was not recognizable, because she was constantly having to reintroduce herself everywhere she went. For Jon it became a kind of private running joke, although one he did not dare to share with the woman herself. Somehow, the reminding did not serve to reinforce memory regarding the unrecognizable student.

It was as if she suffered from a detachable aphasia, an amnesia she herself did not possess. Two, this was a malady to which Jon seemed, among all his peers and overlords, to be the sole person who was immune. Months went by, maybe a full semester, and at last Jon got up the courage to speak to the woman, with whom, if this is not already obvious, he had managed to fall deeply in love. It was not at all a difficult thing to speak to her. They went out together to a late lunch of desserts and talked a long time.

There was a nearly otherworldly quality to the woman, in that she herself seemed completely unaware that most other people never had any idea who she was. She lived, oblivious to the problem, and she was even happy. Jon courted her carefully. In spite of their mutual penury, they went out to many meals with desserts and talked many long talks. Jon believed that he had discovered a previously unknown plane of existence.

His studies took on new meaning. But when summer came again, the woman departed for the West Coast. She said something incomprehensible — to Jon, at least — about how her decision had to do with wanting to live a different sort of life. She told Jon that he knew her too well. I mention that there are two other editors who are reading it, who are perhaps a little less attentive to Jon than I am.

I have to think for a minute. Maybe half a writer? The one really strange thing about her, aside from the unrecognizability thing, of course, was how much she liked puns. It stays clear and distinct, even as everything else around us dims to a blue mush. For a while, both Jon and I stop making an effort to speak. Jon is not listening. But of course it was a misreading.

But this was when, after all these years, I think I understood. Everyone was just taking things so psychotically literally! He tugs at the lobe of his right ear. The bottle protrudes but not, I think, too alarmingly. The reception area before us is brightly lit, and through the large window I can perceive a huddle of youngish professional men who have arrived to play tennis together. A few of them are wearing white terrycloth headbands in an un-ironic way. But I recover. I sense a sort of infinite laugh rising in me, and instead of laughing I keep talking.

Bitter Tennis. You remembered. I have the impression that all the tennis players in the reception area are staring at us. I want to keep things brief. I have extra rackets. We can find your size. Jon laughs. He really seems to be in a great mood, in spite of the story. Jon is a fantastic human. A gray thought bubble with an animated ellipsis indicates that he is, wherever he is, continuing to type. I silence the phone and take my time urinating. I wash my hands and examine my hair. Everything about me seems reasonable. I switch the sound on but then turn the phone off. I feel weak but satisfied.

It has been a good meeting. I can remember there was — and this is a true story — one afternoon when, freshly returned from his habitual tennis game and having consumed half a beer, my father threatened to kill me. I was possibly twenty on the day in question and this time he was serious, though I suppose that hardly matters.

I used to lock my door whenever I was alone in the house with him. My mother would begin laughing wildly if I tried to recount these sorts of events. This is why I moved to the bottom of the ocean. I packed a suitcase long ago. I like the suborder Ceratioidei. However, save for the clock, the shot is too tight for us to make out these monuments to globalized space and time.

We hear house music and see Piper in motion in jeans, blazer, pink scarf, sunglasses. Some people would come up to it and begin dancing along, sometimes so that their friends could photograph them or make a video. Others would assume an attitude similar to those passing through Alexanderplatz on March 26, they drifted by, commenting on the anomaly of the spectacle. Look at her, they said, sometimes appreciatively, sometimes with an air of confusion. I studied these responses, enjoying them as if they were works of art in themselves—an echo that seemed part of the point.

I wanted to dance too, and maybe I did, shyly, standing off to the side. I began to be subject to fantasies about personal agency and started walking through the exhibition in reverse. It was also, as size-conscious individuals noted at the time, the largest exhibition of work by a living artist held at MoMA, filling the entire floor. Traveling backward thus had consequences. I experienced trepidation before The Humming Room , a small room I had to pass through in order to access the rest of the exhibition.

Above the entrance was a sign: in order to enter the room, you must hum a tune. OK, I thought. Within the room stood a security guard, who, although currently distracted, was probably empowered to enforce the imperative. With this ellipsis in mind, I ducked into The Humming Room. My humming was literal. I had been so focused on the directive you must hum a tune and, relatedly, on the task of acquitting myself faultlessly as a normal museumgoer, that I had lost track of what was at stake. I had perceived the letter of the law you must hum without intuiting its spirit, its ironies, its will to distinguish.

Though I had focused on Thwarted Projects, Dashed Hopes, A Moment of Embarrassment and Imagine [Trayvon Martin] , there were other works—and other words—to read on the subject of institutional control. I noted that sometimes I wanted to be independent and sometimes to imitate or join. Sometimes I was thrown back into the problem of not knowing what to do or how to understand the environment, and sometimes problems beyond my own individual actions or experience loomed larger, pointing me out as a subject of history.

Overall, I found that the present—present time, present action, present thought—was getting thicker, more specific, more challenging in its detail. I reflected that—no great epiphany this—contracts, social and otherwise, are tricky. Subject to spontaneous revision, reinterpretation, and disintegration, among other forms of unwanted variance, they tend to function one way in theory and another in practice. I reflected, too, that the author of these works was a professor of meta-ethics and, therefore, in some non-negligible sense, an expert on trust.

I know because I made brief attempts at the close of the last century, as an eighteen-, nineteen-, and twenty-year-old. The Harvard University lecture hall was packed, largely with young men who wore shorts in winter and claimed math courses were a leisure activity. It provoked in me a feeling of extreme discomfort. Though I was at the time unaware that anything related to my identity could determine which disciplines I could and could not pursue, and though Korsgaard herself was female, there was a definite chill.

I chose to believe that the chill was mostly due to the way in which the discipline treated language. The notion that a paragraph could be converted—clarified—into a formal grammar, a raft of specific propositions, felt artificial and alien, at least to me, who was unused to words being valued for the stability of their meanings.

I was otherwise spending most of my time being a comparative literature major who had just discovered German poetry Celan, Novalis and, in a stroke of genius and desperation, had convinced my teaching assistant to let me write a final paper for Korsgaard on a single word in The Metaphysics of Morals. I said nothing all semester, save in the T. Given the tendency on the part of art institutions to casually solicit the tidings of adjacent disciplines, particularly those concerned with language, we are accustomed to encountering professional philosophers in galleries and museums.

Usually these philosophers, phenomenologists and ideologues I use the latter term without pejorative intent , offer broad humanistic themes, not unambiguous logical forms. Piper, in her role as an analytic philosopher, works with logic, deploying specific techniques to address discrete problems with identifiable results, though more popular notions such as value s and history also come in for consideration. I am not proposing to initiate the process of cross-pollination here. But it does seem worth clarifying that Piper is a distinguished philosopher.

As a philosopher, Piper points up her interest in employing means and ends that are congruent. A technical work to be sure, it is also beautifully written, full of humor and broadly applicable wisdom. I found, in reading it, that I wished that as a graduate student I had had such a professor. Rationality and the Structure of the Self is launched as a theoretical and practical corrective. If I go to adrianpiper. Piper has taken care to treat Rationality and the Structure of the Self as an act with practical and ethical consequences, as well as an object or series of messages.

These two publications serve, if differently, as useful gestures in relation to the show. Escape to Berlin , meanwhile, is at once a more and less complex story. Is it reasonable for Piper to have left the United States, to have claimed she did so under mortal threat? Is there not something missing here, some part of the story withheld from us, some simple written fact or other piece of evidence that might drop from the sky to clarify what has gone on? And, conversely, can critics trust Piper not to dismantle their assertions in public, or, rather, trust that she will do exactly that?

Meanwhile, the Mythic Being is a means of inserting a complex persona—a face and accompanying speech bubble that inspire sustained and careful examination—into the everyday circulatory space of an advertising section. Yet what are we to make of the apparently disingenuous Mythic Being, a male version of Piper in Afro wig and mustache, accessorized with mirrored sunglasses and cigarillo, who appeared as both a performance persona and in a series of images?

The Mythic Being was, on the one hand, a disguise and, on the other, a tool for exploring interpersonal perception and behavior, along with the functioning of categories related to identity. Link to the essay. This article appears in the print edition of Art in America , December I learned about theory in college, where I also met someone whose parents had explained Lacanian psychoanalysis to him when he was thirteen, a fact that impressed me no end.

For me, however, there was a clear demarcation, a dividing line. There was the time before theory, and there was the time after it. Indeed, these names were like swear words, like drugs, like magnetized tokens in a game played by mildly sadistic immortals. This had nothing to do with literature which I studied. This was where all of the secrets concerning human culture lay. Part of me also assumed, because I was nineteen and a college sophomore, that this was a sophomoric phase.

I would soon get over theory, and so would everyone else. In this I was, as everyone knows, wrong. Theory was becoming then what it is now. There is the longstanding charge of pernicious cultural and moral relativism, probably more correctly understood as narrative relativism—in other words, the practice of treating any form of discourse, knowledge, or information as a kind of constructed narrative.

In the extended afterlife of theory, in and around the American academy, it has become common to favor accessibility in critical thought, along with conceptual keywords, whose valence is either usefully transdisciplinary or a little vague, depending on whom you ask and, sometimes, when. In the United States, theory has become a utopian experiment and experience: it exists alongside increasingly historicist literary studies as a site of mixture and reprieve; it promises, for example, to help literary scholars moonlight as media theorists and art historians, while reminding them to consider the horrors of colonialism and the errors of the Enlightenment.

Meanwhile, it makes the rounds online, on social media, in popular music, in art world press releases, and in the New York Times , decontextualized and meme-like, sometimes the stuff of conspiracy and outrage and at others the balm of empathy. Through theory we seem to tarry briefly with the notion of history; at least, this is my opinion.

Theory is not, as some have suggested, post-historical; it expressly addresses the existence of past times and events, though it is not always concerned with historiographic gestures, such as naming and narrating. Given that remarks regarding the post-political nature of the contemporary era—as a time so epistemologically balkanized that debate and compromise are impossible a style of description itself derived from dear F —are increasingly widespread, one might well be curious about what aspects of theory tend to accord with a movement away from the possibility of politics, and which tend to resist the shrinking of the public sphere.

Or, to refashion my earlier phrase about politics, the possibility of a generative relationship between academic institutions and public conversation. Anyway, everyone knows where theory comes from. It comes from France. It traveled to the United States at some point in the mid s, metamorphosing into something called postmodernism, which might or might not have already begun coming into being directly after the war, even before theory got here.

I joke, but my serious explanation is not much better. So, Camus and Sartre are the starter texts; the world-weary teen absorbs existentialist disillusionment before moving on to purer anti-humanist heights with an excerpt from The Order of Things in a freshman survey of the history of the West. Or, as it went with the French intellectuals, —45 saw the arrival of surrealists, existentialists, and the work of Annales School historians on American shores. This varied avant-garde, with its taste for rich general interest writing and weird art, may have given some signal of what was to come.

Indeed, the difference between formalism and structuralism is worth pausing on for a moment, because the former had become the pride of modernist literary studies in the United States and was only somewhat awkwardly supplanted by the latter a graft that haunts English departments to this day.

New Criticism privileged knowledge of language and its function, but not to dismantle the assumptions held by elites. Rather, after the G. Bill of Rights, the New Critics had explicitly designed their poetics to be both accessible and constructive. They offered a literary history and a system of values stripped of classical allusion and baroque allegory in the service of transmission to all.

New Criticism had little to say about history, but not because its adherents suspected the constructed-ness of fact and philology. John Crowe Ransom, et al. In the liberal academy, theory could do something more: it could critique disciplinary boundaries and propose new terms for dialogue. The articles published by Marc Bloch and Lucien Febvre, though serious works of historical analysis, were at the same time pithy, relatively free of footnotes, and legible to non-specialists. It was in this singular journal, for example, that Lucie Varga published her ethnography of National Socialism, a prescient document that was also unusual for its combination of rigorous method and elucidation of contemporary politics.

Systematic philosophical reflection on the role of history and the humanities in general, as distinct from the sciences, had been underway since the polymathic Wilhelm Dilthey — strove to describe the division of the faculties of the German university, and it was to these questions that a thinker like Michel Foucault, partly influenced by his teacher Georges Canguilhem, turned his attention. If the Annales had demonstrated the political worth of a literary approach to history that validated all possible sources, Foucault expanded this initiative, treating not just the historical text but also the scientific text as a text like any other, in a supreme act of narrative relativism that sought to show how scientific knowledge might be contingent upon conceptual elaboration.

These methodological choices are related to an ongoing turn from from rhetoric and philology in contemporary literary studies—what might be termed either a long process of deskilling or a search for new units of analysis and keywords, or, more complexly, both at once. Thus it could permit American adopters to gesture toward the context of the society of which they were members without speaking about history or politics in so many words, and this quality of its critical voice proved extremely powerful.

It was made for the American campus of the s, which, while still galvanized by the insurgent rhetoric of the s, was at the same time rapidly becoming a space of bureaucratic commerce, as graduate studies grew at a faster rate than the rest of the university and the humanities began to falter and lose funding. Literature departments, activated in progressive quarters by an ongoing golden age of experimental writing Beats et al. This was a challenging science to grasp but, once you got it, broadly useful and a lot of fun.

This critical approach permitted a playful relationship to power; it represented an entry into an adventure, a detective story. Though it spawned a million imitators, adherents, and cottage industries, and was perhaps destined to seem ridiculous due to its ornate performativity, theory went everywhere. In a post—Civil Rights Movement era, it seemed to offer the possibility of education without indoctrination, displacing political struggles onto the terrain of discourse and increasing the prestige and relevance of the literary text.

There were numerous rancorous transatlantic exchanges. And now, approaching the close of the second decade of the twenty-first century, we are here. We still have theory. We also have the Internet, as well as various entities on the right who, perhaps taking inspiration from Benito Mussolini as much as Michel Foucault, have explored narrative relativism as well. If not, you may not have to! By way of which cryptic joke I want to mention that the French have long been aware of the possibility of a good reader of theory making reactionary administrative moves.

Indeed, this is my point. Theory has begun, more and more, to look like an allegedly value-agnostic way of thinking through the circulation of power and the formation of value—which is to say that it looks vaguely formal and vaguely cybernetic and like a lot of other contemporary communication styles in their relationship to contemporary bureaucracy.

Certainly, the art gallery press release, one of the prime sites at which the keywords of theory are offered up to contemporary readers anew, epitomizes this trend: a given artist explores and reveals our preconceptions, suggesting that what we thought was the case, a veritable truth, is in fact a context-dependent construction designed to shelter us from an inconvenient view into history and the horrors and disparities of contemporary social life.

This is indeed what a lot of contemporary art does, and I myself have from time to time described it in exactly these sorts of terms and without irony. Until recently, I had a contingent position at a private college where a number of my undergraduate students had either been homeless or faced homelessness, and almost all were going into staggering amounts of debt.

Many were involved in gig work; some were sex workers. But it is telling to see this notion arise again here, around the question of what is due to an undergraduate who wants to study art rather than, as Sokal wisely framed it, what is due in a peer-reviewed journal. It suggests someone deeply out of touch with the state of contemporary discourse in general and upsettingly in the humanities particularly, in that she has no idea where theory currently makes its living—which is hardly in undergraduate curricula.

To test that theory out, I decided to ask my students at the private college some seniors if they knew who Jacques Derrida was. The thoughts that have accrued here, about the joys and strangeness of theory, are, therefore, dedicated to them. For they are, as students have always been, the ones who will determine whether academic institutions can contribute anything to the public conversation. In the spring of , the poet and artist Madeline Gins, then in her late 20s, joined a collaborative effort to make artworks and writing on the streets of Manhattan. Gins was barely better known in US poetry circles than she was in the realms of contemporary art, and her brilliant reimaginings of the American novel and poem have largely been ignored.

WORD RAIN — one of the most important works of experimental prose of the later 20th century — is at once refreshingly and depressingly spared academic commentary. The reasons for this amnesia are manifold. It was concerned with getting the reader to act. In WORD RAIN , she directly engaged the cybernetic qualities of conceptualism by deploying sentences and prose fragments as means for holistic control of discourse, the human body and social relations, confusing the agency of the writer with that of the reader.

Gins treated the slow dawning of the computer age as an incitement to produce art. But the speaker of the sentences is not quite the writer, nor is she quite the reader. Read this with me, read that with me, read me with me, read objects tables, toes, toads, tails, tin, trains, type, tears, throat read write read right.

This is still life. Only I write and read. It comes with a room, light, a country, sky and weather. I will arrange for you to be made aware of these in detail. You may look at everything. You will see only what I see. Look at this sentence. Experience — tactile, olfactory, temporal, visual, etc. In the next ten years, it will double again. How do we deal with it? Her appropriation of maritime technology reimagines the flag hoist as a noisy, lyric gesture; previously precise code becomes the seed of a form of address that cannot be assigned a single interpretation.

This string of signals is to be imagined as performable — indeed, even potentially performed — as the poem is read. Given her somatic and cybernetic obsessions — trans-disciplinary concerns if ever there were such — it is additionally difficult to categorize Gins in a professional sense, whether as poet, writer or artist. Though she went on to include lineated poetry in her collection, What the President Will Say and Do!!

In each of these works, Gins blends keen observations about the activity of consciousness, language and syntax — as well as her own body and environment — with wry humour regarding the oddness of the very existence of meaning. Indeed, if readers of this piece know of Gins, it is likely that they know her through her collaboration with Arakawa.

Though Gins was a prescient thinker — who foresaw ways in which changes in popular media and technologies would collapse traditional disciplinary and social boundaries, transforming everyday life — her role at the centre of an architectural firm devoted to creating environments that were conceived to prevent inhabitants and visitors from dying has sometimes overshadowed her other achievements.

Distinct from her artistic and architectural collaborations with Arakawa, her writings provide a vital terminological and metaphysical influence, particularly as they comment relentlessly upon acts of perception. WORD RAIN introduces notions about the interrelation between language and sensation that are taken up again in Helen Keller or Arakawa with new emphasis on the possibility of mapping experience by means other than hearing and sight.

Gins reimagined the English sentence to enact a way of perceiving the world that would challenge the perceiver, helping them to evade the enervating sensory and spatial habits of contemporary life. She saw the sentence as at once spatial, temporal and shot through with servers i. This article appears in the print edition of frieze , May , issue , with the title "Visionary Cybernetics. I meet the artist, who does x, for a snack one afternoon.

We have the kind of conversation it was more necessary to have previous to the existence of the Internet. We exchange general info about the world. I am attempting to experience a feeling of warmth.

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She expresses amazement. I cannot remember if the artist who does x says that we should do this again. Why do I understand this so well? The artist who does x would not appear on this list—and is very unlikely to appear on any subsequent lists of this type—but her behavior suggests that she is concerned about the possibility of a public airing of such a document. For in her mind, she may well have made it.

In this fantasy, she lives forever and suffers eternally under the tip of my poison pen. I see she wants to be ready, should it come to pass that my list is aired and she is at the top, number one, where permanent marker forms an escutcheon of loathing. Arrows point! Emphatic asterisks! Random flowers! How can the artist who does x not know? It should, by the way, be obvious that I am not an artist. And it would be nice if everyone I know recognized this, yet no one does. I have the opposite problem of almost everybody in this industry.

If these facts alone make me an artist then, fine, so be it, I am an artist, but I kindly request that somebody for once concede that this is probably not the case. I do not make art. I do not have a personal website. I do keep my desk neat, which some passersby term art.

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I use adjectives in email. I am tall and thin and speak softly. Indeed, my current position is not a career and is not intended for individuals of my advanced age In this sense, my friendship with the artist who does x, who is represented by the gallery, is either a piece of professional security with which I am padding my impending fall, or it is emotional labor the gallery farms out to me because it can reasonably be assumed that I am someone for whom a friendship with the artist who does x has its advantages. I study this in her, along with her expensive hat.

She has begun telling a story I realize, with a sharp slide into nausea, is inappropriately long given the impending leaving-taking, the timing of cross-walk signals, not to mention her already apparent wish to be out of my presence. It was during my minimal era when I was trying not to do anything, when I was trying not to make art, you know? I wanted to be something else, then.

I wanted to be anything but an artist, and I was under the impression that if I did little enough, if I did barely enough, the world would just let me go. And maybe I was even a little angry about that possibility? Of being disposable? However this was what I did and it worked so fucking well I was able to work for the rest of my life, which, as you know, I have.

I wonder if you can understand that. Others who have lain awake looking? You need to get back? You have a minute? But it was like the notion of trust, which has always been in my life if somewhat out of reach—and for me it is, and perhaps this is part of the problem if not the simple strangeness of it. Trust is like an image and I am forever trying to see it. I can feel the outlines of it, you know, really can feel imaginatively that there is such a thing as trust, that fixedness of it?

There are lots of worlds in my dreams, but not one of them ever contained trust. And so I think that is why, that must be why I so enjoy conversations with you, Justine. I think a lot of people might find you scary, because there is so much to risk, so much at stake for you, and not even because you really mean it. I feel a kind of responsibility toward you, and not one that I would really have sought out for myself, given the choice.

I remember when I saw you, that time we met, how terrifying that was. You really told me everything. The artist trails off. The light advising us as to the advisedness of crossing the street has transitioned between foreboding and denial, denial and continuous permission, perhaps ten times during the course of her speech.

My face is tight. Probably I want to pee, but I have to make sure that she is done. I have to let the artist who does x continue speaking because this is what she expects. She expects not only to say these things, but to have them absorbed as tidings of great value, which, in some universe they probably are, since what she means is that I clearly do not know how to act. And never will. Anyway, she is right. Then the toady was describing her own impending marriage to another toady also employed by the gallery system.

They were plotting their escape. They would move to the countryside and start a nonprofit and cease to be toadies except, of course, in memory. During the course of this meeting, the artist who does x acknowledged that she was aware that I was in the midst of becoming divorced from someone I had married when I was in my early twenties, a thing not really done in these parts—the child marriage, I mean.

We were in a bar and restaurant, farther downtown. The artist who does x was comfortably ensconced on an upholstered item. I knew her less well, then. I watched changes transpiring on the face of the artist who does x. If I had known the artist who does x better at this time, I would have known that the artist who does x was attempting to gauge the required amount of remorse.

I did not know then that she is like a paid griever, a mourner for hire. She will exchange the favor of sadness with you, but you must offer something in return. I remember that time became slushy and dim. I knew that if I said no, the artist who does x would turn away from me, and that this turning away would be for all time.

I knew that the artist who does x did not wish to discuss with me the politics of domestic economies, various forms of entitlement. She was not interested in my identity or gender, any more than she was interested in the identity or gender of anyone else. These were mere representations, and representations were not her concern. The artist who does x wanted to know what had happened. And I saw that in this moment she was giving me an out.

A woman frequents a certain store. In the store there is a small black cat with white markings. The cat is very round, the kind of cat that will expand concentrically when she delicately gains weight. Everything about the cat is small and round, from her round feet to her round eyes and small, round snout. Even her tail is perennially looped. Panda discreetly guards the store and expands roundly over the course of a winter. The owner of the store tells the woman, when she asks, that Panda is not pregnant, merely gaining weight.


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The woman occasionally makes videos of Panda standing on boxes of dishwashing detergent, preening herself against the corners of a rack displaying sacks of circus peanuts. These videos are sent, via MMS, to friends. A summer passes, another fall, and then, during the course of the second winter of acquaintance with Panda, something happens.

The woman enters the store to discover, on the floor of the store near the cash register, a large black cat with a white face and a surprising, bright pink nose, like a nub of chewing gum. He lets out a braying meow. The new cat resembles Panda in that they are both cats. He also resembles Panda in that he is a black cat with white markings. But he is not Panda. He knows nothing about the reasons for this event. For many weeks, the woman, now avoiding the store, ponders the disappearance and replacement of Panda.

The woman tells the story, up to this point, to a few friends, some of whom are already familiar with Panda, due to the MMSs. One friend begins referring to the replacement cat, the large cat with a pink nose and clumps of ungroomed fur, as Ersatz Panda. Other friends do not comment on the story or refer to the incident.

The one friend continues, from time to time, to refer to Ersatz Panda. The woman thinks that this may have something to do with the fact that he, like the woman, was born and raised in the city. It drapes itself across a counter and stares dreamily into the ceiling. The woman asks the person at the second store about the orange cat. The orange cat is a girl. The person at the second store says that this is very strange. She says that KC does not in fact belong to the second store but has for a long time been visiting it.

The person at the second store found this very strange. Subsequently, KC disappeared. The person at the second store believed that the man who claimed that KC was his cat had taken her, but then, after several months, KC reappeared. And she has continued to appear at the second store. The woman observes that KC seems to know she is being discussed.

But now, as winter coasts into a long, slow spring, the woman becomes willing to return to the first store. He adopts a beatific hen pose. Narration is the act of organizing discrete events into a series. Narration could simply be the act of juxtaposition, repeated, doubled and tripled. Narrative could be merely decorative, I sometimes think. In the above story, Ersatz Panda is the name given to a cat of mysterious origins. Of course, we understand that the cat has no true name — at least, no proper, given name.

Some of these relations are mediated by MMS. This story is interesting mostly because we know so little about what has happened. The story is also interesting because people in the story have so little to say about what occurs. And I think, at some level, I relate this story simply — and only — because it includes this word. These examples euphemize grimmer transpositions of mostly inedible materials soil, paste. It seems so unfair. To return briefly to the story, which, in spite of its already having ended here, may be continuing elsewhere, the woman finds herself returning to the first store, warming to the somewhat retiring Ersatz Panda, a black tuxedo cat with a broad face and very pink nose.

It was even difficult to write about. I mean, consider the situation: A beloved cat is replaced by a terrifying phony. I was thinking about fate. Ersatz P. This rings true to me but I have to unpack it. What I think this means is that everything that will happen is already determined. This is why fate is weird. It is a pattern. Es rever nid loterofd na ega mina ot nide nettal fefil ru oyt u obag nih tyre vesti. Panda herself was just a delay, an adverb attached to the arrival of her replacement, since her replacement was her truer self. She was an image I sent to people without knowing the extent to which she already was an image.

When he showed up, at first I worried there was something wrong with the store. Later, I worried there was something wrong with me. The truth is, a year and a half ago, I started making videos of this bodega cat. I made these videos from a swamp of loneliness and fear. I had already made up my mind. I refused to die, because dying would mean I had capitulated.

I tried to imagine a human being who was not cowed by failure. I imagined a person whose consciousness was a happy bobbing speck of fluff, a haze of light shimmering above the hood of a recent midsize vehicle. I did want this person to be, if not stupid, then mildly lacking in imagination. It was necessary that the person have no imagination.

The strangest thing was, it worked. Not that I lived in bliss, per se, but that I began to live among some other people. A very small black cat with white circles around her eyes walks along the top of a green box of dish detergent. The cat lowers her head and furiously grooms her cheek. The cat looks up. Her eyes are an impetuous dark yellow. They are the color of the petals of black-eyed Susans.

The yellow of pre-Bloomberg taxicabs. After Panda disappeared and the videos stopped, there came the period during which, as I mentioned, I stopped going to the first store at all. During this time, there were several miracles. From what I have been able to ascertain, my downstairs neighbor is retired. He does not seem to be entirely single, but he lives alone. The first thing I noticed about him was a laminated sign he put on his mailbox.

The sign had a bright red border. Later, an identical but slightly larger sign appeared on the door of his apartment.