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This is all powerful and possible. Who is Afraid of the Big Bad Scarecrow!

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You might, also, say his recreation. Scarecrows have been used as decoys for over 3, years beginning, it is believed, with the Egyptians who used them to protect their fields along the Nile from flocks of quail. While the original Pilgrim family members took turns as human bird "scarers," as did the Native American Indians, these later immigrants made human-looking scarecrows.

Rather than a face and hat, he has two animal skulls — a deer skull resting on a horse skull — roped together. His scarecrow has three arms. The hand on the left holding the knotted staff has two feathers. The feather above is a raven feather. The feather below is a Golden Eagle feather. Its quill is wrapped with a cloth painted using the Four Colors of the Lakota Medicine Wheel — red, yellow, blue and white. Its adornment includes a hipbone on its chest with a shell at its center and a string with four old wooden spools of thread of the same four colors hanging below, and an antique button on each shoulder.

The shadow on the scarecrow from his favorite old teak rocking chair on the right, the shadow from the scarecrow on the ancient stone wall to the left, the shadow below and slightly to the left of the raven feathers held waist high, the shadow created by the shell resting on the hipbone, and the skulls themselves bring it into the present as does the pattern of shadows mimicking the chair slats on the ground below. All this is readily identifiable as Henry Bismuth.

But why this iconography? Birds might be afraid of the scarecrow but Batman, Buddha, and Homer Simpson? Absolutely not! They might share a ah-ha moment but that is about it!!!! Quite simply, they are images he enjoys and he, thus, employs. A fictional superhero — an ancient Korean cultural and spiritual icon — a cartoon character.

There is, also, a parallel universe. Just as the shadows move from east to west, so does the influence of the east increasingly reach to the west. The ancient Asian traditions are growing in importance not as religions but as art shared increasingly through exhibitions globally, in museums and galleries. What was once a continent away is now at our doorsteps. For Bismuth, there is a reason for everything even if he does not know it at the time.

But, remember, what he wants is for you to come to your own conclusions for how you see is more important to him than how he does. His central image, a memory of a road he walked many times, provides its linkage as well as the axis of the paintings movement, while the shadow on it provides its direction, and the sign asks us to think, to ask questions. These human-like guardians - known as Lokapala, heavenly guardians, or Buddhist heavenly kings - were used as minqui or funerary sculptures to ward off any evil spirits that might infect the tomb of the deceased Chinese nobleman.

The demonic appearance of the guardians is accentuated by their flamboyant armor with its flaring epaulettes and opulent breastplates bound with elaborately painted red cords and sashes draped over their powerful chests and waists. Their tunics with red pigment over white slips underneath billowing out to the sides below the fringe of their leather aprons as well as their shin guards and boots are, also, elaborately detailed.

Their long sleeves flutter out to the sides revealing their naturalistic hands and fingers. Their heads each have fierce bulbous eyes protruding beneath furrowed brows, one with a beard and mustache, the other with teeth exposed, both framed by an upturned red collar, one with a simple helmet and the other with a higher, more elaborate headdress. Each guardian stands with its weight balanced on one foot with the other foot on the head, to the right, of a fawn and to the left, a bull calf.

By standing on an animal — or a demon -, the guardians demonstrated their power over natural elements and evil forces. Centered top and bottom are fictional superhero iconic images, Wolverine and Daredevil, international phenomena created by the American company, Marvel Comics. They are representative of the tough guardians who willingly used their deadly force — free of charge - that emerged in American culture post the Vietnam War.

Wolverine is a mutant possessing animal-keen senses and a number of natural and artificial improvements to his physiology including three retractable claws in each hand. Daredevil is a blind lawyer by day honoring our criminal justice system and, using his heightened senses, a vigilante by night taking the law into his own hands fighting crime on the streets of New York City. As the triangles here demonstrate by their overlap —red above, gold below -, the linking image in the center diamond, the landscape, could be from anywhere and anytime.

The sign contains the universal question mark, asking us to question all. It begins with Wolverine. From Daredevil, it continues its clockwise movement to the left and upwards through the calf the second Buddhist guardian is standing on, through the guardian itself and right, back to Wolverine. The circle is complete. Two of the images — the pair of guardians - are ancient and historical Chinese earthenware sculptures from the Tang Dynasty, The other image is a fish — ancient and for all times, from biblical and before to now.

The symbolism within these respective images is most interesting. The guardians - known as Lokapala, heavenly guardians, or Buddhist heavenly kings - were used as mingqi or funerary sculptures to accompany the deceased Chinese nobleman in his entombment to protect his spirit from evil forces. They were usually positioned on demons, though they are not here.

One guardian has one foot atop a corpulent deer, a symbol of longevity. The other has one foot between the curved horns of a recumbent water buffalo, a beast of burden especially suitable for tilling rice fields, and known for the richness of its milk — milk said to be richer in fat and protein than that of a dairy cow! The phoenix is a mythological bird that lived for over five-hundred years, consumed itself in fire, and, then, rose from the ashes to live again.

Fish have symbolic reference within various forms of spirituality and various cultures both Eastern and Western. In Buddhism, the fish symbolizes happiness and freedom. It is the symbol of the Christian faith — the Bible speaks of teaching one how to fish and feeding them for a lifetime. Its symbol was drawn in pagan times for protection, to let people know where it was safe to talk about their faith. In China, it is symbolic of happiness and freedom.

Physically fish never sleep and are constantly aware of their surroundings, of their mission. While their symbolic references provide a symbiosis between the three images, their attunement is initially perceived via their similar coloration. The guardians are wearing armored breastplates painted pale turquoise and bound with cords and sashes draped over their powerful chests and waists, their tunics underneath billowing out to the sides below the fringe of their leather aprons.

Their tunics and aprons are elaborately painted with dense patterns of large floral rose, red, and white blooms and foliate scrolls, with matching boots with knobbed black straps all against a gilt background. Their long sleeves flutter out to the sides revealing their naturalistic hands and fingers, one with hands held before its waist, the other with one hand to its side and one over its breastplate.

Their heads each have bulbous eyes protruding from beneath furrowed brows, one with a beard and mustache, the other with teeth exposed, both framed by an upturned collar and an elaborately winged headdress topped with a gilded phoenix-form helmet. There is no fish in nature like in pattern or coloration. The coloration is similar, however, to the coloration found in the sculptures presented.

As above, so below. What appears to be different has attributes that are actually quite similar. There is unity within diversity as we are seeing here. When he began this painting, he had no idea why he was incorporating them in the same composition. He leaves the why up to us, the viewer to see with the "eye" and the "I.

Legendary for their ability to endure up to several months without food, a week or more without water, and with a to year lifespan, they were domesticated 4, to 6, years ago in the steppes of eastern central Asia spreading from Asia Minor circa 4, BC to the Middle East circa 2, BC to China circa BC. In this arid and semi-arid land, they were vehicles of transportation for both goods and people playing an important role in the spread of trade, politics, religion, and culture along the Silk Road.

Due to the nature of the environment, to the topography of the land where they reside, they remain important vehicles of transportation still today. They, also, are vehicles through the resurgence of the sport of camel racing helping to preserve folklore, legends, and identity amidst a globalizing environment. Technology speaks! Pneumatic tires on the verge of extinction, like the bald, flat one here, to be replaced in the next 10 years or so with airless tires infused with metal and 3D biodegradable tires.

The camel survives. Even if one day they become extinct, the two camel minqui here testify to their importance in art and in culture. Some things remain, others change or are transformed, and still others conclude their lifespan. What documents each is art. A very famous Kabbalist of the sixteenth century, Rabi Moshe Cordovero, wrote a book titled "Pardes Rimonim," which is usually — but not quite accurately - translated as the "Garden of Pomegranates.

A pomegranate is the fruit of paradise. Its seeds are the first fruit one eats at the Seder of Rosh Hashanah. There are three pomegranates on the table in the still-life representing graphically and symbolically the Tree of Life. The Tree of Life has three columns: the right representing the spiritual aspect of everything that exists, the left - the material, and the center - the sexual. According to Kabbalah, the right and the left are an illusion.

Only the center exists. The union of Mahakalah, the wrathful diety who is both a protector and an archetype in Tibetan Buddhist practice, and his Consort is a necessity to overcome the false duality, the illusion of life. He is shown here embracing his prajna transcendent wisdom in yab-yum father — mother. This is a representation of the male deity in sexual union with his female Consort.

It is a symbol of union and sexual polarity that is a central teaching in Tantric Buddhism. It is a primordial and mystical union of compassion and wisdom. As in Kabbalah, the masculine form is active and the feminine form is passive. It is an act of sexuality that changes the consciousness of mankind from a spiritual to a more materialistic level, which is the one we are living in now.

How can it be sin? How can we reach the resemblance to our Creator if we do not try to create? Sexuality is a door to creation. Both Mahakalah and his Consort have six arms, the number of creation in the Kabbalah. He is embracing her with his primary arms while his remaining arms radiate around him. His Consort is holding a skull cup in her upper left hand and wearing a crown. He is wearing a tiger skin tied beneath his stomach, garlands of severed heads and skulls, and a skull crown on each of his three heads. His hair is a towering inferno of stylized flames.

The two images, the sculpture and the still life, complement one another. Though different, they exist together in harmony. They are each mystical, spiritual and symbolic illustrating the connection between two diverse traditions.

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Their support, however, is on a materialistic level. The painting communicates the past into the present, continuing the "heritage" into the future. Is this not a Tree of Life in itself? It was, then, on traveling exhibition - including Connecticut, Oklahoma, Texas, and Florida — through January, Usual Suspects has had a long run! So, many incarnations. His suspects - four trees, and, in windows, a bird and an egg — link nature with ancient, classical history. D , circa late 2nd — 3rd century, was probably one of a pair intended to carry the soul of the recently departed from the earthly realm to that of the immortal in a ritual funerary and burial ceremony wherein the vessel would have been filled with liquid through the opening in its back with its tail serving as the spout.

Blending the naturalist with the more formal, its curvaceous body provides a striking contrast to its prominent angular crest, protruding ears, and long narrow beak. The egg is of modern times probably from India though its origins are uncertain. Called a "lingam," it is a representation of the Hindu deity, Shiva. A "Brahmanda" or "cosmic egg," it signifies that creation is effected by the union of "Prakriti" and "Purusha," the male and female powers of Nature. Or, via the magic of contradiction, is the egg simply one painted at Easter as part of the family Easter basket or Easter egg hunt tradition?

The large, ancient trees seem immortal, demanding reverence and respect.

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They bare huge crops of seeds, populating huge forests with their offspring. Their shadows mark their territory on the surrounding grass and on each other. Many cultures have created their own myths around them, for instance some early people believed the spirits of their ancestors lived in trees.

This is similar to the Korean myth where the spirits of women who died in childbirth were thought to inhabit trees. The meticulously built and detailed stone wall while not one of the Usual Suspects ties them together like a ribbon on a gift package. It unites them West to East and North to South. Constructed of stones ranging in color from shades of blue, white, red, to earth tones, the boundary it creates provides the illusion of separating the blue sky above from the grass covering the earth below, when in fact it wraps them together.

The wall becomes not a line of demarcation but one of creation. Artistic license encourages the artist to seek meaning in disparate objects, to seek unity in the magic of contradiction, to link the past with the present. He — or she — opens the door for each of us to see, for see we do whatever it may be. It is the action which is important, the seeing, not the interpreting. It is this which creates that unity in diversity which Bismuth is seeking.

There are signposts in our lives, images — sometimes iconic, other times spiritual or material — given to us to inspire us to think and see differently. Although the connection between the lion of Korea and the horses of Bedford appears nebulous, the former being spiritual, the latter material and physical, it is nevertheless there.

One is protector. The other is protected. In Buddhism, lions, considered the kings of the animal kingdom, are protectors of dharma, the basic principles of cosmic or individual existence, of divine law. Here in Signposts! You will note that it has the shape of a dog. Depicted in white or blue coloration with turquoise manes and bodies dotted with orange, it is often found supporting the thrones of buddhas and bodhisattvas and at the entrance to monasteries and shrines. This sculpture, titled "The Lion of Korea," is carved of wood with pigmented decoration.

The horses crossing the road in Bedford are protected by the sign cautioning travelers to beware horses are present. The nearby metal horse figure leaning against the tree provides a second warning. We know a stable is near. We can see the stone walls and the pastures in the background beyond. What is most interesting is how Bismuth brings this into his reality. The light coming across the "tongja" from the east provides distinct shadowing on its head and, via the tail of the lion, on its feet.

The shadowing on the trees in the foreground, on the stone walls, the caution sign, the wooded pasture, all are vibrant signs of life. We note, too, that Bismuth does not want to overwhelm his lion of Korea. He strives to maintain a balance. The trees could be more detailed, the bark could be emphasized.

They are not. Rather than provide a photo-like illustration, a moment in time, he creates an ambivalence which enables us to link visually the dark, negative space behind the "Lion of Korea" with its opposite — the trees. Furthermore, we note his use of orange pigment on the east and the touches of it on the northwest corner of the painting — again a link, creating a cohesiveness.

The deep red fence on the west edge is the "pen" of the peacocks. Just hinted at, we are aware that this is a farm, this is horse country. Signposts are provided in our lives. It is up to us to be open to see, to bear witness. Moving to Bedford in was another. They together led to Signposts!

For Bismuth, one could not have happened without the other. There is a reason for everything. Linking disparate images both seated — or appearing to! In fact, he is standing astride his head and shoulders most likely going into battle. In Javanese legend, this jar holds the elixir of immortality, which was stolen from the gods. They had thought it well protected by two poisonous snakes, which Garuda now holds in his hands as he rises in flight, his legs folded under him and his long tail streaming behind him. This is definitely a hot seat! Seated stage left on a more modern day hot seat, a frying pan, is the skull of a warthog surrounded by golden and red beets and red radishes.

The warthog, its skull a representation of the animal itself, though a peaceful creature at heart, is a fierce and dangerous enemy. Beets and radishes have many attributes. While they are food for the body, they are valuable as offerings. For instance in Greek mythology, the beet was considered of such value that it was offered to the God Apollo at Delphi as a gesture of loyalty and gratitude.

Aphrodite, the Greek Goddess of Love, is often considered the unofficial Beet Goddess due to the heart-like shape and color of the beet. This relates to the radish, which in Hindu mysticism, is held in one of the left hands of Ganesh, the remover of obstacles. He encourages his devotees to grow more radishes - which he enjoys eating - than they require so that they might make offerings to him of their excess. Radishes symbolize abundance and have been cultivated since ancient times. The Chinese have grown them since B.

In the Middle Ages, the radish was associated symbolically with quarreling and conflict. Bismuth links these disparate images via light and shadow, color and position. The overall background is feathered here and there with red and blue, although the backgrounds per se are in contrast. That behind Krishna riding Garuda is dark while that surrounding three sides of the still life is white. The fourth side intrudes slightly over the border into the space of Garuda just touching his wing.

Shadows reinforce the linkage within the golden yellow area behind the still life and under Garuda as does the spotting of again red and blue. Note also the golden yellow hues within the white of the still life linking top with bottom. Furthermore, the white on which the frying pan rests has a tiny bit of red and blue continuing the linkage though defined with the white surrounding the still life, which, too, has spotting of red and blue. Each section is recognized by itself.


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Krishna and the warthog are warriors. They face their hot seats, their challenges with courage. They are accompanied by their removers of obstacles, which in another context might be looked upon as offerings or gifts. What is interesting is nothing is as it seems. There is a deeper message. The then is the Champa period in Vietnam. It is how he sees. He is painting his life. His three images are not juxtaposed one above another or beside another as we have seen in other of his paintings in his Asian Vision Series.

The primary image - the stone wall, tools, poles, a scythe and a skull - emanates from his Skull Series. It provides a background upon which there are two windows. Each window frames an image — the larger one on the right, the Lady, and the smaller one on the left, the turtle. These two images, also, give the painting its title.

The overall subject traversing the entire canvas from left to right is light and shadow. While one is aware the Lady is not whole, that she has appendages missing and damage here and there, the way she is positioned on her pedestal surrounded by darkness, one has the perception via the shadowing created by the passage of the light as it traverses left to right, that she is there in toto. One is aware of perfection within imperfection.

Placing the Lady in this window permits, as well as emphasizes, this dichotomy. The turtle is one of the four sacred animals in Vietnamese culture. A symbol of divinity, it also is a symbol of peace, disarmament and the ending of wars. There is a legend dating back to the 15th century relating to the history of Ha Noi. When this turtle asked the Emperor for his sword, the Emperor threw it to him. The lake was later renamed "Hoan Kiem," which translates to "Returned Sword. While this coloration links the two images, the further question is whether the turtle usage itself is co-incidental or purposeful and designed.

Basically, everything is there when Bismuth needs it from the intensity of his texturing to his themes. The turtle just happens to have a connection to Vietnam. His business partner just happens to have an extensive turtle collection. Nothing is coincidental though there is synchronicity. He wants us to see things differently, to see with more than just our eyes understanding that art is a language for all senses. It speaks directly to the viewer, to the heart, the soul, and the intellect.

It has nine elements. Seven are from nature. The eighth is the material. And, the ninth is the spiritual, transcending all. All the elements are looking west according to the topographic map-view of the painting. The sun rises in the East to the right and above the ninth element, the spiritual element represented by Ganesh, the son of Shiva. Resting on a base molding, this Ganesh is from the Gupta Empire which extended from to c. Known as the Golden Age of India, it was renowned for its magnificent sculpture and architecture.

One does see the rich adornment on his conical-shaped headdress, his earrings, necklace, and belt which complement the bracelets on his arms and ankles. As the light proceeds West, it rests on the seven elements of nature, the seven animal skulls: the European boar, the African buffalo, the African antelope, the horse, the warthog, the lioness, and the young lion. The skulls rest on the eighth element, the materialistic, the table top. This table top was recycled from a wood panel that Bismuth originally used in for a tempera painting of a landscape.

Its color now is blue, with multi-colored highlights and shadows. One shadow, the predominant one, created by the light on the horns of the African buffalo has the appearance of a quarter moon. Light and shadow are always of importance to Bismuth. Looking West creates a harmony wherein an ancient work of art, a classical sculpture, can exist together with aged skulls of diverse animals.

Their re-interpretation results in a re-vitalization, a continuation of past to present, and a new cultural construct. In Pintos , he links one ancient culture to another, the Cambodian to the Native American. It is believed to be the horse which went into the universe to retrieve the stolen vedas. Bismuth brings it together in this diptych with the pinto horse, which has traditionally been regarded by Native American Indians as their favored war horse due to its coloration.

Its dark background with random spots of white provided natural camouflage. Bismuth, also, explores in Pintos the relationship between the inanimate and the animate. The sculptures are ancient with exquisite detailing — note the intricate detail in the head pieces -, the fourteen pintos are living, vital horses. By playing with the spots, he is creating a link between the past and the present. There is no longer a division, rather a living, breathing dynamism between horse and horse, horse and sculpture, between now and then.

This is further enhanced by the spacing between the elements in the painting, between the black and the white. By presenting this negative spacing, he is creating an empty space for us to "see" within, for us to create our own vision.

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Fraught with tension, albeit non-aggressive, one is struck by the expression of the pintos - their eyes, their posture. Strong and fierce in attitude, they appear spooked. The paintings coloration provides the perfect dramatic emphasis. While not painting in grisaille per se, Bismuth utilizes some of the technique, but only some. Pintos is very rich in color overall as well as in the variety of color in its underpainting. Could it go beyond intellectual pursuit to spiritual revelation? This is left for the viewer to consider. The number two rules all aspects of life.

Often considered the polarization of the number one, the masculine and the feminine for instance, they are complementary poles working in sync just as the turtles are working in sync here in Number 2. Turtles in Buddhism, as in Native American lore, support the world. In Number 2 , there are four turtles — two and two, so above, so below - representing the four elements - fire, air, water and earth. The bottom two turtles are heading east. The life-like antique Thai wooden turtle represents earth.

It supports the blue jeweled turtle representing water. The upper two turtles are heading west. The spotted turtle represents air. It supports the antique red wooden Thai turtle representing fire. The fifth element of Number 2 is the spiritual. It is, also, the central element. Here it is a 16th century copper alloy Thai sculpture of Buddha. The serene expression on his oval face with his eyes lowered in meditation as well as the snail-shell shaped curls in rows on his head are Sukhothai elements.

Together these five elements form a capital Z, the ancient pictogram for the number two. They symbolize the movement of the universe - two forces appearing to be rotating in opposite directions off a central axis but actually in sync, complementing one another. Together the four turtles form the upper and lower arms of the pictogram.

When Rorschach Left the Horses by the Tree

Buddha is the central axis. All revolves around the spiritual element. For Henry Bismuth, his themes are about life and living, rejuvenation and transformation. They are all part of his diary in images, his ongoing autobiography be they Asian sculptures, skulls, trees, a stack of logs, a horse, a stick, or a combination thereof, which is most often the case. Tiger Buddha asks us to see. Bismuth gives us a hint of this and of his vision by his graphic representation of the coloration of a Bengal tiger — its yellow-orange coat and brownish-black stripes and its white underbelly.

He wants us to visually hear its roar, to see through his linkage of two entirely different subjects, a classical sculpture and two horse skulls, their presence in today.

The ancient, heavily detailed gray bas-relief stone sculpture of Buddha is from Nepal, witnessed by the curls on its forehead and by its small, high ponytail. The red and yellow kumkum on its forehead is placed on the sixth chakra, the third eye. Located equidistant between the eyebrows, this space is believed to be the channel through which humankind opens spiritually to the divine. A similar red gives intensity to the background of the horse skulls, which Bismuth has painted floating in the space above and below Buddha.

The skull above is yellow-orange within a brownish-black background. The one below is its inverse, brownish-black within a yellow-orange background. Both are presented in side view. There is a challenge in that one eye looking directly out at us. The white encircling the painting accents the linkage and draws us within. We are in its underbelly.

All is food for thought, nutrition in one way or another be it spiritual or otherwise. It becomes now a question of digestion. Stage right before the cosmos, right of the books of knowledge, the Japanese Bodhisattva is in the foreground offering sincere welcome to all. In the Royal Observatory was established at Greenwich, England, and accurate ephemeral data on the Moon were slowly accumulated there, as well as at various observations on the Continent.

In the English Nautical Almanac appeared, combining much astronomical data in a single source. Incidentally, this publication eventually led to the universal adoption of the meridian of Greenwich as the prime meridian for establishing Longitude. In , this was established by an international agreement. Prior to that, all of the seafaring nations had their own "Prime Meridian", causing Longitude to be different on charts created in different countries.

The advent of the Nautical Almanac facilitated the working of lunar distance observations, and the invention of the sextant in made it possible to obtain such observations with considerable, accuracy. The lengthy mathematical calculations involved in lunar distance observations deterred many navigators from making use of this method and the bait of coming to the Latitude of the vessel's destination, and then sailing due East or West to the port, remained in wide use. Only after the simplification of the lunar method by Nathaniel Bowditch in , the use of lunar distance observation was considerably widened.

Even with a chronometer on board, lunar distance observations continued to be used in isolated areas as a check on chronometers until the invention of radio. The lengthy tables of "Maritime Positions," listed in Bowditch through the edition, were included primarily to permit checking the accuracy of the chronometer by means of celestial observations.

John Harrison developed a prototype chronometer in , and submitted a perfected instrument to the Royal Navy for sea trials in Improved models were produced by him over the next 40 years; they ran well, but were extremely expensive, and their use was long highly restricted. Only in this century did the chronometer come into wide use, greatly facilitating the determination of Longitude.

The invention of radio permitted a regular and easy check on its accuracy. With the invention of the chronometer, when the Latitude was known, it became possible to compute the Longitude, using the time sight method. This method of navigation remained popular into this century, as a position could be determined without plotting. The era of the "new navigation" came with the introduction of the altitude-difference method of determining a line of position by Commander Adolphe-Laurent-Anatole Marcq de Blonde de Saint-Hilaire, of the French Navy, in This method remains the basis of almost all Celestial Navigation used at sea today.

The approach is to solve the problem backward to simplify the calculation. Instead of using the observed data to locate the observer directly, an assumed position is used as a reference and the altitude and bearing is calculated for this assumed position. This calculated altitude is then compared to the observed altitude.

The altitude-difference gives the distance between the point of observation and the assumed position yielding a line of position. The Marcq Saint-Hilaire method, as it is generally called, remained in common use on board of military and merchandising ships through the first decades of the 20th century and remains the basis of almost all Celestial Navigation used at sea today. Computed altitude and azimuth angle were calculated by means of the log sine, cosine, and haversine, and natural haversine tables included in Bowditch.

Subsequently sight reduction was greatly simplified by the coming of the various so called short-method tables - such as the Weems Line of Position Book, Dreisonstok's H. Even greater simplification was achieved when the inspection tables, H. The final step is use of the programmable electronic calculator. However, the wise navigator will always have familiar back-up methods to rely upon if necessary; he may even need to find his Longitude by a lunar distance observation on occasion.

Sail Away. Dead Reckoning Navigation Prior to the development of Celestial Navigation, sailors navigated by "deduced" or "de a d" reckoning. Latitude Sailing Viking merchants navigated their ships - "knarr" - on regular journeys over the north Atlantic connecting their settlements in Norway, Iceland and Greenland. The quadrant was the first instrument developed for use in Celestial Navigation, dating back to the 15th century.

It was a very simple device constructed of wood or metal in the form of a quarter circle with degree graduations along the arc. It had sights along one of the radial arms and a plumb bob suspended from the right angle. The observer held the quadrant with the arc straight down and looked up through the sights at the Sun or star. When his sights were aligned, he simply held the plumb line fixed against the face of the quadrant between his finger and thumb and read off the altitude from the scale.

In Drake's day, the quadrant was probably most commonly employed on land to make North Star observations. The cross staff in use in was a simple device that worked reasonably well for measuring the angle of the Sun above the horizon at noon. It was fitted with one movable vane transversary that, with the end of the staff placed at the eye of the observer, was positioned so that it appeared to touch both the horizon and the Sun.

The angle was then read from a scale on the staff. The cross staff was the method of choice on a rocking ship since its use did not rely on gravity. The mariner's astrolabe in common use by English seamen at the time was a wheel-shaped, cast-brass instrument of perhaps 20 or 30 centimetre in diameter with a thumb ring at the top. The ring mount was designed to allow the instrument to hang vertically plumb and to provide for precise rotational control by the user. The disk was divided into four quadrants, two or more of which had scales divided into 90 degrees each. The astrolabe had a rotating sighting arm alhidade , mounted through the center.

Though the astrolabe offered a reliable and accurate method of measuring altitude, the mariner's ability to read the degree scales along the rim was a limiting factor on the precision of the observation. Since each degree division for a centimetre diameter instrument was only about 2 millimetre, the mariner could read the angle only to the nearest half degree. As with the quadrant, the mariner's ability to make an astrolabe sighting at sea could be completely frustrated by movement of the ship.

On his first voyage to the Pacific, , Captain James Cook did not carry a chronometer, and determined his Longitude by lunar distances. In he charted New Zealand with remarkable accuracy. Observations were all made afloat by Cook, himself, and Charles Green, an astronomer, using Hadley sextants. Below the northern shrine, is a stone relief of Amoghasiddha, with a couple of attendant mermaids seated on a coil of snakes. In front of this northern shrine is a square basin or depression in the pavement, in which these attendant serpents of Amoghasiddha are supposed to reside.

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  3. Captain Henry Warre (1819-1898).
  4. {ARPG} Intergalactic Bank of Centuary by Celestial-Seas on DeviantArt.

April Shrine of the 5th Celestial Buddha, Amoghasiddha on the north side of the base of the temple of Adi Buddha, Sambhunath.