The idea of progress p. Trouble In Paradise 2. A Government for Native Hawaiians? Inukshuk 2. A Mohawk Filmmaker 3. An Engaged Artist Your Task Give a speech to convince a museum director to exhibit the work of aboriginal artists p. A Land of Opportunity 2. The Internet of the 19th Century 3. New Horizons Your Task Convince your town to be on the transcontinental railroad route p. Buffalo Land 2. The Work of Giants 3. The March of Bricks and Mortars 2.
Portraits of the City 3. Angry Young Men 2. Work Your Way Up! Made in Dagenham Your Task Imagine your own kitchen sink drama p.
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George and Lennie 2. Jay Gatsby 3. American Gothic Your Task Present a teenage antihero p. One of a Kind 2. No More Good Guys 3. Mount Vernon 2. A Temporary Capital 3. Great Presidents 2. From Legend to National Myth 3. Myths and heroes, The idea of progress Create the catalogue of an exhibition Ride this Train 5 How did the train transform the United States? The idea of progress Create an audioguide for the National Railroad Museum Breaking Bad 7 Take part in an online exhibition on American antiheroes How does the antihero redefine the American heroic ideal? Do Presidents and the White House represent more than political power?
Harvey Girls 2. No Future 2. Myths and heroes p. Unlikable, So What? Where Are the Bad Girls? Your Task Draw the portrait of an antiheroine for a new TV series p. Playing the Part 2. Playing the Role 3. What's in a Name? Your Task Name a new public library after one of the First Ladies p. Places and forms of power p. Tableau des contenus Winds of Change? Rebel Girls p. Country Songs 2. A Feminist Icon 2. Picturesque Scotland p. Scottish Icons 2. A True Scot? Inventing a Nation 2. The New Splendor 3.
Give Us a Haggis! Your Task Contribute your opinion in a radio phone-in to propose a Scottish effigy to be included on a new banknote p. Myths and heroes Create a short documentary on Scotland for kids How do female American musicians portray women in their songs? Taylor Swift Grows Up 2. Pop Stars vs Role Models 3. Speaking Out! Your Task Prepare an interview for Rolling Stone magazine p.
William Wallace 2. Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots 3. A Modern Defender of Independence Your Task Write an emotional speech to be delivered days before a new Scottish independence referendum p. Close your book. Name as many countries as you can where English is widely spoken. Look at the map. Focus on the countries in blue. Why do you think English is spoken in those countries? Read the quotes. Which one rings true to you? Do you agree with him? Why not? How many languages do you speak or understand? Find out what languages besides French your classmates speak. Then, together prepare a graph showing the languages spoken in the class and react to it.
Language is the road map of a culture. It tells you where its people come from and where they are going. Countries where English is one of the official languages, but not the primary language. Of course a bilingual state is more expensive than a unilingual one — but it is a richer state. The History of English 1. Then, close your book and try to recap: what languages have influenced English over time? Watch the video and note down everything you understand.
Organise your notes in three parts: peoples, words, humour. Watch the video again and focus on: — the various peoples who influenced the evolution of English originally, — the kind of words each people brought, — the humourous references, — the key dates in English history. Search the Internet and gather information to make an oral presentation about the history of French.
The challenge is to keep it under 30 seconds, so be fast and to the point! The language has evolved and Old English: the language which was spoken in England between about A. It was brought by the Anglo-Saxons, a Germanic tribe. Norman French: the dialect of Old French spoken in Normandy in the 11th century. Latin: the classical language spoken in the Roman Empire during Antiquity and used in the liturgy of the Catholic Church.
Old Norse: the Germanic language spoken by the Vikings in Scandinavia between the 9th and 13th centuries. How can learning English change your life? A group of students are in Cambridge to improve their English. Listen and answer these questions: a. Who is talking? What do they think about the importance of English?
Do you agree with them? Why is English so important today? It's all about the future The British Council has asked you to make a speech in English to convince younger students to take English lessons and work hard. Why is English Important? Look at the poster carefully. What country does it target? Then, think about your own reasons and share them with your classmates.
Read the article and sum up the reasons why English is important, using about 40 words. If you are currently learning English in a school, college or institute of further education, you join approximately one billion other people around the world who are engaged in the same pursuit. But, why is English important? After Mandarin, English is spoken by more people than anyotherlanguage,andisthenativelanguageofmorethan million people.
More people speak English than those who speak the Arabic and French languages combined. English can be fun too. For instance, the music of such stars as Elvis Presley, The Beatles, Led Zeppelin, Michael Jackson and Madonna has encouraged fans to speak the language of their idols, whilst others have enrolled in English classes to improve their understanding of the dialogue in films and TV shows.
They may even have an interest in speaking English just to converse with travellers from other countries, who communicate by using the English global interlingua while travelling abroad. Spoken English is used in the best careers, the best universities, and is increasingly being used at job interviews. So like it or not, English is a very important language to learn. Vance Carson, www. Your Task Take part in a poetry slam session 2 2. Spanglish 1. Focus on the title of the activity. Focus on the title of the text. What is a graduation speech?
What do you expect the text will deal with? Read the text. What does this poem reveal about the author? Justify your answer by quoting from the text. English vs Globish 1. Look at the cartoon. Where do you think the action takes place? Explain the situation in your own words. What is the difference between English and Globish? Do you think Globish is the future of English? The Nuyorican movement is a cultural and intellectual movement involving artists who are Puerto Rican or of Puerto Rican descent. It originated in New York City in the late s and early s.
Anticipate Anticipate Anticipate Would you please be so kind as to point me in the direction of the premises where I will find some relief? Toilets, please! How does English interact with other languages? Montreal English 1. What do you know about the languages spoken in Canada? Read the text and make a list of all the French words and expressions. Do you understand all of them? If not, try to guess their meaning. What does it reveal about the city? What about you? Do you use foreign words when speaking in French? Singlish 1. Where is Singapore? Can you imagine why English is spoken there?
Listen again and answer these questions: a. When do Singaporeans speak Singlish? Why is it useful? Do foreigners need Singlish? Look for another English- based pidgin language and present it to the class. For better, and, some might say, for worse, our dialect has a true je ne sais quoi.
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You might not even know the English equivalent. This happens with non-official languages as well. So you will get a lot of code-switching between English and Italian in St. Leonard, or between English and Greek in Chomedey, between French and other languages. The class will vote for the best slam. English is Irresistible Mark Zuckerberg recently scored points during his visit to Beijing when he made some remarks in Mandarin.
Fluency in Mandarin will always be helpful for foreigners doing business in China, much like mastery of Portuguese will give you a leg up in Brazil. The odds against a Chinese dialect ever gaining traction as an international language are formidable, for linguistic, economic, cultural, and political reasons. For starters, the language is just too hard for outsiders to attain fluency.
Imagine why Mandarin Chinese could be or could not be a challenger to English as a global language. Find arguments for and against it. Read the article. What does the journalist think about the idea of Chinese replacing English as the main global language? Find the linguistic, economic and political reasons why Chinese cannot replace English according to the author.
Is it still an advantage to speak the local language, in addition to English? Can you imagine what other languages could replace English in the future and why? It is also the third most spoken language in the US. Spanish is spoken by half a billion people in the world. Hindi is the official language of India, a rapidly-growing country in Asia, spoken by circa million people. French used to be the international language of culture and diplomacy. Today it is spoken by million people worldwide. It is an official language in 29 countries, second to English only. What is the future of English?
Look at the book cover. Who do you think David Crystal is? What is the book about? Listen to the audio. Group A focuses on how English became predominant before the 20th century. Group B focuses on the key elements that helped English remain the first language in the world in the 20th century. Share your findings with the other group. Then, use all the information that you have to write a paragraph about the future of English according to David Crystal. In shops and businesses, as well as on signs and posters, French must have a predominant position.
Listen to the debate and take notes to write a short article for a newspaper. Is Monsieur Ed breaking the law? According to him, what poses the biggest threat to French culture in Quebec? Are there any regions in France where two languages coexist? Find out what the situation is and report to the class. Your Final Task The BBC has asked teenagers from around the world to participate in a documentary about the importance of English today and in the future.
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Each student will record a video clip giving his or her opinion. Clips should be 1 minute to 2 minutes long. Look back through this unit to decide what you will talk about. Here are some ideas: why speaking English is so important today, how English influences and interacts with other languages, the future of English as a lingua franca, etc. Take a few notes about your ideas and write a first draft of the script. Revise it with a partner, improve it and come up with the final version. Practise reading your script. Feel free to check the pronunciation of difficult words in the dictionary or online.
Shoot your video clip. Be charismatic! Vous pouvez poser des questions, raconter une anecdote.
Be active! Utilisez des gestes pour accompagner les mots et souriez. Look the part! Send your clip!
We need your opinion! Everybody agrees that English is essential.
But do we really know the reasons why it is so important to know the language? Today English is all over the place. But why bother learning it in the age of online translation? Des efforts pour complexifier le propos et le rendre vivant. Quelques efforts pour donner du rythme au discours. B2 Le recours aux notes est rare.
Le discours est fluide. Therefore English will remain the lingua franca. Utilisez des gap fillers pour combler vos silences Er Do you often have the opportunity to speak it or write it outside school? How important do you think it will be in your future? Your teacher will hand you a text. Read it and answer the questions. Terminez toujours un oral avec les arguments qui illustrent le mieux votre point de vue. This year in class, we have been working on the topic of I speak French, English and Italian.
My sister teaches English at university. English has always been my favourite subject. Globish is easier than English. Singlish is more popular than Standard English among young people in Singapore. Spanglish is as difficult as Singlish. Pidgin English is less standard than Oxford English. Pidgin English is not as standard as Oxford English.
Montreal has one of the most distinctive varieties of English in North America. English and French are both quite widespread, but English is now the more popular. This variety of English is considered the least easy to understand. Classify them into one of the three types and find the rules governing their pronunciation. Could, should, would 2 Check the pronunciation of the words could, should and would in a dictionary.
Practise saying the words out loud. Then, practise saying this tongue twister aloud. Can you translate it into French? How much wood would a woodchuck chuck if a woodchuck could chuck wood? He would chuck, he would, as much as he could, which would be much more than he should. Divide the class into two groups: each group has to try to convince the other that Globish is superior to English and vice versa.
Write down a few sentences using comparatives and superlatives. Use them during the debate to support your point of view. English may stay a global language for centuries or end, who knows? Chinese might also become a lingua franca, but it is far more difficult to learn. No one knows for sure what will happen in the future. Other languages could also take over. Vocabulary The way you speak 3 Match each sentence with the right definition.
When you are fluent in a language. If you butcher English. When you have a working knowledge of English. When you are bilingual. You are able to express your basic needs. You make it sound really bad. You speak English as written and spoken by educated people. You speak it very well. You have a perfect command of two languages. How I feel about languages 2 Fill in the charts with information about your relationship with languages. Make hypotheses. Then, check in the dictionary. What do you notice? Later the power of American imperialism. And the two most productive nations of the world were Britain and America, both using English.
They are marked in red in the sentence. This sends shivers down my spine. Have you met my friend Colin? I admit that I was wrong; please accept my apologies. A cup of tea would be very welcome. In groups, imagine four more examples and ask another group to translate them. Then, write one sentence for each collocation to give your opinion on the future of the English language. In my opinion 2. I am certain that… 3. I agree with you. Excuse me for interrupting It goes without saying that I hold the view that I am with you on that point. No way! Can I throw my two cents in? Success or failure?
Make the necessary adaptations. Mandarin as the new lingua franca … because it is too difficult to learn. Katherine … French. Speaking another language besides English can … to find a job. English … thanks to the Internet. Speaking Globish … to communicate with tourists. Read the following sentences to understand the context in which they can be used; then, match each of them with the best definition. It took him a while to adapt to his new job. Please modify this letter to make it more polite. The dress was too big so she had to alter it. Buying a dishwasher transformed my life. There is no country in the world with the diversity, confidence, talent and black pride of Nigeria.
Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, Nigerian novelist, Americanah 1. What do you know about Nigeria? Look at the map and the captions. What is the official language? Where is Lagos located? Describe the city of Lagos. Why is it a model mega-city? What can you do in Lagos? Anticipate Unit 2 [ 31 ]. Look at the picture. Sum up the reasons for visiting Nigeria. Write a text to convince your family to visit Nigeria.
A New Dawn 1. What do you think are the most dynamic sectors in Nigeria today? Read the text and make a list of the different sectors that are evoked. Can you explain the main developments in those different fields? Sum up this speech in less than words. A nation that does not feed itself becomes a threat to its own sovereign existence. Growing our own food, processing what we produce, becoming competitive in export markets, and creating jobs all across our economy, are crucial for our national security.
Nigeria was food self-sufficient in the s and was well known for its global position in major agricultural commodities. Then we found oil and became too dependent on it. Diamonds may last forever, but oil does not. The future trajectory of earnings from crude oil does not look good, as other nations are finding shale oil and shale gas. We must free ourselves from dependency on crude oil. Agriculture is the sector where we have the greatest potential to achieve this — and now is the time. Agriculture has become the new buzz in Nigeria.
Young graduates are moving into agriculture as a business. Today, bankers are leaving the banks and heading for agriculture. The new millionaires of Nigeria will be in agriculture. It is a new dawn. The journey to make Nigeria a global powerhouse in food is still ongoing. But the results we have achieved in two years make me confident that we will get there. Looking for investors You work as an ambassador for the Nigerian government. Convince a group of European entrepreneurs to invest in the country. Naija Made Me 1. What is the objective of the campaign?
Read the text and make a list of the different places mentioned. In your opinion, what might be the pros and cons of living in Lagos for the returnees? Lagos has never been, will never be, and has never aspired to be like New York, or anywhere else for that matter. Lagos has always been undisputably itself, but you would not know this at the meeting of the Nigerpolitan Club, a group of young returnees who gather every week to moan about the many ways that Lagos is not like New York as though Lagos had ever been close to being like New York.
Full disclosure: I am one of them. Most of us have come back to make money in Nigeria, and even though our complaints are legitimate, I imagine myself as an outsider saying: Go back where you came from! It represents the new Nigeria, the true Nigeria that they are striving to build. Challenges Nigeria's 2 1. Bring Back Our Girls 1. React to the picture. Read and present Boko Haram.
What have they done in Nigeria? Put the events in the right order. A hashtag campaign was launched. Hundreds of women protested. The government did not react. Boko Haram terrorized local populations. Boko Haram abducted girls in Chibok. Boko Haram still kidnaps girls today. Write a paragraph with these sentences, using link words. In groups, think about a problem that the world is confronted with.
Create a hashtag to raise awareness about it. Then, explain your choice. Thedeadlybombingsandbrazen kidnappings are the hallmarks of the insurgent group, which has terrorized local populations and regularly engages the Nigerian militaryinbloodycombat. Itaimstodestabilizeandultimatelyoverthrow the government, then establish an Islamic caliphate in its place. Several hundred women marched on the Parliament building in Abuja, and a social media campaign employing the hashtag BringBackOurGirls took off.
The situation has worsened since then: a Human Rights Watch report released in October estimated that at least women and girls have been abducted by Boko Haram since it began its insurgency in TheNewYorkTimes 2. Look at the image and make hypotheses about what the podcast might be about. Listen to the beginning of the podcast. Who are Mrs Walker and Mrs Ekine? What are they talking about? Listen to the interview and write down the reasons why it is hard for girls to get into schools. Listen again.
Focus on the second problem and take as many notes as you can. Then, write a short report for an international press agency explaining the situation and offering some solutions. Nigerian School GIrls, J. Ethnic and religious tensions soon arise. What challenges is Nigeria facing today? Tackling Corruption 1. Read the quote.
Is black gold a curse or a blessing, according to the writer? Look at the still and the title to anticipate on the video. Watch the first part of the video and explain what happened in Bodo. Watch the second part of the video and list the people responsible for what happened in Bodo. Give details. Anticipate A TV guest The host of a TV show wants you to take part in a special programme on Nigeria with a recorded speech that will be aired during the broadcast. Record a two-minute speech on three of the main challenges that Nigeria is facing today: education, terrorism and corruption.
Nollywood 1. Look at the poster and imagine what Nollywood stories deal with. Listen to the interview and take notes on Emem Isong and her work. What innovations did she bring to Nollywood? What kind of films do you like? Would you like to watch a Nollywood movie? Portraying the Nation 1. Look at the still and the title. What do you think the video is about? Watch and take notes. Share your findings with your classmates. What have you found out about him? What makes a portrait beautiful according to him? Do you think art makes Nigeria richer?
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It is the third-largest film industry in the world with more than 1, low-budget movies produced each year. Your Task Time to tweet! You are the community manager for the Nigerian Ministry of Culture. Write a tweet including at least one hashtag to promote Nigerian culture.
Remember that you are limited to characters! Look at the book covers and read the reviews. Which book would you prefer to read? Find the following information about Ms Adichie in the text: full name, age, nationality, place of residence, bibliography and awards. Is Ms Adichie a successful writer? Find at least three justifications. Another suggested changing the setting from Nigeria toAmerica. BlackliterarywriterswithAfricanroots thoughsome grew up elsewhere , mostly young cosmopolitans who write in English, are making a splash in the book world, especially in the United States.
They are on best-seller lists, garner high profile reviews and win major awards, in America and in Britain. Ms Adichie, who divides her time between the United States and Nigeria and runs a summer writing workshop in Lagos, has now written three well- receivednovelsandabookofstories. Shehasamassed awards and has a movie adaptation this year of her novel Half of a Yellow Sun, about the Biafran war.
The success of Half of a Yellow Sun , after the critical embrace of Purple Hibiscus , was a major factor in sending publishers scrambling to find other talented African writers. They have several identities and they speak several languages. Lee, The New York Times 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 What are the cultural forces of this young and emerging nation? Haunting and suspense-filled. Lonely Planet is launching a new Nigerian travel guide. You have been appointed to create an interactive map of the country that will be included in the app.
Download a map of Nigeria from www. You can also use another one of your choice. Look at the map, revise the unit and decide on the topics that you will cover. Think about tourist spots, cultural landmarks, conflict areas Write a draft version of the texts a minimum of five.
You can start practising the pronunciation of the texts that you will record. Select the parts of the map that will be associated with each text written or audio. Include images and illustrations in the map to make it attractive. Go to www. Import your image and the audio files you recorded and embed them on the map. Make it snappy! Soyez enthousiaste. On vous comprendra mieux si vous prenez votre temps en parlant. Rehearse, rehearse, rehearse! Your Final Task Zuma Rock is a must-see. It is located to the north of Nigeria's capital Abuja.
Nollywood is based in Lagos and Kano. It is the third-largest movie industry in the world. Nigeria is one of the most exciting places to visit in Africa. A2 Le discours est assez fluide. Faites un plan avec de grandes parties et classez vos arguments. Your teacher will give you an excerpt from Americanah. Dans quels secteurs?
The idea of progress can be defined as an improvement, a development In Nigeria progress Vous pouvez vous enregistrer! I reckon oil brought Ils se placent entre le sujet et le verbe ou entre le sujet et le 1er auxiliaire du groupe verbal. Earnings from crude oil may drop in the future. The oil industry might prove more resilient than people think, though. Nigerians could generate huge revenue from agriculture and agro-based industries. Write an email to your banker explaining why you think opening a hotel in Lagos is a good investment opportunity.
Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie has written three well-received novels since her debut in Assess the current situation of young women in some parts of Nigeria. Focus on the opportunities they have attained in higher education in the past years. Focus on what she has achieved. Our firm is to supply materials to this new company. Agribusiness is about to revolutionise the economy. Nigeria is bound to make rapid progress. Grammar community. Pronouncing idea 1 Check the pronunciation of the word idea in a dictionary.
Practise saying the word aloud. Last year this chevalier had an idea. This idea was very clear. He was going to rear a deer. Listen to the following words. Classify them into the three types and try to find the rules governing their pronunciation. Not enough Nigerian women have been allowed access to higher education.
Tell about what happened to girls and women and the effect this has had on the population. Decide which ones will be pronounced in British English. Then, listen to the audio to check your answers. The Niger delta has some of the biggest oil fields in the world. In June two thousand and thirteen in the dead of night, a massive explosion occurred on a major Shell pipeline, near the village of Bodo, spilling thousands of barrels of oil into the swamps.
Vocabulary Compound words 1 Combine the words to form compounds. Then, match each compound with its definition a to e. Despite our busy schedule, we managed to do some President Buhari has thanked the United States for its There is a long stretch of sand at Port Harcourt with Unlike oil, diamonds may be Nigeria's Tourist, tourism and touristy 2 Look up in the dictionary the definition of the words tourist s , tourism and touristy. Then, complete the following sentences with the right one. This weekend marks the unofficial beginning of the This place is overcrowded!
It has become so Describe it! Then, match them with their definition. Then, write a short promotional text using the flattering adjectives seen in exercise 3. Now fill in the gaps with the right idioms. Be careful with possible changes. In , coming across the global phenomenon that is Nollywood, Njoku realised that there was So he moved from London to Lagos and created the African Netflix. Ikeji has adopted a very innovative sales strategy and has really started The year-old businessman has the following advice: if you really believe in something, Just go ahead and do it.
Debo and Tola Onigbanjo have co-founded Women4Africa, an organisation celebrating, recognising, and honouring African women who have made great impact in their communities. They are the real Prior to the Civil War , the country was The most important food crops are yam and manioc. The dominance of smallholders in the cocoa sector and the lack of farm labour due to urbanisation On the other hand, soybean cultivation in Nigeria has It is also a prime source of vegetable oil on the Coping with challenges 6 Use the right preposition to complete these idioms.
To challenge somebody To rise To take Then, use these adjectives to describe the poster p. Look at the pictures and react to it. What activities are associated with Hawaii? Would you like to go there? Read the quotes and try to show the common points and the differences between them. What is the most idyllic place you would like to visit? Cry for the gods, cry for the people. Cry for the land that was taken away. What do you think it is about? The Gate. Dedicated To You. Man In The Air. Flirting With Twilight.
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