A breakthrough idea promotes the circular economy by using cellulose or lignin from plant waste, which increases material strength without using crops that could otherwise be used for food. Today's robots can recognise voices, faces and emotions, interpret speech patterns and gestures, and even make eye contact. Droid friends and assistants are becoming part of everyday life, and are being used increasingly to care of the elderly, educate children and undertake all sorts of tasks in between. Making the lenses used by mobile phones, computers and other electronic devices smaller has been beyond the capabilities of traditional glass cutting and glass curving techniques.
But advances in physics have led to miniaturised, lighter alternatives to established lenses, called metalenses.
Giuseppe Arcimboldo - Wikipedia
These tiny, thin, flat lenses could replace existing bulky glass lenses and allow further miniaturization in sensors and medical imaging devices. Unlike conventional proteins, they lack a rigid structure so change shape, making them difficult to treat. Now scientists have found a way to prevent their shape-shifting long enough for treatment to take effect, offering new possibilities for patients. Recent improvements in fertilizers have focused on their ability to slowly release nutrients when needed. However, they still contain ammonia, urea and potash which damage the environment.
New fertilizers use more ecologically friendly sources of nitrogen, and microorganisms that improve take-up by plants. Imagine a video conference where you not only feel like you're in the same room as the other attendees, you can actually feel one another's touch. A mix of Augmented Reality AR , Virtual Reality AR , 5G networks and advanced sensors, mean business people in different locations can physically exchange handshakes, and medical practitioners are able to work remotely with patients as though they are in the same room.
Giuseppe Arcimboldo: The Great Grandfather Of Surrealism
About million people eat contaminated food each year and it's essential to locate the source of an outbreak immediately. What used to take days or even weeks to trace can now be tracked in minutes, using blockchain technology to monitor every step of a food item's progress through the supply chain. Meanwhile, sensors in packaging can indicate when food is about to spoil, reducing the need to waste whole batches once an expiry date is reached. Although nuclear power emits no carbon dioxide, reactors come with a safety risk that fuel rods can overheat and, when mixed with water, produce hydrogen, which can then explode.
But new fuels are emerging that are much less likely to overheat, and if they do, will produce little or no hydrogen. These new configurations can replace existing fuel rods with little modification. Our data storage systems use a lot of energy and can't keep up with the vast - and ever-increasing - quantities of data we produce.
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In less than a century they are set to reach capacity. But breakthrough research is using DNA-based data storage, as a low-energy alternative to computer hard drives, with huge capacity: One estimate suggests all the world's data for a year could be stored on a cube of DNA measuring just a square metre. But storing energy generated by renewables for when there is no sun or wind has been a barrier to increased take-up. Lithium-ion batteries are set to dominate storage technology over the coming decade, and continuing advances should result in batteries that can store up to eight hours of energy — long enough to allow solar-generated power to meet peak evening demand.
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The story of Rudolph II needs a separate article but for now you should know that he was one of those weird rulers who had some mental issues, who were quite bad in politics, but put tons of money in art and collecting. He commissioned decorative objects of all kinds and in particular mechanical moving devices. Ceremonial swords and musical instruments, clocks, waterworks, astrolabes, compasses, telescopes and other scientific instruments, were all produced for him by some of the best craftsmen in Europe.
Rudolf greatly appreciated the work.
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It is the weirdest portrait of a ruler ever created. Arcimboldo served the Habsburg family for more than 25 years. The allegorical paintings are peppered with visual puns and the references to the Habsburgs. Earth features a lion skin, a reference to the mythological Hercules, to whom the Habsburgs were at pains to trace their lineage. But one thing is also very important here—the naturalism of the paintings. There are no fantastic creatures or plants there. Everything is real. Water —is made up of 62 separate aquatic species. Arcimboldo corresponded regularly with the leading naturalists of his day to help produce a number of animal, flower, and plant studies.
Water is composed of a multitude of aquatic animals—the listing contains 62 species!
Biography of Giuseppe Arcimboldo
The unusual multitude of species here is astonishing, as well as the inclusion of invertebrates, not only of the snail and the crab, but also of worms. On the other hand, common edible fish are missing. In this composition, Arcimboldo gave no consideration to the relationship of sizes among the individual animals, as can be seen by comparing the large seahorse with the comparatively small seal.
Giuseppe Arcimboldo, Earth, , private collection. Like the other paintings in both series, Earth can be identified as an imperial allegory: this suggests that the emperor rules over the elements and the seasons. Many studies of animals by Arcimboldo exist, and many of these studies were used as sources for the creatures seen in Earth.
All the animals in the head were taken from life, because the emperor gave Arcimboldo permission to draw creatures in his menageries.