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Why not rather after its last day? From today? Revaluation of all values! Dionysian-Dithyrambs If you try it, you will be lonely often, and sometimes frightened. But no price is too high to pay for the privilege of owning yourself. This person article needs cleanup. Please review Wikiquote:Templates , especially the standard format of people articles , to determine how to edit this article to conform to a higher standard of article quality. You should also check this article's talk page to see if the person who added this message left an explanation there. This page has been listed as needing cleanup since Main article: Untimely Meditations.

Disputed [ edit ] Rather than cope with the unbearable loneliness of their condition men will continue to seek their shattered God, and for His sake they will love the very serpents that dwell among His ruins. As quoted by J. I however am sitting in the carriage, and often I am the carriage itself.

Attributed to 'posthumously produced notes' [Nachlass? He feels his thoughts. He can fall in love with an idea. An idea can make him ill. Misattributed [ edit ] A moral system valid for all is basically immoral. Generally attributed to Nietzsche, this is a quotation from Curtis Cate's Friedrich Nietzsche: A Biography and is the author's interpretation of Nietzsche's Aphorism Beyond Good and Evil Meaning and morality of one's life come from within oneself.

Healthy, strong individuals seek self-expansion by experimenting and by living dangerously. But even on these the power of Differentiation has laid its hand and has wrought in things conceptual dissimilarities in reasons and ideas, which are vaster than the separations in location. Granted, then, that these five exist, it is not surprising if each of these five corporeal elements has been made into a copy and image of each of them respectively, not unmixed and unalloyed, but it is because of the fact that each of them participates most in its corresponding faculty.

The cube is patently a body related to rest because of the security and stability of its plane surfaces. In the pyramid everybody may note its fiery and restless quality in the simplicity of its sides and the acuteness of its angles. The nature of the dodecahedron, which is comprehensive enough to include the other figures, may well seem to be a model with reference to all corporeal being.

Of the remaining two, the icosahedron shares in the nature of Differentiation mostly, and the octahedron in that of Identity. For this reason the octahedron contributed air, which in a single form holds all being in its embrace, and the icosahedron water, which by admixture assumes the greatest variety of qualities. If, therefore, Nature demands an equal distribution in all things, there is a reasonable probability that the worlds which have been created are neither more nor less in number than the patterns, so that each pattern in each world may have the leading rank and power just as it has acquired it in the construction of the primary bodies.

Now these first principles make their appearance at the beginning in connexion with number; rather, however, larger amounts are not number at all unless the number one, created from the illimitability of infinity, like a form of matter, cuts off more on one side and less on the other.

Then, in fact, any of the larger amounts becomes number through being delimited by the number one. But if the number one be done away with, once more the indeterminate duality throws all into confusion, and makes it to be without rhythm, bounds, or measure. Inasmuch as form is not the doing away with matter, but a shaping and ordering of the underlying matter, it needs must be that both these first principles be existent in number, and from this has arisen the first and greatest divergence and dissimilarity.

For the indeterminate first principle is the creator of the even, and the better one of the odd. So when the twro were paired, the better one prevailed over the indeterminate as it was dividing the corporeal and checked it; and when matter was being distributed to the two, it set unity in the middle and did not allow the whole to be divided into two parts, but there has been created a number of worlds by differentiation of the indeterminate and by its being carried in varying directions ; yet the power of Identity and Limitation has had the effect of making that number odd, but the kind of odd that did not permit Nature to progress beyond what is best.

If the number one were unalloyed and pure, matter would not have any separation at all ; but since it has been combined with the dividing power of duality, it has had to submit to being cut up and divided, but there it stopped, the even being overpowered by the odd. For example, she has allotted to ourselves five senses and five parts to the soul 7 : physical growth, perception, appetite, fortitude, and reason; also five fingers on each hand, and the most fertile seed when it is divided five times, for there is no record that a woman ever had more than five children together at one birth.

Five, too, are the orbits of the planets, if the Sun and Venus and Mercury follow the same course. For example, if fire is generated from air by the breaking up of the octahedron and its resolution into pyramids, or again if air is generated from fire by its being forced together and compressed into an octahedron, it is not possible for it to stay where it was before, but it escapes and is carried to some other place, forcing its way out and contending against anything that blocks its course or keeps it back.

Thus, when matter was in that state in which, in all probability, is the universe from which God is absent, the first five properties, having tendencies of their own, were at once carried in different directions, not being completely or absolutely separated, because, when all things were amalgamated, the inferior always followed the superior in spite of Nature.

Then, after establishing Reason in each as a governor and guardian, he creatjed as many worlds as the existing primal bodies. Let this, then, be an offering for the gratification of Plato on Ammonius's account, but as for myself, I should not venture to assert regarding the number of wbrlds that they are just so many ; but the opinion that sets their number at more than one, and yet not infinite, but limited in amount, I regard as no more irrational than either of the others, when I observe the dispersiveness and divisibility implicit by nature in Matter, and that it neither abides as a unit nor is permitted by Reason to progress to infinity.

For it is not possible to hold that the desertion by the demigods is the reason for the silence of the oracles unless we are convinced as to the manner in which the demigods, by having the oracles in their charge and by their presence there, make them active and articulate. To my mind the difference between man and man in acting tragedy or comedy is the difference between soul and soul arrayed in a body suitable for its present life.

It is, therefore, not at all unreasonable or even marvellous that souls meeting souls should create in them impressions of the future, exactly as we do not convey all our information to one another through the spoken word, but by writing also, or merely by a touch or a glance, we give much information about what has come to pass and intimation of what is to come. Unless it be, Lamprias, that you have another story to tell. For not long ago a rumour reached us about your having had a long talk on these subjects with strangers at Lebadeia, but the man who told of it could recall none of it with exactness.

For if the souls which have been severed from a body, or have had no part with one at all, are demigods according to you and the divine Hesiod, 1 Holy dwellers on earth and the guardian spirits of mortals, why deprive souls in bodies of that power by virtue of which the demigods possess the natural faculty of knowing and revealing future events before they happen? For it is not likely that any power or portion accrues to souls when they have left the body, if they did not possess them before ; but the souls always possess them ; only they possess them to a slight degree while conjoined with the body, some of them being completely imperceptible and hidden, others weak and dim, and about as ineffectual and slow in operation as persons that try to see in a fog or to move about in water, and requiring much nursing and restoring of the functions that properly belong to them and the removal and clearing away of the covering which hides them.

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We ought not to feel surprised or incredulous at this when we see in the soul, though we see naught else, that faculty which is the complement of prophecy, and which we call memory, and how great an achievement is displayed in preserving and guarding the past, or rather what has been the present, since nothing of all that has come to pass has any existence or substantiality, because the very instant when anything comes to pass, that is the end of it — of actions, words, experiences alike ; for Time like an everflowing stream bears all things onward.

But this faculty of the soul lays hold upon them, I know not how, and invests with semblance and being things not now present here. But memory is for us the hearing of deeds to which we are deaf and the seeing of things to which we are blind. Hence, as I said, it is no wonder that, if it has command over things that no longer are, it anticipates many of those which have not yet come to pass, since these are more closely related to it, and with these it has much in common ; for its attachments and associations are with the future, and it is quit of all that is past and ended, save only to remember it.

Thucydides, i. But that which foretells the future, like a tablet without writing, is both irrational and indeterminate in itself, but receptive of impressions and presentiments through what may be done to it, and inconsequently grasps at the future when it is farthest withdrawn from the present. Its withdrawal is brought about by a temperament and disposition of the body as it is subjected to a change which we call inspiration.

Often the body of itself alone attains this disposition. Moreover the earth sends forth for men streams of many other potencies, some of them producing derangements, diseases, or deaths ; others helpful, benignant, and beneficial, as is plain from the experience of persons who have come upon them.

It is likely that by warmth and diffusion it opens up certain passages through which impressions of the future are transmitted, just as wine, when its fumes rise to the head, reveals many unusual movements and also words stored away and unperceived. All in the linen is blended the splendour of glorious scarlet,. But regarding the Cydnus and the sacred sword of Apollo in Tarsus we used to hear you say, my dear Demetrius, that the Cydnus will cleanse no steel but that, and no other water will cleanse that sword.

There is a similar phenomenon at Olympia, where they pile the ashes against the altar and make them adhere all around by pouring on them water from the Alpheius ; but, although they have tried the waters of other rivers, there is none with which they can make the ashes cohere and stay fixed in their place.

The most learned of the people of Delphi still preserve the tradition of his name, which they say was Coretas. But I incline most to the opinion that the soul acquires towards the prophetic spirit a close and intimate connexion of the sort that vision has towards light, which possesses similar properties. For, although the eye has the power of vision, there is no function for it to perform without light 1 ; and so the prophetic power of the soul, like an eye, has need of something kindred to help to kindle it and stimulate it further. Hence many among earlier generations regarded Apollo and the Sun as one and the same god ; but those who understood and respected fair and wise analogy conjectured that as body is to soul, vision to intellect, and light to truth, so is the power of the sun to the nature of Apollo ; and they would make it appear that the sun is his offspring and progeny, being for ever born of him that is for ever.

For the sun kindles and promotes and helps to keep in activity the power of vision in our perceptive senses, just as the god does for the power of prophecy in the soul. But in the case of the powers associated with the earth it is reasonable that there should come to pass disappearances in one place and generation in another place, and elsewrhere shifting of location and, from some other source, changes in current, 2 and that such cycles should complete many revolutions within it in the whole course of time, as we may judge from what happens before our eyes.

For in the case of lakes and rivers, and even more frequently in hot springs, there have occurred disappearances and complete extinction in some places, and in others a stealing away, as it were, and sinking under ground 3 ; later they came back, appearing after a time in the same places or flowing out from below somewhere near.

And it is no long time since the rock in Euboea ceased to yield, among its other products, soft petrous[p. To-day all this has disappeared, and there are scarcely any attenuated fibres or hairs, as it were, running through the mines. The hardness and temper of cold-forged copper is well attested. Plainly the same sober opinion is to be held regarding the spirits that inspire prophecy ; the power that they possess is not everlasting and ageless, but is subject to changes.

For excessive rains most likely extinguish them, and they probably are dispersed by thunderbolts, and especially, when the earth is shaken beneath by an earthquake and suffers subsidence and ruinous confusion in its depths, the exhalations shift their site or find completely blind outlets, as in this place they say that there are still traces of that great earthquake which overthrew the city. And in Orchomenos they relate that a pestilence raged and many persons died of it, and the oracle of Teiresias become altogether obsolescent and even to this day remains idle and mute. And if a like fate has befallen those in Cilicia, as we have been told, there is nobody, Demetrius, who could give us more certain information than you.

But, when I was there, both the oracle of Mopsus and that of Amphilochus were still flourishing. I have a most amazing thing to tell as the result of my visit to the oracle of Mopsus. The ruler of Cilicia was himself still of two minds towards religious matters. This, I think, was because his scepticism lacked conviction, for in all else he was an arrogant and contemptible man. When Demetrius had told this tale he lapsed into silence. They seemed to me to be desirous of saying something to us, and again I checked myself.

I do not know how it happened, but a little time ago we yielded to logic in wresting the prophetic art from the gods and transferring it merely to the demigods. But now it seems to me that we are thrusting out these very demigods, in their turn, and driving them away from the oracle and the tripod here, when we resolve the origin of prophecy, or rather its very being and power, into winds and vapours and exhalations.

What possesses us to do so, if our souls carry within themselves the prophetic power, and it is some particular state of the air or its currents which stirs this to activity? Shaking the head is not enough, as in other sacrifices, but the tossing and quivering must extend to all parts of the animal alike accompanied by a tremulous sound ; and unless this takes place they say that the oracle is not functioning, and do not even bring in the prophetic priestess. Yet it is only on the assumption that they ascribe the cause almost entirely to a god or a demigod that it is reasonable for them to act and to believe thus ; but on the basis of what you say it is not reasonable.

For the presence of the exhalation, whether the victim be excited or not, will produce the inspiration and will dispose the soul auspiciously, not only the soul of the priestess, but that of any ordinary person with whom it may come into contact. Wherefore it is silly to employ one woman alone for the purpose of the oracles and to give her trouble by watching her to keep her pure and chaste all her life. As a matter of fact, this Coretas, who the people of Delphi say was the first, because he fell in, to supply any means of knowing about the power with which the place is endowed, was not, I think, any different from the rest of the goatherds and shepherds, if so be that this is not a fable or a fabrication as I, for one, think it is.

When I take into account the number of benefactions to the Greeks for which this oracle has been responsible, both in wars and in the founding of cities, in cases of pestilence and failure of crops, I think it is a dreadful thing to assign its discovery and origin, not to God and Providence, but to chance and accident. Will you wait? For what you have said has set us all thinking. I shall defend myself by citing Plato as my witness and advocate in one. Plato himself was the first of the philosophers, or the one most prominently engaged in prosecuting investigations of both sorts, to assign to God, on the one hand, the origin of all things that are in keeping with reason, and on the other hand, not to divest matter of the causes necessary for whatever comes into being, but to realize that the perceptible universe, even when arranged in some such orderly way as this, is not pure and unalloyed, but that it takes its origin from matter when matter comes into conjunction with reason.

Observe first how it is with the artists. And, indeed, the author and creator of these likenesses and portraits here stands recorded in the inscription 3 :. But without pigments ground together, losing their own colour in the process, nothing could achieve such a composition and sight. I think not. In fact there are some who question the properties of medicinal agents, but they do not do away with medical science.

Herodotus, i. Of interest also in this connexion is the dedication recorded in the Sigeum inscription. Zeus the beginning, Zeus in the midst, and from Zeus comes all being 1 ;. On the other hand the younger generation which followed them, and are called physicists or natural philosophers, reverse the procedure of the older school in their aberration from the beautiful and divine origin, and ascribe everything to bodies and their behaviour, to clashes, transmutations, and combinations.

He who was the first to comprehend clearly both these points and to take, as a necessary adjunct to the agent that creates and actuates, the underlying matter, which is acted upon, clears us also of all suspicion of wilful misstatement. The fact is that we do not make the prophetic art godless or irrational when we assign to it as its material the soul of a human being, and assign the spirit of inspiration and the exhalation as an instrument or plectrum for playing on it. For, in the first place, the earth, which generates the exhalation, and the sun, which endows the earth with all its power of tempering and transmutation, are, by the usage of our fathers, gods for us.

Secondly, if we leave demigods as overseers, watchmen, and guardians of this tempered constitution, as if it were a kind of harmony, slackening here and tightening there on occasion, taking from it its too distracting and disturbing elements and incorporating those that are painless and harmless to the users, we shall not appear to be doing anything irrational or impossible. Nor again, in offering the preliminary sacrifice to learn the god's will and in putting garlands on victims or pouring libations over them, are we doing anything to contradict this reasoning.

For when the priests and holy men say that they are offering sacrifice and pouring the libation over the victim and observing its movements and its trembling, of what else do they take this to be a sign save that the god is in his holy temple? For what is to be offered in sacrifice must, both in body and in soul, be pure, unblemished, and unmarred. In the case of the goat, they say, cold water gives positive proof; for indifference and immobility against being suddenly wet is not characteristic of a soul in a normal state. But for my part, even if it be firmly established that the trembling is a sign of the god's being in his holy temple and the contrary a sign of his not being there, I cannot see what difficulty in my statements results therefrom.

For every faculty duly performs its natural functions better or worse concurrently with some particular time ; and if that time escapes our ken, it is only reasonable that the god should give signs of it. Of the proof on which I depend I have as witnesses many foreigners and all the officials and servants at the shrine. It is a fact that the room in which they seat those who would consult the god is filled, not frequently or with any regularity, but as it may chance from time to time, with a delightful fragrance coming on a current of air which bears it towards the worshippers, as if its source were in the holy of holies ; and it is like the odour which the most exquisite and costly perfumes send forth.

It is likely that this efflorescence is produced by warmth or some other force engendered there. For many annoyances and disturbances of which she is conscious, and many more unpereeived, lay hold upon her body and filter into her soul; and whenever she is replete with these, it is better that she should not go there and surrender herself to the control of the god, when she is not completely unhampered as if she were a musical instrument, well strung and well tuned , but is in a state of emotion and instability. But especially does the imaginative faculty of the soul seem to be swayed by the alterations in the body, and to change as the body changes, a fact which is clearly shown in dreams ; for at one time we find ourselves beset in our dreams by a multitude of visions of all sorts, and at another time again there comes a complete calmness and rest free from all such fancies.

We ourselves know of Cleon here from Daulia and that he asserts that in all the many years he has lived he has never had a dream ; and among the older men the same thing is told of Thrasymedes of Heraea. As it happened, a deputation from abroad had arrhed to consult the oracle. The victim, it is said, remained unmoved and unaffected in any way by the first libations ; but the priests, in their eagerness to please, went far beyond their wonted usage, and only after the victim had been subjected to a deluge and nearly drowned did it at last give in.

What, then, was the result touching the priestess? She went down into the oracle unwillingly, they say, and halfheartedly ; and at her first responses it was at once plain from the harshness of her voice that she was not responding properly ; she was like a labouring ship and was filled with a mighty and baleful spirit. Finally she became hysterical and with a frightful shriek rushed towards the exit and threw herself down, with the result that not only the members of the deputation fled, but also the oracle-interpreter Nicander and those holy men that were present.

However, after a little, they went in and took her up, still conscious ; and she lived on for a few days. The power of the spirit does not affect all persons nor the same persons always in the same way, but it only supplies an enkindling and an inception, as has been said, for them that are in a proper state to be affected and to undergo the change. The power comes from the gods and demigods, but, for all that, it is not unfailing nor imperishable nor ageless, lasting into that infinite time by which all things between earth and moon become wearied out, according to our reasoning.

And there are some who assert that the things above the moon also do not. So let them be postponed until another time, and likewise the question which Philip raises about the Sun and Apollo. English Translation by Frank Cole Babbitt. She was one of the main deities worshiped in Athenian households as a protective goddess and one who bestowed prosperity and daily blessings on the family.

Regarding the nature of her cult, it has been remarked, "she is more at home on the fringes than in the center of Greek polytheism. Intrinsically ambivalent and polymorphous, she straddles conventional boundaries and eludes definition. Name and Origin. While many researchers favor the idea that she has Anatolian origins, it has been argued that "Hecate must have been a Greek goddess. This line of reasoning lies behind the widely accepted hypothesis that she was a foreign deity who was incorporated into the Greek pantheon.

Shrines to Hecate were placed at doorways to both homes and cities with the belief that it would protect from restless dead and other spirits. Likewise, shrines to Hecate at three way crossroads were created where food offerings were left at the new moon to protect those who did so from spirits and other evils. Dogs were sacred to Hecate and associated with roads, domestic spaces, purification, and spirits of the dead. Dogs were also sacrificed to the road.

This can be compared to Pausanias' report that in the Ionian city of Colophon in Asia Minor a sacrifice of a black female puppy was made to Hecate as "the wayside goddess", and Plutarch's observation that in Boeotia dogs were killed in purificatory rites. Dogs, with puppies often mentioned, were offered to Hecate at crossroads, which were sacred to the goddess. As Hecate Phosphorus Venus she is said to have lit the sky during the Siege of Philip II in , revealing the attack to its inhabitants. The Byzantines dedicated a statue to her as the "lamp carrier.

In Greek, deipnon means the evening meal, usually the largest meal of the day. Hecate was generally represented as three-formed. This has been speculated as being connected with the appearance of the full moon, half moon, and new moon. The earliest Greek depictions of Hecate were not three-formed. Farnell states: "The evidence of the monuments as to the character and significance of Hecate is almost as full as that of to express her manifold and mystic nature.

Some classical portrayals show her as a triplicate goddess holding a torch, a key, serpents, daggers and numerous other items. Depictions of both a single form Hekate and triple formed, as well as occasional four headed descriptions continued throughout her history. In other representations her animal heads include those of a cow and a boar.

It shows Hecate, with a hound beside her, placing a wreath on the head of a mare. She is commonly attended by a dog or dogs, and the most common form of offering was to leave meat at a crossroads. Dogs were closely associated with Hecate in the Classical world. Her approach was heralded by the howling of a dog. The dog was Hecate's regular sacrificial animal, and was often eaten in solemn sacrament. Although in later times Hecate's dog came to be thought of as a manifestation of restless souls or demons who accompanied her, its docile appearance and its accompaniment of a Hecate who looks completely friendly in many pieces of ancient art suggests that its original signification was positive and thus likelier to have arisen from the dog's connection with birth than the dog's underworld associations.

The friendly looking female dog accompanying Hecate was originally the Trojan Queen Hekabe, who leapt into the sea after the fall of Troy and was transformed by Hecate into her familiar. Another metamorphosis myth explains why the polecat is also associated with Hecate. This maiden was playmate and companion of Alkmene, daughter of Elektryon. They remained seated, each keeping their arms crossed. Galinthias, fearing that the pains of her labour would drive Alkmene mad, ran to the Moirai and Eleithyia and announced that by desire of Zeus a boy had been born to Alkmene and that their prerogatives had been abolished.

At all this, consternation of course overcame the Moirai and they immediately let go their arms. The Moirai were aggrieved at this and took away the womanly parts of Galinthias since, being but a mortal, she had deceived the gods. They turned her into a deceitful weasel or polecat , making her live in crannies and gave her a grotesque way of mating.

She is mounted through the ears and gives birth by bringing forth her young through the throat. Hekate felt sorry for this transformation of her appearance and appointed her a sacred servant of herself. Aelian told a different story of a woman transformed into a polecat: ""I have heard that the polecat was once a human being. It has also reached my hearing that Gale was her name then; that she was a dealer in spells and a sorceress Pharmakis ; that she was extremely incontinent, and that she was afflicted with abnormal sexual desires.

Nor has it escaped my notice that the anger of the goddess Hekate transformed it into this evil creature. In relation to Greek concepts of pollution, Parker observes, "The fish that was most commonly banned was the red mullet trigle , which fits neatly into the pattern. It 'delighted in polluted things,' and 'would eat the corpse of a fish or a man'. Blood-coloured itself, it was sacred to the blood-eating goddess Hecate.

It seems a symbolic summation of all the negative characteristics of the creatures of the deep. After mentioning that this fish was sacred to Hecate, Alan Davidson writes, "Cicero, Horace, Juvenal, Martial, Pliny, Seneca and Suetonius have left abundant and interesting testimony to the red mullet fever which began to affect wealthy Romans during the last years of the Republic and really gripped them in the early Empire. The main symptoms were a preoccupation with size, the consequent rise to absurd heights of the prices of large specimens, a habit of keeping red mullet in captivity, and the enjoyment of the highly specialized aesthetic experience induced by watching the color of the dying fish change.

In her three-headed representations, discussed above, Hecate often has one or more animal heads, including cow, dog, boar, serpent and horse. In particular she was thought to give instruction in these closely related arts. Her attendants draped wreathes of yew around the necks of black bulls which they slaughtered in her honor and yew boughs were burned on funeral pyres. It is presumed that the latter were named after the tree because of its superiority for both bows and poison. It has been suggested that the use of dogs for digging up mandrake is further corroboration of the association of this plant with Hecate; indeed, since at least as early as the 1st century CE, there are a number of attestations to the apparently widespread practice of using dogs to dig up plants associated with magic.

Hecate was associated with borders, city walls, doorways, crossroads and, by extension, with realms outside or beyond the world of the living. She appears to have been particularly associated with being 'between' and hence is frequently characterized as a " liminal " goddess. Enodia's very name "In-the-Road" suggests that she watched over entrances, for it expresses both the possibility that she stood on the main road into a city, keeping an eye on all who entered, and in the road in front of private houses, protecting their inhabitants.

Hecate's importance to Byzantium was above all as a deity of protection. Watchdogs were used extensively by Greeks and Romans. Like Hecate, "[t]he dog is a creature of the threshold, the guardian of doors and portals, and so it is appropriately associated with the frontier between life and death, and with demons and ghosts which move across the frontier.

And she conceived and bore Hecate whom Zeus the son of Cronos honored above all. He gave her splendid gifts, to have a share of the earth and the unfruitful sea. She received honor also in starry heaven, and is honored exceedingly by the deathless gods. For to this day, whenever any one of men on earth offers rich sacrifices and prays for favor according to custom, he calls upon Hecate. Great honor comes full easily to him whose prayers the goddess receives favorably, and she bestows wealth upon him; for the power surely is with her.

For as many as were born of Earth and Ocean amongst all these she has her due portion. The son of Cronos did her no wrong nor took anything away of all that was her portion among the former Titan gods: but she holds, as the division was at the first from the beginning, privilege both in earth, and in heaven, and in sea. According to Hesiod, she held sway over many things:. Whom she will she greatly aids and advances: she sits by worshipful kings in judgement, and in the assembly whom she will is distinguished among the people. And when men arm themselves for the battle that destroys men, then the goddess is at hand to give victory and grant glory readily to whom she will.

Good is she also when men contend at the games, for there too the goddess is with them and profits them: and he who by might and strength gets the victory wins the rich prize easily with joy, and brings glory to his parents. And she is good to stand by horsemen, whom she will: and to those whose business is in the grey discomfortable sea, and who pray to Hecate and the loud-crashing Earth-Shaker, easily the glorious goddess gives great catch, and easily she takes it away as soon as seen, if so she will.

She is good in the byre with Hermes to increase the stock. The droves of kine and wide herds of goats and flocks of fleecy sheep, if she will, she increases from a few, or makes many to be less. So, then, albeit her mother's only child, she is honored amongst all the deathless gods. And the son of Cronos made her a nurse of the young who after that day saw with their eyes the light of all-seeing Dawn. So from the beginning she is a nurse of the young, and these are her honours. Another theory is that Hekate was mainly a household god and humble household worship could have been more pervasive and yet not mentioned as much as temple worship.

In Athens Hecate, along with Zeus, Hermes, Hestia, and Apollo, were very important in daily life as they were the main gods of the household. Because of this association, Hecate was one of the chief goddesses of the Eleusinian Mysteries, alongside Demeter and Persephone. Variations in interpretations of Hecate's role or roles can be traced in classical Athens.

One surviving group of stories suggests how Hecate might have come to be incorporated into the Greek pantheon without affecting the privileged position of Artemis. She scorns and insults Artemis, who in retribution eventually brings about the mortal's suicide. Hellenistic period to Late Antiquity. Principally the Ethiopians which dwell in the Orient, and the Egyptians which are excellent in all kind of ancient doctrine, and by their proper ceremonies accustomed to worship me, do call me Queen Isis. In the Michigan magical papyrus inv. Many of Hecate's dominions are represented in various ways throughout the show, such as one of her familiars behaving in a dog-like manner around her; her grotto being connected to an herb-filled apothecary space; and watching from the shadows as the witches give their prophecies to Macbeth.

He noted that the cult regularly practiced dog sacrifice and had secretly buried the body of one of its "queens" with seven dogs. Its adopted name alludes to it as being the hundredth named asteroid 'hekaton' being the Greek for 'hundred'. However, there is an alternative tradition in which it was the divine gift of a jar of blessings that was opened by a curious male. These stories account for the presence of hope in the world although, depending on pessimistic or optimistic interpretations of the meaning of that word, its benefit is uncertain.

Later poets, dramatists, painters and sculptors made her their subject and over the course of five centuries contributed new insights into her motives and significance. In some variants, Charis was one of the Graces and was not the singular form of their name. In some versions of myth, Pothos is the son of Eros, or is portrayed as an independent aspect of him. Pothos represents longing or yearning. They call him the Old Gentleman because he is trustworthy, and gentle, and never forgetful of what is right, but the thoughts of his mind are mild and righteous.

The Attic vase-painters showed the draped torso of Nereus issuing from a long coiling scaly fishlike tail. Bearded Nereus generally wields a staff of authority. He was also shown in scenes depicting the flight of the Nereides as Peleus wrestled their sister Thetis. The later sileni were drunken followers of Dionysus, usually bald and fat with thick lips and squat noses, and having the legs of a human.

Later still, the plural "sileni" went out of use and the only references were to one individual named Silenus, the teacher and faithful companion of the wine-god Dionysus. When intoxicated, Silenus was said to possess special knowledge and the power of prophecy. As Silenus fell asleep, the king's servants seized and took him to their master. Another story was that Silenus had been captured by two shepherds, and regaled them with wondrous tales. Silenus refers to the satyrs as his children during the play. This thought is indeed so old that the one who first uttered it is no longer known; it has been passed down to us from eternity, and hence doubtless it is true.

Moreover, you know what is so often said and passes for a trite expression. What is that, he asked? He answered: It is best not to be born at all; and next to that, it is better to die than to live; and this is confirmed even by divine testimony. Pertinently to this they say that Midas, after hunting, asked his captive Silenus somewhat urgently, what was the most desirable thing among humankind. At first he could offer no response, and was obstinately silent.

This should be our choice, if choice we have; and the next to this is, when we are born, to die as soon as we can. Prophets are traditionally regarded as having a role in society that promotes change due to their messages and actions which often convey God's displeasure concerning the behavior of the people. The books, in order of their occurrence in the Christian Old Testament, are:.

Baruch including the Letter of Jeremiah is not part of the Hebrew Bible. Prophetic passages appear widely distributed throughout Biblical narrative. It is believed that prophets are called or chosen by God. The term is sometimes applied outside religion to describe someone who fervently promotes a theory that the speaker thinks is false.

Other roles of angels include protecting and guiding human beings, and carrying out God's tasks.


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The term "angel" has also been expanded to various notions of spirits or figures found in other religious traditions. The theological study of angels is known as "angelology". Such differentiation has been taken over by later vernacular translations of the Bible, early Christian and Jewish exegetes and eventually modern scholars. They patronize human beings and other creatures, and also manifest God's energy. Depending on the context, the Hebrew word may refer to a human messenger or to a supernatural messenger. These angels are part of Daniel's apocalyptic visions and are an important part of all apocalyptic literature.

The angel is something different from God himself, but is conceived as God's instrument. In post-Biblical Judaism, certain angels took on particular significance and developed unique personalities and roles. Michael, who serves as a warrior and advocate for Israel Daniel , is looked upon particularly fondly. Angels exist in the worlds above as a 'task' of God. They are an extension of God to produce effects in this world.

After an angel has completed its task, it ceases to exist. The angel is in effect the task. The task of one of the angels was to inform Abraham of his coming child. God burns things by means of fire; fire is moved by the motion of the sphere; the sphere is moved by means of a disembodied intellect, these intellects being the 'angels which are near to Him', through whose mediation the spheres move Maimonides writes that to the wise man, one sees that what the Bible and Talmud refer to as "angels" are actually allusions to the various laws of nature; they are the principles by which the physical universe operates.

For all forces are angels! How blind, how perniciously blind are the naive?! If you told someone who purports to be a sage of Israel that the Deity sends an angel who enters a woman's womb and there forms an embryo, he would think this a miracle and accept it as a mark of the majesty and power of the Deity, despite the fact that he believes an angel to be a body of fire one third the size of the entire world.

All this, he thinks, is possible for God. Later Christians inherited Jewish understandings of angels, which in turn may have been partly inherited from the Egyptians. In the early stage, the Christian concept of an angel characterized the angel as a messenger of God. Then, in the space of little more than two centuries from the 3rd to the 5th the image of angels took on definite characteristics both in theology and in art.

According to St. Augustine, " 'Angel' is the name of their office, not of their nature. If you seek the name of their nature, it is 'spirit'; if you seek the name of their office, it is 'angel': from what they are, 'spirit', from what they do, 'angel'. There was, however, some disagreement regarding the nature of angels. The resolution of this Trinitarian dispute included the development of doctrine about angels. The angels are represented throughout the Christian Bible as spiritual beings intermediate between God and men: "You have made him [man] a little less than the angels The Bible describes the function of angels as "messengers" but does not indicate when the creation of angels occurred.

He commanded and they were created Interaction with angels. Forget not to show love unto strangers: for thereby some have entertained angels unawares. According to Matthew , after Jesus spent 40 days in the desert, " According to the Vatican 's Congregation for Divine Worship and Discipline of the Sacraments, "The practice of assigning names to the Holy Angels should be discouraged, except in the cases of Gabriel, Raphael and Michael whose names are contained in Holy Scripture.

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He had on a loose robe of most exquisite whiteness. It was a whiteness beyond anything earthly I had ever seen; nor do I believe that any earthly thing could be made to appear so exceedingly white and brilliant Not only was his robe exceedingly white, but his whole person was glorious beyond description, and his countenance truly like lightning. The room was exceedingly light, but not so very bright as immediately around his person. When I first looked upon him, I was afraid; but the fear soon left me.

Islam is clear on the nature of angels in that they are messengers of God. An example of a task they carry out is that of testing individuals by granting them abundant wealth and curing their illness. Jibrail: the archangel Gabriel Jibra'il or Jibril is an archangel who serves as a messenger from God.

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Israfil will blow the trumpet from a holy rock in Jerusalem to announce the Day of Resurrection. The trumpet is constantly poised at his lips, ready to be blown when God so orders. Takes the soul of the deceased away from the body. Darda'il: the angels who travel in the earth searching out assemblies where people remember God's name.

Kiraman Katibin: the two angels who record a person's good and bad deeds. Mu'aqqibat: a class of guardian angels who keep people from death until their decreed time. Munkar and Nakir: the angels who test the faith of the dead in their graves. They ask the soul of the dead person questions. If the soul passes the questions, he will have a pleasant time in the grave until the Day of Judgement. The Qur'an indicates that although they warned the Babylonians not to imitate them or do as they were doing, some members of their audience failed to obey and became sorcerers, thus damning their own souls.

He will be filled with the Holy Spirit, even from his mother's womb. For I am an old man, and my wife is well advanced in years. I was sent to speak to you, and to bring you this good news. He continued making signs to them, and remained mute. The virgin's name was Mary. The Lord is with you. Blessed are you among women!

The Lord God will give him the throne of his father, David, [33] and he will reign over the house of Jacob forever. There will be no end to his kingdom. Therefore also the holy one who is born from you will be called the Son of God. You shall call his name Jesus, for it is he who shall save his people from their sins. They shall call his name Immanuel;" Which is, being interpreted, "God with us. He named him Jesus.

The sky was opened, [22] and the Holy Spirit descended in a bodily form as a dove on him; and a voice came out of the sky, saying "You are my beloved Son. In you I am well pleased. He set him on the pinnacle of the temple, [6] and said to him, "If you are the Son of God, throw yourself down, for it is written, 'He will give his angels charge concerning you. For it is written, 'You shall worship the Lord your God, and him only shall you serve. He was with the wild animals; and the angels ministered to him.

He ate nothing in those days. Afterward, when they were completed, he was hungry. His disciples also followed him. Nevertheless, not my will, but yours, be done. His sweat became like great drops of blood falling down on the ground. Rise and pray that you may not enter into temptation. They said to them, "Why do you seek the living among the dead? Remember what he told you when he was still in Galilee, [7] saying that the Son of Man must be delivered up into the hands of sinful men, and be crucified, and the third day rise again?

Looking up, they saw that the stone was rolled back. You seek Jesus, the Nazarene, who has been crucified. He has risen. He is not here. Behold, the place where they laid him! There you will see him, as he said to you. They said nothing to anyone; for they were afraid. Come, see the place where the Lord was lying. So, as she wept, she stooped and looked into the tomb, [12] and she saw two angels in white sitting, one at the head, and one at the feet, where the body of Jesus had lain.

Who are you looking for? We also are men of like passions with you, and bring you good news, that you should turn from these vain things to the living God, who made the sky and the earth and the sea, and all that is in them; [16] who in the generations gone by allowed all the nations to walk in their own ways. Was ist der Mensch? Er schreibt:. De anim. Von wo aus bestimmt sich der Mensch heute? Es handelt sich nicht dabei, wie Rosenberg bemerkt 12 , um eine Person-, sondern um eine Amtsbezeichnung.

Engel stehen im Dienste des Gottes. Jesus bekennt sich zu den Engeln Mt 18, Die Engel der Kinder sehen immer Gottes Antlitz. Malak Jahwe , griech. Nie kommt er in eigener Kompetenz. Die Analogie zu menschlichen Legionen, Befehlshabern usw. Es besteht zwischen ihnen keinen Wesensunterschied, sondern Verwandschaft II, S. Im "Symposium" spricht Platon von den "daimones", dabei vor allem vom Eros, als einer von denen, die "zwischen" "metaxu" den Sterblichen und den Unsterblichen sind Symp.

Ein ferner christlicher Widerklang stellt die Gestalt des Engels Gabriel dar. Ein solcher Weg ist zu beschreiben nicht schwer, einzuschlagen aber sehr schwer Philebos 16c. Platon siedel den Menschen an der Grenze zwischen Geist- und Sinnenwelt an. Diese metonymische Anwendung des Wortes "daimon", wie Rohe bemerkt a. Diese Seelen wurden zu Menschen, indem sie mit Leibern "somasin" verbunden wurden.

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Die Natur des Menschen wird als ein "Gemisch". Im "Symposion" spricht Platon von den "daimones", dabei vor allem vom "Eros", als eine Spezies, die "zwischen" "metaxu" den Sterblichen und den Unsterblichen ist Symp. Ein ferner christlicher Widerklang stellt die Gestalt des Engels Gabriels dar. Ein solcher Weg ist, so Platon, zu beschreiben nicht schwer, einzuschlagen aber sehr schwer Phil. Sie begleiten ihn von der Geburt bis zur Himmelfahrt und wirken in der Kirche bis zum Ende aller Zeiten in der Apokalyptik.

So lesen wir zum Beispiel in der "Legenda aurea" Im "Dictionnaire philosophique" , Paris: Flammarion , S. Und hat an ihm die Liebe gar. Von oben teilgenommen,. Begegnet ihm die selige Schar. Mit herzlichen Willkommen. Faust, 2. Teil, 5. Akt, Verse Ein jeder Engel ist schrecklich. Unter dem Pseudonym Dr. Adler, a. Anyone who considers that impulse ridiculous had better recall how silly the all-but-realized visions of earlier times once seemed.

And we're also bound to confess once more that these visions are after all our own, born of our human yearning for the transcendent. We onle live - we only survive - as individuals and as a society and as a species by reaching out beyond ourselves. Jean Brun schreibt:. Brun, Biographie de la machine, a.

So argumentierte z. Brighton, UK, August In: Information Philosophie, Mai , 2, In: Information Philosophie, Mai , 2, S. Selbstschaffen ist. Alle anderen Aussagen sind also "traditio" nicht "doctrina" Diese Annahme wird z. Die Entleiblichung der menschlichen Intelligenz setzt m. Materielosigkeit der Engel. Deshalb sind die Engel unsterblich ibid.

Sie unterscheiden sich untereinander durch den Grad ihrer "intellektiven Natur" ibid. Es gibt hier kein "principium individuationis", wodurch Individuen innerhalb einer Art "genus" bzw.

ST I, 75, a. Von hier aus mutet die Idee der "Parallelverarbeitung" bereits antiquiert an. Die Materielosigkeit der Engel hat weitreichende Konsequenzen im Hinblick auf die Art wie sie erkennen und wollen sowie auf ihre Bestimmung. Engelische Erkenntnis. Menschliche Erkenntnis ist endlich. Sie ist teils sinnlich, teils intellektuell. Engel erkennen also die Dinge nicht "durch" "per" , sondern kraft oder entsprechend "secundum" ihrer Natur.

Wie erkennen aber Engel die Einzeldinge "singularia"? Thomas vergleicht diese Erkenntnisweise mit der des Astrologen, der "per computationem", d. ST I, 58, a. ST I, 57, a. Engelischer Wille.

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Da ihr Intellekt aber vollendeter ist als der menschliche, ist ihr "liberum arbitrium" zugleich "excellentius" ibid. ST I, Eine, wie wir wissen, bereits unter Menschen strittige Angelegenheit, mit dramatischen Konsequenzen. Hier liegt der Schwerpunkt der Analogie mit dieser Hauptfunktion der Engel. Damit ist eine Grunddifferenz zur gemeinsamen engelischen und menschlichen Sittlichkeit gegeben.

Sie sind, mit anderen Worten, endlich. In ders. Brighton, In: Information Philosophie S. In: Technology and Culture 5 ; F. Gille: Machines. In: Ch. Singer et al. Maurice, O. Kunstverlag ; P. Needham: Science and Civilization in China Cambridge ff bes. IV, Teil 2; Derek J. In: Technology and Culture 5 ; L. Sauer: Marionetten, Maschinen, Automaten. Tietzel: L'homme machine. In: Zt. Zur philosophischen Anthropologie vgl. Marquard: Anthropologie. In: J. Ritter, Hrsg. Gadamer, P. Vogler, Hrsg. Anthropologie Bd. Rombach, Hrsg. Leonina Rom: Forzani Die Angaben aus anderen Werken beziehen sich auf die Marietti-Ausgaben.

Baruzzi: Mensch und Maschine. Simons: Sind Computer lebendig? Hofstadter, D. Dennet, Hrsg. Eine gute historische Darstellung bietet P. Jean Brun: Biographie de la machine.