Imagine a soccer ball is on your desk and you have glued your hand to the top of it. If you move your hand forwards the ball will roll forwards and your fingers will point to to the desk. If you move your hand backwards the ball will roll back and your fingers will now point up at the ceiling. Your hand is the airplane :. In other words, you believe if the control yoke is level, the airplane will fly level. This is not true.
The yoke controls the rate at which the airplane banks. If the airplane is banked 20 to the left and the control yoke is level, the airplane will stay banked at 20 left until some other force affects it. If you want to return the airplane to level flight, you have to turn the control yoke slightly to the right move the mouse slightly rightwards and keep it slightly to the right for a while. The airplane will turn slowly rightwards. Once it is level with the horizon, bring the control yoke level too.
Then the airplane will stay level until some other force changes its orientation. Naturally, you will want to find the fine tuning that will leave the airplane fly straight. Actually there is no such ideal yoke position. The airplane is inherintely unstable in the air. You must constantly correct the airplane s attitude and keep it flying straight with tiny movements of the mouse. This may seem to take all your concentration intially, but just like driving a car, keeping the aircraft straight and level will soon become second nature. For longer flights, you will eventually use the autopilot to keep the airplane level, but this is outside the scope of this tutorial.
To help fine-tune your senses to the control inputs required, keep your eyes on the outside scenery and not get fixated on the instruments or the yoke. Check the angle of the horizon and its height above the airplane s nose. The horizon line and the airplane engine cover are your main flight instruments. Look at the instrument panel only once in a while. Once the mouse leaves the window, it stops controlling the aircraft, often at the worse possible moment!
If you wish to use the mouse outside of the window, first go back to standard mouse mode by pressing Tab twice. You can also control the yoke using the four keyboard arrow keys or the keypad 8, 2, 4 and 6 keys. While initially this may seem easier than the mouse, you cannot make the very fine adjustments required for accurate flying, so it is much better to persevere with the mouse. These are landing aid signals.
Don t worry about them for the moment. You will know that you have mastered this when you can make the aircraft climb steadily in the air. The next step is to learn to keep the aircraft at a constant altitude, or to make it ascend or descend slowly and under your control. Keeping the aircraft at a constant altitude involves observing the altimeter and making small changes with the mouse forwards or backwards to stop the aircraft ascending or descending respectively.
The altimeter instrument is at the middle top of the instrument panel. The long needle shows hundreds of feet, the short needle shows thousands of feet. The altimeter below shows an altitude of feet, approximately meters. As you ascend or descend the altimeter will change accordingly, turning anticlockwise as you descend, and clockwise as you gain height. If you see the altimeter unwinding you will be able to tell that you are losing height and move the mouse backwards slightly to raise the nose. After a while you will notice that when flying level the nose of the aircraft is always in the same position relative to the horizon.
This is the aircraft attitude for level flight. By putting the nose in that same position, you will achieve almost level flight without having to reference the instruments. From there you can fine-tune your altitude. Beware : an altimeter does not automatically show the absolute altitude above sea level. You must adjust for the local air pressive. The little black knob on the lower left side of the altimeter allows you to adjust the altimeter.
Start FlightGear and stay on the ground. Click in normal mouse mode inside the black knob. A click on the left half makes the altimeter turn back. On the right half the altimeter turns forward. Use that little knob to tune in the current altitude. The principle is you use the knob when you are sure about the altitude. If you know you are at 1, feet altitude, tune in 1, feet on the altimeter. Clicking with the middle mouse button makes the knob turn faster, or you can use the scrollwheel on your mouse.
Type Ctrl-c to see the two button halves highlighted. To make settings the altimeter easier, airports advertise their altitude in various ways. This is expressed in inches of mercury. The altimeter contains a small scale inside which is calibrated in this way. You can set your altimeter using this scale. Alternatively, if you are on the ground and know the altitude of the airport, you can simply adjust your altimeter until it displays the correct altitude.
Knowing the altitude of the ground around you is obviously useful. Once you are able to fly more or less straight, it is time to learn to turn. The principle is simple : When the airplane is banked to the left, it turns to the left. When the airplane is banked to the right, it turns to the right. To turn, you do not need high levels of bank. The turn coordinator indicates your angle of bank by showing a depiction of your aircraft from behind. The picture below shows the turn coordinator when the airplane is banked 20 to the right.
You can also tell the bank angle by observing the angle of the horizon. Try the following : keep the airplane banked around those 20 for a few minutes and keep your eyes outside the aircraft You will see the same ground features appear again and again, every seconds. This shows you need seconds to make a turn or 60 seconds for a turn. This is particularly useful when navigating. Whatever speed the airplane is flying, if you bank at 20 you always need 60 seconds to make a turn in the Cessna P. So, by banking the airplane to the left or to the right, you make it turn to the left or to the right.
Keeping the airplane level with the horizon keeps it flying straight. In real life you would feel these as your turn, however it is not possible to simulate these, so you must simply keep an eye on the ball. If you turn neatly using the rudder a little bit , the ball will remain centered. If the ball is pushed say rightwards, this means you the pilot too are pushed rightwards. Like in a car turning to the left. During a neat turn in an airplane, even a strong turn, the passengers never endure a sideways force.
They are only pushed a little harder on their seats by the centrifugal force. By experimenting you will notice you can make much steeper turns by banking the airplane to high angles and pulling back on the yoke. Turns at over 60 bank angle are the realm of aerobatics and military flying, and dangerous is aircraft such as the Cessna. This is taxiing. The picture below shows the instrument. It displays how fast the engine is turning in hundreds of revolutions per minute RPM. If required type the Page Down key to decrease the engine speed.
At roughly 1, RPM, the airplane will move forward on the runway, but it will not accelerate and take off. Type the. The airplane will make a sharp turn to the right. If you keep the. When you type the. To activate the brake on the left wheel, use the, key. The, and. Using the throttle and the brake pedals you can control the speed of the aircraft and cause it to turn on the ground.
The brakes can be very useful when taxiing slowly on the runway. You can also steer the nose-wheel of the aircraft. In a real airplane this is done by pushing the rudder pedals with your feet. You push with your feet on the side you want to turn. If you don t have real rudder pedals, there are two ways to control the virtual rudder pedals : Using the keypad 0 and Enter keys. If you type the keypad Enter key say seven times, you will see the airplane firmly turns to the right and stays turning that way. Type the keypad 0 key seven times to get the airplane back rolling almost straight. Using the mouse.
The rudder pedals are connected to both the rudder and nose-wheel. This method is much more precise. Start the simulator, Type v or V to view the airplane from the outside and keep x down a couple of seconds to zoom in on the airplane. Look at the front wheel and keep keypad 0 down. Then keep keypad Enter down. See the front wheel turn. Keep the left mouse button down to get in rudder control mode and move the mouse to the left and to the right.
Note that the rudder, that big vertical control surface at the rear of the plane, moves together with the front wheel. I tend to control the rudder pedals using the mouse while the front wheel is on the ground and use the keypad 0 and Enter keys once it has lifted off. In other words : I keep the left mouse button down while the front wheel is on the ground. This allows for a precise and easy rudder control on the ground.
Then I simply release the left mouse button once the front wheel lifts off Airspeed Just like driving a car, it is good to know how fast you are traveling. The aviation equivalent of a speedometer is the airspeed indicator ASI , calibrate in nautical miles per hour knots. A knot is miles per hour, so very roughly, 1 knot is 1 mph. The airspeed indicator displays the speed of the aircraft compared to the surrounding air, not the speed compared to the ground like a car speedometer does.
If the plane is halted on the ground and there is a 10 knot wind blowing from straight ahead, the airspeed indicator will display 10 knots airspeed, although the plane will not be moving relative to the ground. When the airplane rolls over the runway at more than 40 knots, you must prevent the front wheel from touching the ground. The nosewheel is not designed for high speeds and in real life would shimmy and wear out. During take off, once over 40 knots you can make the front wheel leave the ground by pulling back gently on the control yoke. Don t turn sharply at high speed on the ground.
Doing so may cause the aircraft to tip over. The picture below shows the front wheel slightly lifted. Don t overdo this. Keep the airplane s white nose cover well below the horizon. You just need to lift the plane s nose very slightly. Question : if the front wheel no longer touches the runway, how do you steer the airplane? Answer : still using the rudder pedals. As mentioned above, the rudder pedals are linked to both the nose-wheel and the tail rudder, that big vertical moving part at the tail of the plane :.
Note the front wheel and the tail rudder don t make the airplane turn at exactly the same rate. So when the rudder takes over the front wheel, you must adapt the rudder pedals angle. That means fast typing keypad 0 and keypad Enter or hold the left mouse button down and tightly control the rudder with the mouse.
Once you ve become familiar with the nose-wheel and rudder, you can use these new controls to keep the airplane straight on the runway during take-off. Say the airplane is heading too much to the right. You type keypad 0 a few times to make it turn back to the left. Don t wait till the aircraft has straightened up completely. Type keypad Enter before the aircraft reaches the direction you wish to travel. Otherwise you will find that you will over-correct and have to turn back again. If you use the mouse, such corrections are much easier and more precise.
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To summarise : two methods exist to steer the airplane on the ground : the differential brakes on the side wheels and the rudder pedals. This control redundancy is very common in aviation. If one method fails, you still have another method available to perform the task. You may be wondering why the aircraft drifts to the left when it rolls on the ground, forcing your to compensate with a little push on the right rudder pedal? The main reason is the flow of air produced by the propeller.
It blows along the airplane body, but also corkscrews around the airplane fuselage. The upper part of that slight vortex pushes the vertical tail to the right. This causes makes the front of the aircraft to yaw to the left. You can center all yoke and rudder controls by typing 5 on the keypad. This is a good preflight precaution. Sometimes it can save your life in flight if you find yourself with controls all over the place! Why two ways?
Partially for redundancy, but mainly because they are complementary. The main effect of the rudder is yaw rotation around the vertical axis , while the main effect of the ailerons is roll rotation around the longitudonal axis. When flying close to the ground, it is better not to bank the airplane in order to turn. The rudder is used more instead. Acting on the rudder pedals allows you to turn the airplane without excessive banking. When the plane is just above the runway, the two side wheels need to be at the same height above the runway for landing.
That means the wings must be level with the horizon. The plane is not allowed to bank. Note this does not need to be perfect. A bank of a few degrees is harmless. In flight, especially at high speed, the rudder is an in-efficient way to turn the aircraft : It causes the airplane to present its flank to the airstream, increasing drag. The airplane turns very slowly. You will lack control while turning. At high flight speed the centrifugal force will be disturbing or even dangerous. The rudder can be vital when the wings are stalled. Indeed, during a stall the wing ailerons become less effective or even useless.
Note that some airplanes can go in a very dangerous stall if you overdo the rudder control at low speed. When you turn in flight, using the ailerons, you still need the rudder a little bit. You add a little bit of rudder. This allows you to compensate for the adverse yaw created when you roll using the ailerons. In a real aircraft, you can feel this sideways motion. In the simulator, you can check this visually on the turn coordinator. In the picture below the little ball is pushed rightwards during a strong turn to the right using the ailerons.
That means you the pilot endure a rightwards force too. You can compensate this by pushing the right rudder pedal type the keypad Enter key a few times. In normal flight you should use the rudder to keep the little ball centered. So, in normal flight use the ailerons to turn, while close to the ground at low. However, one method never completely cancels out the other. You still need the rudder at high altitudes and speeds. Reciprocally you have to use the ailerons a little bit when close to the ground, to keep the wings level with the horizon.
Even when taxiing, you should use the ailerons. Otherwise, strong winds can blow the aircraft onto its side. To counteract this, your should turn the ailerons into the wind. This raises the aileron in the wind, helping to keep the wing down. You should avoid making quick and agressive movements of the rudder. On the ground at high speed this can make the airplane turn too sharply. In flight at low speed it can cause a very dangerous type of stall. In flight at high speed it can cause all kinds of aerodynamic and physical discomfort.
Instead, make gentle movements of the rudder. I recommend you practise turning with the rudder in flight. Fly at a low speed of about 70 knots. Try to keep the altitude stable by increasing and decreasing the engine power. Use the rudder to turn towards a ground feature and maintain a heading, then turn the aircraft towards a new heading.
See how the plane yaws. Learn to anticipate rudder control. Don t try to make steep turns. This section is about gauges, switches and controls of the aircraft. While in the simulator you can take off and land a basic airplane with just the engine throttle and the yoke, but you will need all the controls to perform securely and efficiently Engine control An airplane engine is designed for simplicity, reliability and efficiency.
Rather than use advanced electronic ignition and fuel injection systems found in modern cars, they instead use older technology that doesn t rely on electrical power. That way, the plane can still fly even if it suffers complete electrical failure. Magneto On the bottom left, below the instrument panel you will find the magneto switch and engine starter :.
You are probably aware that the fuel inside a car engine is ignited by electric sparks. Modern car engines use electronic ignition. An airplane engine uses a more old-fashioned but more reliable magneto ignition instead. For redundancy, it contains two such magnetos : the left one and the right one.
When you change the magneto switch on OFF, both magnetos are switched off and the engine will not run. With the magneto switch on L you are using the left magneto. On R you are using the right magneto. On BOTH you use both. In flight you will use BOTH. Given that you use both magnetos in flight, why have the switch? The reason is that during your pre-flight checks you will verify that each of the magnetos is working correctly.
To do this, increase the RPM to about then switch the magneto switch to L and observe the tachometer. You should observe a slight drop in RPM. If the engine cuts out, the left magneto is broken. If you do not see an RPM drop, then the switch may be faulty, as both magnetos are still switched on. You can then perform the same test on the right magneto.
Of course, in the simulator, the magnetos are unlikely to fail! Should one of the two magnetos fail in flight, the other one will keep the engine running. The failure of one magneto is rare, the failure of both simultaneously is almost unheard of. Then use the starter motor by pressing the s for a few seconds, till the engine is started.
You can also turn the magneto switch and start the engine by clicking left and right of the switch in normal mouse mod. Type Ctrl-c to see the two click sides highlighted by yellow rectangles. If you turn the switch to OFF, the engine noise stops. If you quickly turn the switch back to L, the engine starts again as the propeller is still turning. Once the engine is halted, always place the magneto switch to OFF. You decrease the power by pulling the control out Page Down key. You can also click left and right of the lever middle mouse button for quicker moves, Ctrl-c to highlight the left and right halves.
What does increase the power actually mean? Does it mean you increase the amount of fuel delivered to the engine? Yes, but this is not enough to fully understand what you are doing. You need to be aware that the engine is also fed with a huge amount of air. The engine s cylinders burn an mixture of fuel and air. Fuel alone wouldn t burn. Only a mixture of fuel and air can detonate and move the engine pistons.
So when you push the throttle in, you increase both the fuel and the air fed to the engine. Mixture The amount of air compared to the amount of fuel is critical. The proportion of the two has to be tuned closely. This is the purpose of the mixture lever. The picture below displays the mixture lever, pulled out far too much.
When the mixture lever is fully pushed in, you feed the engine with an lots of fuel and little air. This is known as a rich mixture. When the lever is pulled out completely, there is an excess of air, known as a lean mixture. The correct position to produce maximum power is in between these two extremes, usually quite close to fully pushed in.
When you start the engine and when you take off, you need a fuel-rich mixture. That means the mixture lever should be pushed in. A fuel-rich mixture allows the engine to start easily. It also makes the engine a little more reliable. The drawback is that a part of the fuel is not burned inside the engine.
It is simply wasted and pushed out the exhaust. This makes the engine more polluting, it decreases the. Once in normal flight, you have to pull the mixture lever a little, to get a more optimal mixture. Check this out by doing the following. Start the simulator. Put the parking brakes on with key B that is Shift-b. Push the throttle in to its maximum. The engine RPM should now be close to the maximum. Slowly pull on the mixture lever using the mouse in normal pointer mode. You will see the RPM increases a little. You get more power, without increasing the fuel intake. You waste no fuel and it pollutes less.
If you continue to pull the mixture lever, the RPM will decrease back away, because now there is too much air. The excess of air slows the explosions down inside the cylinders and decreases the explosion temperature, hence the thermodynamic yield decreases. You have to tune in the optimal mixture. For thermodynamic reasons, the best mixture isn t exactly at maximum power - it is better for the engine to be running very slight richer or leaner than maximum power. This also avoids the possibility of the fuel detonating explosively damaging the engine.
You can find the maximum power point by the fact you get the highest RPM. Another method is to check the engine exhaust temperature. Roughly, this is the point at which you get the highest temperature. The mixture control allows you to burn less fuel for the same speed and distance, and therefore fly farther and pollute less.
However, if you mis-manage it, it can cause serious problems. Suppose you go flying at high altitude and pull out the mixture lever accordingly. At high altitude there is less oxygen available so the correct mixture will be quite lean - i. Then you descend back in order to land. When landing, you have to tune back in a mixture that is a little too rich in fuel. This means pushing the mixture lever in. That way the engine becomes a little more reliable and will be better adapted to a decrease in altitude.
I wrote above that placing the magneto on OFF is not the right way to stop the engine. The right method is to pull the mixture lever. First pull the throttle out completely, to get the engine to minimum power and fuel consumption. Then pull the mixture lever, till the engine stops because the mixture contains too much air. This ensures the engine doesn t get choked by waste fuel residues.
Finally, turn the magneto switch to OFF to ensure the engine won t start again accidentally. An important warning : you may think the RPM indicator reflects the engine power. Two things make the RPM increase : the engine power and the airplane speed. To check this, fly to a given altitude then pull the engine power to minimum.
Try out diving to the ground then rising back to altitude. You will see the RPM varies significantly as does your airspeed. It rises while diving and decreases while climbing. One pitfall of this is when you intend to tune the engine power in for landing. Suppose you re descending towards the airport, flying fast. So you pull the throttle till you get 1, RPM. You think you tuned in the appropriate RPM.
You think you shouldn t bother. But when you level off, the plane s speed starts to decrease, along with the RPM. A few minutes later, you get the low flight speed you wanted. You don t see the RPM is now far too slow. You will either lose altitude or stall. Or both. Be cautious with the throttle and with the RPM indicator. Either pull on the throttle more steadily or be mentally prepared to push it back in quickly Wings and speed Say you are flying with full engine power.
Dropping the nose a little makes you lose altitude and raising the nose a little makes you gain altitude. You may think this is quite straightforward.
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The plane travels in the direction it is heading ; the direction the propeller is heading. This is not the best way to think about it. This model would be fine for a rocket, but not for an airplane. A rocket is lifted by its engine, while a plane is lifted by its wings. That s a huge difference. Get a big rigid square of cardboard, hold it horizontally in your hand with your arm stretched out and make it do fast horizontal movements while rotating your torso.
When the cardboard moves flat through the air, it experiences no lift force. If you twist your arm slightly to give the cardboard a slight upward angle, you will feel it tends to lift in the air. There is an upward force acting on the cardboard. That s the way a wing holds a plane in the air. The wings have a slight upward angle and lift the airplane. The more angle you give the cardboard, the more lift force. Till you give it too steep an angle. Then you will rather feel a brake force.
The cardboard is stalling see below. When you pull the yoke, the airplane s nose rises up. Hence the wings travel through the air at a steeper angle. Hence the lift force on the wings is stronger. Hence the plane rises in the air. When you push the yoke, the airplane s nose dives. Hence the wings travel through the air with less angle. Hence the lift force on the wings decreases. Hence the plane descends. What matters is the angle the wings travel through the air.
This is the angle of attack. I wrote above that when the wings travel through the air with no angle of attack, they don t produce lift. This is false. It would be true if the wings were a flat plate like the cardboard. But they aren t. The wings are a slightly curved airfoil.
This makes them create lift even when traveling through the air at no angle of attack. Comment dire? Wilkerson, Johnson, Voelker, Blyther, Potts Quelle est la place du BMX dans ta vie? Puis dans le cadre de ma marque, Quiet Resistant, je suis toujours en contact avec nombre de riders old school. Ah ah ah Tu peux nous en dire un peu plus sur cette marque? Non non, pas une marque de BMX en soi.
Shop name : Mystery Tattoo Studio Years riding bike : bikes almost since I was born, I started with the bmx at 8 or 9 more or less. Years tattooing : 4 years now. How you get into tattoo and what is the link for you with action sports? That is one side of the balance. The other side could be my dad involving me into motorbikes and wheels. We use to go out to the countryside or mxtracks and teach me how to ride the bike well. When I was injured in a good friend of mine who was tattooing propose me to try a tattoo machine and I said why not!?
I already was loving the tattoo world, beacuse I was getting lots of tattoos at that time. So taking the time of my long recovery from the injury as an apprenticeship and already having drawing and painting skills, made my tattoos look pretty acceptable from the very beginning, and all the tattooers that I knew were encouraging me all the time. Since then I did not stopped.
Nowadays tattooing is my business and riding is my free time. Drawing and Riding. Rebecca Pergentile Rebecca is the girl of the year! All of this made me think that as a true pioneer of the sport, she deserved this interview. Hi Rebecca, would you please introduce yourself?
Hey everyone! Also, I am not a vegetarian. How long have you been riding for? I started riding flatland just before my 18th birthday. How did you get into riding flat? If it was up to me, I would have started riding flatland when I was 11 when my brother met some kids at his school who rode flatland. The first time I watched them ride I was hooked and knew what I was destined for! That unfortunately was stolen. I used to sit in a parking lot every week and watch people ride.
Soon I contacted Chris Pergentile my brother in-law online and he helped me get connected and purchase my first flatland bike with my government university funds. Then I had to go out and purchase my first purse to carry around my bike tools. How did that happen? No, haha! He let us know the qualifications and Beatrice wanted me to do it. Thanks to the time put in by our good friend Aidas Odonelis we were able to get girl representation in there. Which I believe is important.
Female flatland obviously does not rise to the same skill level of male riders. To me this is about inspiring a new generation of female riders to come in and rise above! This calendar definitely is a big deal, and was a really humbling experience. Everyone in your family rides flatland, right? How often do you ride together?
My husband and kids, yes, I adore them! My boys are four and six years old. They participated in their first demonstration this year. When free time arises, we ride. I school our kids at home and try to have them on their bikes often too. If they choose to flatland I will be excited, but I will be proud of them and support them in anything they choose to do. Tell us about Magnolia BMX. We have a mission statement you can read on our website under the contact information : www. To put it bluntly our goal is to make the presence of the female flatland scene more about recognizing the girls that love BMX, who put in the commitment to learn and choke out the vision of just a hot girl on a BMX.
In we spread the word that girls can ride too by featuring beginner riders sharing their stories. The number of girls who started riding exceeded our expectations. For our goal is to encourage girls to learn. We are running a contest called Flatland Forward, with about 20 girls worldwide entered.
You can find more information about that on our web page too. Our team, Monika Hinz and Miyuki Dezaki are amazing riders and ladies. Beautiful too, inside and out! We chose a skilled team of mature riders to represent around the world as a connection for new girls who want to start riding.
I do not have the words good enough to express my appreciation for her, so I dedicate this moment of silence to her,. Who else do you ride with? Being a family of four it is hard to get out and ride often with others. When we do, we do not take that time for granted. We compete every year in the Toronto FU competition. A highlight for my flatland experience was riding with Erin Donato back in the day.
I also enjoyed and miss riding with Cris Neves who was a good friend and strong inspiration to me! What would be your advice especially for the girls who are starting to ride? Thank you for the kind words. There are a million reasons to not ride or follow your dream in life. There are handfuls of people who will tell you not to. Some people will have good things to say and twice as many will have only bad things to think about you. They will try to tear you down, or make it their mission to outdo you. You will likely fail a. Who do you think are the biggest influences on your riding?
I ride to be myself and have fun. Now and then I see someone do a trick I think I would be able to learn. If I can, I will incorporate it with my current tricks. They believed in me before I believed in myself! They are great people, riders, and friends. Stay true to who you were born to be. You have one life, do it right. Know who you are, what you were created for, question everything and never let go of your dreams.
My doctor advised me to not ride or even pick up my 3 month old baby again because of a disorder I deal with. I could have cried about it, instead I started to weight train. That I cry about. But you can be swallowed alive by the bad in life or you can find a healthy outlet and rise above. For me flatland is my one safe place. The place where I can be myself and work out the goings on in my life before God. I learn determination, perseverance and commitment and gained a huge family!
The larger the obstacle you face, the bigger of a sledgehammer you bring. I tell my kids every day the only thing worse than failing is not trying. Just joking. Whether we are tight or just know of each other online. Thanks also to Art magazine for taking the time and effort to bring awareness to female riders in the BMX scene! My kids and my husband who always stand beside me and my Hope that flies high that has and will never fail me. Owen Bohn A few months ago I was asked by a group of Argentinean riders if I wanted to be part of the crew of judges for an online flatland contest, and without hesitation I accepted.
The line-up of riders included many talented people from South America, and Owen stood out because of his original and hardcore tricks. One of my goals with these interviews to Latin American riders is to show the world that we also have world-class riders who, with a little help, could shred at a major contest. Watch out for this guy! Owen, please introduce yourself. How did you get into BMX flatland? I asked him where they gathered to practice so I could go too. After that, I started putting a bike together with parts donated by some riders.
Do you have sponsors? Flatland here is not well known, but I always get help from other flatlanders, and so I help them whenever I can. What motivates you to ride? First, there are still more tricks you can pull, and yes, you can invent them. Second, hanging out with my friends and see how they progress. And finally, being able to travel and meet more people with similar interests. What riders have been your biggest influence? How do you visualize the flatland scene in Argentina?
It has some moments where you can see that there are more riders and others where it seems that nobody is riding anymore. Now, at this point, the level of the riders has been increasing thanks to the Online Flatland Contest, where there were many competitors. In the recent Online Flatland Contest you proved not only to be one of the best in Latin America, but also one of the most original.
How important is the role of originality for you? Being original is very important to me. I like to see weird tricks and try to make up my own. What is your personal goal regarding flatland? Will we see you in the future participating in some internationally renowned contests? Of course, why not? I just have to practice a lot. Do you have a message for our readers, any comments to add or thanks?
Thanks to ART magazine. Merci Ruben!! How did the UK Vert series idea come together? There was a Vert Jam at Creation Skate park in Birmingham in , the vibe was really good and the riders were wanting more so I talked to a few people and felt it out and there was definitely a demand for a Vert Series, I stepped up and decided to make it a reality and support the riders and the Skate parks that have kept Vert alive. Can you explain how it works regarding ranking, sanctioning body, insurance, etc? Do you plan to expand? Someone in another country want to set up a local vert contest with your support, is it possible?
Or maybe could we dream to see it happening at the FISE, Simple Session, or any big European contest, or do you wish to keep it the way it is? I think its better to have a stand-alone series at this moment in time and to do our own thing. FISE and Simpel are great without Vert, if they would like to host a round of the European Vert series in then we can always talk and it may happen. If anyone in Europe wants help setting up a Vert event then I am happy to help.
I would prefer to tie events together as a series though so the riders have a goal, I am not keen on one off events it feels like BMX has become fractured and disjointed these days, I feel there may be another way that would be good for the riders and the industry. Is there a reason why UK vert riders have been such a dominating force in vert riding?
Is vert exceptionally on par with English mentality? Is there something the milk? Is life so boring in the UK that even falling out of a 14 feet air sounds like a enjoyable way of spending time with friend? I think its pure stubborn couldnt give a flying fuck not going to be beaten by anything attitude that helped Britain become a force in BMX and many other things.
If you lived on an island like ours you would be mental too! You were one of the only athletes to withdraw from one of the biggest vert contest to happen in Europe European X-games when they where shutting down BMX on other main events. It looks that skaters are way smarter than we are, and apparently it is impossible to get united in BMX, anything one try to do or promote, there will always be someone to whine or complain about it. How can we work this out?
I am not sure how we can get the right people sat down around a table and lay down the foundations to protect riders from these problems happening in the future I still have to work that one out. Then the big companies go away and invest in the next money-spinning fad. Back to vert riding, do you think it is fading away because of the lack of equipment and infrastructure or because it is way easier to think your good on a 6 foot mini ramp? I think smaller Vert ramps would help facilitate a resurgence in Vert riding to a certain degree or Vert ramps with Midi sections on the side of them so the riders can progress from the smaller section to the big section in steps.
Vert needs a strong mind and time, I have footage of Steve McCann from riding a It just takes time, it was the same for me and it will be the same for most riders who want to be a Vert rider. So the answer is yes Vert can be ridden by everyone who owns a BMX, the more you put into anything the more you get out of it! What would you say to a kid who what to start riding Vert? How did you get into bmx, could you give us some details about your first start into this sport?
Everything started when I lived in the U. Are you doing other sports? Is that important for you to have different activities or you just want to focus on bmx later? Yes I practice skate sometimes and I although surf when we got big waves here! I only focus on my BMX but I like to have other sports to do sometimes like surfing! What about school? Do you have time to ride as you want? I only go to school untill so I got pretty much all day ti bike and thats what I do! You used to live in USA, how this happened? Did you ride there or you were too young?
Yes I used to live there, it happend becouse one day we were talking with my mom and we wanted to change of livestyle so we decided to go there, no I didnt use to. I saw you doing a double flip during the happy ride jam and this at only 16 years old!!! Are you planning to ride more comps? Any new tricks in mind? Oh yes I got many new tricks in mind but the crazyest one is this kind of to backflip to another Who is your riding partners?
Is that important to ride with good friends to have a great sesh? Any plans for the future? My plans for the future are just keep riding and try to become better and better on everything. Something to say? A last word or anybody to thank? First of all thanks my family and the people that trusted me from the first moment I started riding bmx and all my real good friends that helped me and teach me lots of thing.
It is not a secret that Pitchfork considered to be one of the main music web sites read, respected all over the world. Clearly the opinion of Pitchfork editors influences the choice of music lovers. So the festival appeared naturally. Almost for 10 years the open air Pitchfork rocks in Chicago, and from the kicked off in Paris as well. We got to enjoy three days of musical madness in Paris at one of the most popular music festivals in Europe. For those who appreciate good line up, good organisation, amazing sounding Pitchfork is to be visited.
Top les VU! There was no doubt that this strong man was one of the biggest heart I will have had the chance to cross in my life. An eternal smile and a natural happiness all day long and no matter what could happen, Mark is bringing light and positive vibes anywhere he goes. Not only being a great human, Mark is expressing himself on his bike as no one else, sending it hard each time and letting his talent talk by itself. Thank you my friend for the smile you put on my face each time I see you or read you, life is beautiful! Hi Mark, can you go through the usual presentation of yourself : age, years of ridding, how do you start ridding, what keep you ridding, etc… Heey lovely people..
I was born as the first son and the second child in the family of 5 children, that was in What keeps me riding? I really really really enjoy cruising the streets. You are known for going big when you ride street : dangerous spots, big gaps, and a lot of risk. Do you think that bigger and dangerous is better? No brother. The most appreciation of lifes finest gifts is in the very little things. The subtile differences you notice Some look very scary maybe.
But they are in my head for a while I work on those things I love to be scared for a long time of a spot.. When I go fast I have no interest in following whats new Preciserei che lo scambio potrebbe avvenire prefe- ribilmente nella capitale romana. La congettura s'inserisce bene nel contesto linguistico-letterario dell'epoca. Caponetto Salvatore. Aonio Pa- leario e la riforma protestante in Toscana. Studi storici. Prix : Lit. Caklesso Giuliana.
Udine, B. Nel corso del- l'articolo — che utilizza in particolare anche i mss Paris, B. Carley James P. The Downside Review, 99, , p. Carmina Burana lateinisch-deutsch. Munchen, Heimeran Verlag, Muller pour le texte et par R. A la notice sur le ms. Whicher N. Waddel Anvers, et R.
Arias y Arias Madrid, Michel Huglo. Carrara Paolo. Sul frammento tragico P. Nuova descrizione codicologica del Pap. Paleograficamente affine al Pap. Nell'edizione con commento, che correda lo studio, l'a. Cartianu V. Bucuregti, Editura Meridiane, , 61 S. Die Verf. Catalogus codicum manuscriptorum me- dii aevi latinorum qui in Bibliotheca J agellonica Cracoviae asservanlur. I : Num. Wto- dek, G. Zathey, M. Institutum Philosophiae et Sociologiae Universitas Jagellonica. Lists and Guides. Edward Cranz.
Bulletin codicologique - Persée
Paul-Oskar Kris- teller. Washington, The Catholic. Cau Ettore. Osservazioni sul cod. VIII ex. Palaeographica, diplomatica et archivistica. Studi in onore di Giulio Bat- telli, I, p. La precarolina del Wien, O. Tri- vulz.
Da escludere invece il gruppo mon- zese di Paris, B. Gall , ; Wolfenbuttel, Helmst. Chiliano, che avevano indotto gli studiosi a supporre un'origine da Wurzburg , a quella di Salisburgo e infine alla Hofbibl. Cavedon Annarosa. Giornale Storico della Letteratura Italiana, , , p. Esamina i mss Wolfenbuttel Cecchini Giovanni. La biblioteca Augusta del Comune di Perugia. Roma, Edi- zioni di Storia e Letteratura, , gd. Sussidi Eruditi, Cesarini Martinelli Lucia. Sesto Empirico e una dispersa enciclopedia delle arti e dclle scienze di Angelo Poliziano. Rina- scimento, 20, , p.
Esamina il ms. Munchen, Staatsbibl. Centre de Recherches d'Histoire et de Philologie. Charraut D. Revue d'histoire des textes, 8, , p. Discusses recent developments and ongoing in mechanical and optical analysis of focusing on the problems of overcoming minor graphic variations on the level of the totality of occurrences of individual letters and on the level of letters within the context of a line of text ; goes into the optical determination of the average slant of writing. Cheney Mary. Florian, Stiftsbibl. Cherubini Nicoletta.
Churchill William J. Per una edizio- ne critica degli Annales Barenses e degli Lupi Protospatharii. Bollettino del Comi- tato per la preparazione dell Edizione Nazio- nale dei classici greci e latini, n. Ciobanu Gheorghe. Clover Helen. Chisholm John Edward. II : Text edited from the Manuscripts. Prix : FS. Erec und Enide. Voir Bull. Roques Paris, Codex diplomaticus Amialinus. Urkun- denbuch der Abtei S. Salvatore am Monta- miata. Wilhelm Kurze 4. Band, Faksimiles, 1. Inventari e cataloghi toscani, 3. Prix: Lit.
Der Engelpapst. Cogliati Arano Luisa. Tacui- num Sanitatis. Colberg Katharina. Pamphilus a cura di Stefano Pittaluga. Vitale di Blois, Geta, a cura di Ferruccio Bertini. Baucis et Traso, a cura di Giovanni Orlandi. De mercatore, a cura di Paola Busdraghi. Consuetudines Lundenses. Statutter for kannikensamfundet i Lund c. Ud- givet of Erik Buus. Mit einer deutschen Zu- sammenfassung. Kobenhavn, Det Danske Sprog- og Litteraturselskab, Prix : Cour.
Cook R. Study of the latest and longest version of the Cycle London, B. Script and suggest execution in Ile-de-France, s. Marginalia show that the MS. In its present state, the MS. Coppini Donatella. Interpres, 2, , p. In preparazione alFedizione critica dell'iferma- phroditus del Panormita, la C. Forbey del Corsetti P. Un nouveau manuscrit de Colu- melle : Turin, Bibl. New witness to Columella in the aforesaid MS. Caissotti in s. In an addendum, points out two more MSS identified by L. Rubio Barcelona, B. Costa Avelino de Jesus da. En outre, il publie en appendice 25 documents d'archives pour justifier ses conclusions.
A noter quelques coquilles : p. Cowdrey H. Two Studies in Cluniac History Studi Gregoriani, 11, , p. Hugues sur le martyr S. On sait qu'il existe encore quatre autres Vies de S.
Créer un projet de développement
Hugues ; il trouvera de plus dans la Bibliotheca Cluniacensis, col. Une petite remarque au sujet de la lettre 5 au pape Urbain II p. Hugonis abbatis Cluniacensis pro Lamberto abbate S. Le professeur G. En Appendice, H. Cranz F. Criscuolo Hugo. Crocker Richard L. A sequence is transcribed from the following mss : Paris, B. Crouzel Henri. Cupaiuolo Giovanni. Dachs K. Daneu Lattanzi Angela. Miscellanea di studi in memoria di Anna Saitta Revignas, p. Il est regrettable que la bibliographie de l'a. II, p. Autre remarque : les souscriptions de Jacopo de Milan dans le Vat.
Dawe R. De Bruin C. Decorps-Foulquier M. De La Mare A. Dellers Adam C. Die Zisterzienser in Aachen. Aachener Kunstbldtter, 49, 81, p. Mit speziellem Blick auf Aachen und seinen Urn" kreis bespricht der A. Prima edizione critica dell'agiografia di S. Bacco Iuniore dall'inedito Athine, E. Il calendario del Sina, Georg. Pertanto l'a. Altri codici discussi sono Halki, Theol. Premesse notizie sulla costituzione di questo fondo manoscritto, l'a. Utile il commento pa- leografico, che correda la descrizione.
Per confronto grafico sono esaminati anche i codici Dusikos, 51, Leningrad, Gosud. Derolez Albert. Le chap. Dans le chap. Ill, A. Dolbeau, dans Recherches augustiniennes, 13, , p. Delisle Pari: , Lehmann 5 vol. Bloomfield Mass. Introduction and Additional Notes by F. Dewindt Edwin Brezette. A and Index of B. Harley Ms. Subsidia Medievalia, 7. Le Liber Gersumarum Londres, B. De Winter Patrick M. D'Heur Jean-Marie. Di Benedetto Filippo. Pubblica e commenta otto brevi epigrammi del Lippi, conservati nel codice Atlantico di Leonardo e nei mss Firenze, B.
VII ; Siena, B. II curioso inventario dei libri di Gaspare Zacchi da Volterra Au terme d'une analyse fine et pertinente, F. Gaspare da Giovanni Rhosos ; Pavie, Univ. Ca- sanat. Dietrich von Freiberg. Opera om- nia. Tomus II. Dietrich von Nieheim. Gesta Karoli Magni imperatoris, hrsg. Monumenta Germqniae Histo- rica, Di Lello-Finuoli Anna Lucia. A proposito di alcuni codici trincavelliani. Ri- vista di Studi Bizantini e Neoellenici, n. Indagine codicologico-paleografica sulla famiglia di mss, comprendente il Venezia, Marc, gr.
Sorpendente, ma suff icientemente documentata — e quindi convin- cente — , la derivazione del Vaticano, Vat. Dal Vaticano derivano, nel- l'ordine, il Firenze, B. Con gli excerpta Lascariana del Vaticano, Reg. A Zaccaria Calliergi si deve invece gli Oxford, Bodl. Altri codici esaminati sono : Firenze, B. Dilts Mervin R. Demosthenic in Codex Laurentianus 59, 9. Three scribes furnish scholia, P1 s. Possible sources or parallels for scholia of P2 and P3 are : Monac. Some 20 scholia of P2 are scholia recentiora composed by the scribe. Scholia of P1, neglected by Dindorf, should be edited among scholia vetera.
P and Paris gr. In Timocraten. Derives stemma, p. A 54 inf. In establishing text of scholia shared by t with Monac. Djourova Axinia. Byzantion, 49, , p. Dans l'histoire du ms. Les pli. Ana- lecta Bollandiana, 98, , p. Analecta 98, , p. VII , f. Drogin Marc. Medieval Calligraphy, its History and Technique. Foreword by Paul Freeman. Dumitriu-Snagov I. Revista de Isiorie, 34, 5, , S. Zusam- menf. Apostolica Vaticana aus Rom bewahrt sind. Dumville David N. Transactions of the Cambridge Society, 7, , p.
Two of the three books which have been identified as survivors of the medieval library of the Cistercian abbey founded in at Sawley are in Cambridge : Corpus Christi Coll. Dykmans Marc. Tome II. De Rome en Avignon ou le de Jacques Stefaneschi. Prix : FB. Lisboa, Edi. A propos de synodes languedociens. En appendice, l'a. Eckermann Willigis. Edda Islandorum. Resen's Editions of Printed in Facsimile with Introduction by Anthony Faulkes.
Two Versions of Snorra Edda from the 17th Vol. Edited by Anthony Faulkes. Elliott J. The Journal of Theological Studies, 32, , p. The 25th edition of the Nestle text was published in For the new edition the whole of the text, apparatus, marginalia and other editorial matter has been subjected to a complete reappraisal. The Greek and Old Latin mss used in the new edition are fully listed in an appendix. Erdmann Jurgen. Zum Cod. Jahrbuch der Co- burger Landesstiftung, 25, , S.
Im Britischen Museum liegt seit eine Hs. Beschreibungen bieten der Katalog des B. Margoliouth und B. Narkiss Ent- halten sind der Pentateuch, die Megillot, Haftarot und weitere grammatische und liturgische Texte. Die von der Coburger Regionalforschung bisher nicht beachtete Hs. Etaix R. Analyzes content of aforesaid MS.
Bischoff and confirms the Auxerre suggested by R. Quadri Studi medievali, , p. The published and MS. Lebeuf supply proof that this MS. The homeliary shows some minor differences to Paul the Deacon's, as described by R. Also describes a lost patristic lectionary from Auxerre on the basis of Lebeuf. Les f. Ion, edidit Werner Biehl.
Leipzig, B. Biblio- theca scriptorum graecorum et romanorum Teubneriana. Evans G. The Journal of Studies, 31, , p. The treatise, beginning : De altaris sacramento, is confidently ascribed to Gilbert Crispin, Abbott of Westminster and may well be the lost work De Veri- tate Corporis et Sanguinis Domini or a draft of it. Gilbert summarizes the main issues current in the 11th cent.
The Theology of Change in the Writings of St. De fabula. Introduzione, testo critico, traduzione e note di commento a cura di Giovanni Cupaiuolo. Ewe Herbert. Sieben Jahrhunderte im Stralsunder Archiv. An mittelalterlichen Hs. Nr 1 ; ein Einzelbatt mit Zierinitiale aus einem Anti- phonar, Nr 2 ; zwei illuminierte Breviere, Nr 3 ; der Digesten-Kommentar des Baldus de Ubaldis, Nr 4 ; ein Lectionar, Nr Pierre Cockshaw. Preface by James M. Leiden, E. Fantoni Giuliana L. Un carteggio femminile del sec.
Stato, Fondo Arch. Gonzaga, , c. Faucon J. Shows that Montpellier, Fac. Faulkes Anthony. Voir nos zs et ter. Featherstone Jeffrey-Michael. Halki, Mon. Finch Chauncey E. Transactions of the American Philological , , p. Text of Julius Severianus' Praecepta artis rhe- toricae in Arch. Pietro H 36, f. B may be dated c. Other mss mentioned : Milan, Ambros. Fioravanti Gianfranco. Pietro de' Rossi. Cita, in particolare, i mss. Braidense, A. IX 36 ; Oxford, Bodl. Fischer Rupert. Flasch Kurt.
Guerre des Juifs. Fohlen Jeannine. Follet S. Un fragment non de Philostrate dans un manuscrit de H arleianus , f. Harley , copied by John Rhosus Follieri Enrica. Palaeographica, diplo- matica et archivistica. Il Vaticano, Ottob. Il secondo codice cassinese preso in esame, l'Ottob. Di quest'ultimo codice l'a.
Oltre all'utilizzazione filologica degli Ottoboniani da parte dell'Allacci e di Jan Lievens, l'a. Sono stu- diati inoltre i seguenti mss : Bruxelles, B. IV, B. VI, B. XIX, B. XX ; London, B. Tortosa, Arch. Foti Maria Bianca. Messina, Edi- zioni G. Nel E. Ad eccezione dei n. Invero i testi di questa laboriosa catalografia a stampa sono esclu- sivamente agiografici e liturgici, esemplati in mi- nuscola di Reggio o di Rossano, o in grafie che s'ispi- rano a tali tipologie, in gran parte non posteriori al s.
Particolarmente preziosa risulta l'esatta defi- nizione dello spatium scripturae in frammenti corne. In ogni caso a tutto merito dell'a. E ancora : il fr. Infine, prima del f. In brillanti inda- gini erano stati cosl idealmente ricostruiti, almeno in parte, codici ora perduti : un menologio preme- tafrastico di dicembre s. Dal crisostomico Leipzig, Univ. Sono tutti in pergamena, salvo i cartacei fr. Nume- rosi sono i codici citati, nei quali molto spesso figurano frammenti di reimpiego, d'identica di quelli descritti presentemente.
Ci auguriamo pertanto che sia rilegato in modo da ricostruire, anche tangibilmente, i codici di nella disposizione originaria dei frammenti ; le parti ora conservate in Italia o all'estero potreb- bero essere inserite al loro posto in riproduzione fotomeccanica, senza toccare quindi la loro attuale dislocazione.
Un esperto laboratorio di restauro, corne ad esempio quello delPabbazia benedettina di Pra- glia, potrebbe portare a termine agevolmente l'im- presa. E' chiedere troppo a paleografi e codicologi? Foti ha redatto il catalogo descrittivo dei 17 codici greci dell'esposizione, 8 contenenti solo testi del- l'arcivescovo di Cesarea, 7 miscellanei e 2 gr.