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Manual Méthode déquitation (annoté et illustré) (French Edition)

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How women should ride, by "C. Incorrect seat George Arents Collection. John Bull in his Perilous Feat of Horsemanship. Georgetown University Library. Jumping a stone wall George Arents Collection. Lectures on horsemanship wherein is explained every necessary instruction for both ladies and gentlemen in the useful and polite art of riding Lovers of the horse : brief sketches of men and women of the Dominion of Canada devoted to the noblest of animals.

Manual of equitation of the French army for Le Brun-Renaud. Timmis ; Introduction by Major-General F. Lessard, C. Alfred Savigear. Nimmo's art of horsemanship : bwith general remarks on the management of horses University of Glasgow Library. On seats and saddles, bits and bitting. Rimell Dunbar. Park riding : with some remarks on the art of horsemanship Webster Family Library of Veterinary Medicine. Position and length of reins George Arents Collection. Refusal at a fly jump George Arents Collection. Horace Hayes ; with illustrations.

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Riding and hunting. Power O'Donoghue ; Illustrated by A. Chantrey Corbould. Horace Hayes. Whyte-Melville ; with illustrations by Edgar Giberne. Horace Hayes ; Illustrated by Stanley Berkley. Riding: on the flat and across country : a guide to practical horsemanship Webster Family Library of Veterinary Medicine.

Riding: on the flat and across country. Seats and saddles, bits and bitting, draught and harness, and the prevention and cure of restiveness in horses. Some of the naturel laws and principles of horsemanship with kindergarten work for little colts TEXT University of Minnesota. Elizabeth Karr. The Horse and his rider.

His many achievements include work on planetary orbits, measuring the mean density of the Earth, a method of solution of two- dimensional problems in solid mechanics and, in his role as Astronomer Royal, establishing Greenwich as the location of the prime meridian. Miege be appointed to an administrative position in the French principality of Erfurt, slight toning, text and signature crossed out, tiny marginal repair, mid-folds, 4to, 2 March Reinwardt in Leiden, mentioning the botanist Elias Fries, on Swiss Academy of Sciences letterhead, two leaves, upper right-hand corner glued, slight toning, minor marginal soiling, traces of wax seal and little loss to verso, few folds, 4to, Stockholm, 31 May Schultz Forlag, Drei Aufsatze uber modern Atomistik und Elektronentheorie, with pencil signature of Lise Meitner on title page, some yellowing throughout, contemporary cloth, 8vo, Berlin, Delile to Filippo Parlatore about sending him specimens of plants for his collection, slight browning, edges frayed, Montpellier, 28 June ; Claude Gay thanks colleague for his felicitations after his appointment to the Academie des sciences, mentioning the competition favouring Duchartre and wishing to give his colleague a sample of plants from Chile, 23 June ; C.

Godron to F. Introduction and notes by Ian Rawlins. Relativity and the Electron Theory. Broglie P. Auger, E. Bauer and M. Davey], Joining forces with John A. Fleming of University College, London, Dewar began a systematic charting of the specific resistances of metals, alloys and nonmetals from the boiling point of water to the lowest point within reach [ degrees C. Giuseppe Tineo writes about hurricane which struck Palermo and the damages caused, postal stamp, slight browning, few light ink stains, address to verso, folds, Palermo, 1 June ; two letters by Feliciano Scarpellini, one to unspecified addressee mentioning the Accademia dei Lincei, one to Mons.

Typescript syllabus for U. The discovery was to bring Nobel prizes in for Rayleigh and William Ramsay. In , as commander of Soyuz 4, he performed the first successful manual docking of two piloted spacecrafts. A procedure was devised to test for the location of the leak. Following these procedures these procedures were transmitted to the Cosmonauts, who were able to carry it out on 29 October. They manged to install two additional solar batteries on the exterior of Salyut-7, which were necessary to meet their power consumption needs.

The world around us is changing. There is an urgent demand in the backward countries for a decent way of life and for the industrialization which can assure this. There is a dynamic development in the Soviet Union to conquer the world if possible by peaceful penetration. He who can offer most to the world as a whole will decide whether our ideals of freedom are strong enough to survive. It is more useful on the issue than the Tables Annuelles. It is written in a refreshing and vivid way. It is too bad that the magnetic splitting has been treated completely wrong and even by a student of mine!

By experiment I can indeed prove that [ He found the specific gravity of the gas obtained through his method the specific gravity of the gas obtained through his method to be 1. With the mass spectrogram you see immediately that H2 has to be present. Very interesting. Holweck was going to come too, but he had to leave for Algiers to do gravity measurements for a governmental commission. Muhammad Ali won the Gold Medal in boxing as a light heavyweight.

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The rate applicable shall be the legal rate at the date of the sale. Goods such as books and antique books, music, maps and charts etc. The present paragraph applies in particular to imports within the United-States and Australia. The Buyer is advised to verify such matters prior to the sale. The treasury of St Mark was originally one of the towers belonging to the old ducal palace. These great monoliths were brought as trophies to Venice by Doge Domenico Michieli in , after his victories in Syria. The grey column is surmounted by a fine bronze lion of Byzantine style, cast in Venice for Doge Ziani about this was carried off to Paris by Napoleon in , and sent back in pieces in ; but in it was put together again ; and in a marble statue of St Theodore, standing upon a crocodile, was placed on the other column.

Gothic architecture. Venetian Gothic, both ecclesiastical and domestic, shares most of the characteristics of north Italian Gothic generally, though in domestic architecture it displays one peculiarity which we shall presently note. The material, brick and terra-cotta, is the determining cause of the characteristics of north Italian Gothic.

Flatness and lack of deep shadows, owing to the impossibility of obtaining heavy cornices in that material, mark the style. The prevalence of sunlight led to a restriction of the windows and exaggeration of wall space. The development of tracery was hindered both by the material and by the relative insignificance of the windows. On the other hand, the plastic quality of terracotta suggested an abundance of delicate ornamentation on a small scale, which produced its effect by its own individual beauty without broad reference to the general scheme.

Coloued marbles and frescoes served a like purpose. The peculiarity of Venetian domestic Gothic to which we have referred is this: we frequently find tracery used to fill rectangular, not arched, openings. Hence the noticeable heaviness of Venetian tracery. The Fran is remarkable for its fine choir-stalls and for the series of six eastern chapels which from outside give a very good example of Gothic brickwork, comparable with the even finer apse of the church of San Gregorio.

The church of SS.

Giovanni e Paolo was the usual burying-place of the doges, and contains noble mausoleums of various dates. The apse is built over a canal. The west entrance is later than the rest of the edifice and is of the richest Renaissance Gothic. But it is in the domestic architecture of Venice that we find the most striking and characteristic examples of Gothic.

The introduction of that style coincided with the consolidation of the Venetian constitution and the development of Venetian commerce both in the Levant and with England and Flanders. The wealth which thus accrued found architectural expression in those noble palaces, so characteristic of Venice, which line the Grand and smaller canals. They are so numerous that we cannot do more than call attention to one or two. It was built for Marino Contarini II , rather a late period in the development of the style.

Marino kept a minute entry of his expenses, a document of the highest value, not merely for the history of the building, but also for the light it throws on the private life of the great patricians who gave to Venice such noble examples of art. Contarini was to some extent his own architect. Other artists, of whom we know nothing else, such as Antonio Busetto, Antonio Foscolo, Gasparino Rosso, Giacomo da Como, Marco da Legno and others created this masterpiece of decorated architecture. Taken as a whole, after the ducal palace this is the noblest effect of all in Venice".

Early Renaissance. Towards the close of the 15th century Venetian architecture began to feel the influence of the classical revival; but, lying far from Rome. Indeed, in this as in the earlier styles, Venice struck out a line for herself and developed a style of her own, known as Lombardesque , after the family of the Lombardi Solari who came from Carona on the Lake of Lugano and may be said to have created it. The essential point about the style is that it is intermediary between Venetian Gothic and full Renaissance.

The most perfect example of this style in ecclesiastical architecture is the little Church of the Miracoli built by Pietro Lombardo in The church is without aisles, and has a semicircular roof, and the choir is raised twelve steps above the floor of the nave. The walls, both internally and externally, are encrusted with marbles. Below the pediment comes an arcade with flat pilasters, which runs all round the exterior of the church. Two of the bays contain round-headed windows; the other three are filled in with white marble adorned by crosses and roundels in coloured marble.

The lower order contains the flat plastered portal with two paneled spaces on each side. Giovanni e Paolo, which has six semicircular pediments of varying sire crowning the six hays, in the upper order of which are four noble Romanesque windows. The lower order contains the handsome portal with a semicircular pediment, while four of the remaining bays are filled with quaint scenes in surprisingly skilful perspective.

In this connexion we must mention the Scuola of S. Giovanni Evangelista at the Fran, with its fore-court and screen adorned by pilasters delicately decorated with foliage in low relief, and its noble staircase whose double flights unite on a landing under a shallow cupola. This also was the work of Pietro Lombardo and his son TulIio. Early Renaissance palaces occur frequently in Venice and form a pleasing contrast with those in the Gothic style. Later Renaissance. When we come to the fully developed Renaissance, architecture in Venice ceases to possess that peculiarly individual imprint which marks the earlier styles.

It is still characterized by great splendor; the Library of San Marco , built by Jacopo Sansovino in , is justly considered the most sumptuous example of Renaissance architecture in the world. The columned, round-headed windows are set in deeply between the pillars which carry the massive entablature, and this again is surmounted by a balustrade with obelisks at each angle and figures marking the line of each bay.

The Istrian stone of which the edifice is built has taken a fine patina, which makes the whole look like some richly embossed casket in oxidized silver. The full meaning of the change which had come over Venetian architecture, of the gulf which lies between the early Lombardesque style, so purely characteristic of Venice, and the fully developed classical revival, which now assumed undisputed sway, may best be grasped by comparing the Old and the New Procuratie.

Not more than eighty years separate these two buildings, the Old Procuratie were built by Bartolomeo Buopo about , the New by Scamozzi in , yet it is clear that each belongs to an entirely different world of artistic ideas. Among the churches of this period we may mention San Geminiano , designed by Sansovino, and destroyed at the beginning of the 19th century to make room for the ball-room built by Napoleon for Eugene Beauharnais. The churches of San Giorgio Maggiore and of the Redentore , a votive church for liberation from the plague, are both by Palladio. In Baldassare Longhena built the fine church of Santa Maria della Salute , also a votive church, erected by the state to commemorate the cessation of the plague of This noble pile, with a large and handsome dome, a secondary cupola over the altar, and a striking portal and flight of steps, occupies one of the most conspicuous sites in Venice on the point of land that separates the mouth of the Guidecca from the Grand Canal.

In plan it is an octagon with chapels projecting one on each side. The volute buttresses, each crowned with a statue, add quaintly but happily to the general effect. The palaces of the later Renaissance are numerous and frequently grandiose though frigid in design. NOVAK 9. The first settlers were the Parisii, a Celtic tribe which clearly grew to be of some size: Julius Caesar dispatched 8, soldiers to subdue it in 52 BC.

By the time of Philip II , Notre Dame had been built and the first guilds were in operation. Guild activities would soon dominate economic life and even social order, with artisans splitting into over different trades and watched over by a prevot. One guild had a monopoly on river trade, and was able to demand taxes on goods that came down the Seine. Under Philip, the Roman walls were again restored and Les Halles was built as a warehouse where merchants could sell their goods.

The king also built himself a new home—a chateau he called the Louvre—on the Right Bank. Paris developed into three distinct parts. The University of Paris was officially established there in the early 13th century. The population of Paris swelled over the Middle Ages, as thousands flocked from all over France to this centre of growth and commercial activity.

Paris took centre stage in the religious wars between Roman Catholics and Huguenots Protestants in the s. The Sorbonne, a stronghold of religious orthodoxy, advocated harsh measures to repress heresy. Many Parisians took up the battle cry with gruesome relish. Catholics took the offensive again 16 years later, chasing Henry III out of Paris and forcing him to lay siege to his own city. Throughout the conflict Parisians mounted a defense against his eventual successor, Henry IV, a Huguenot.

The city submitted to Henry IV only in following his conversion to Catholicism. Although the latter is unlikely, the allegation that Henry was a homosexual—or at least a transvestite—is probably true. Henry IV embarked on an energetic programme of building and improving the city. Mansions for the wealthy sprang up in the Marais district. He was burnt with red-hot pincers, boiled in hot oil, and then had his arms and legs attached to horses moving in different directions. In Paris got its first newspaper, La Gazette. A daily paper, Le Journal de la ville de Paris, followed in The arts were covered by Le Mercure galant, a literary journal.

During this period, Parisian theatre flourished. But throughout the Enlightenment era, poverty in Paris grew more desperate. By the population had exceeded , Inner-city streets were congested and insanitary, filled with cramped tenements.

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In Voltaire called for water fountains, wider roads and more public buildings, but no action was taken. Equally punishing, the hated Wall of the Farmers General — a defensive cordon which levied taxes on all goods entering the city — was built around Paris in During the 18th century wealthy Parisians became infatuated with experimental science. In Nollet used iron wire to connect a line of Carthusian monks. When Nollet discharged his Leyden Jar a device for storing static electricity , the shocked monks reportedly simultaneously leapt into the air.

It was, after all, Parisians who stormed the Bastille on July 14th and Parisians who guillotined the French king on January 21st During the Terror which followed the execution of Louise XVI, some 20, Parisians went under the guillotine, titles were abolished and churches were destroyed. Bonaparte was crowned Emperor in Notre Dame cathedral, established a court at the Tuileries and oversaw the building of the Pont des Arts, the Bourse, the Rue de Rivoli and the Ourcq canal.

He built the Arc de Triomphe to commemorate his military victories and filled the Louvre with treasures looted during his wars. He also revamped the municipal bureaucracy. Indeed, his zealous expansionism over-stretched the French army and finally proved his downfall. Early 19th-century Paris experienced a population boom. This had a profound effect on the capital, for it was the cities that absorbed the thousands of migrants unable to find work in the countryside.

Industrialization, which had started under Napoleon, promised to ease the strain. Paris acquired gas lighting, an omnibus service and its first railway in In the s the city was also the scene of frequent struggles between monarchists and republicans. In July 1, people died in street fighting that lasted for three days known as les trois glorieuses , after the would-be absolutist King Charles X and his first minister, Prince Polignac, dissolved the legislative Chamber and ordered an end to the free press.

Although this was a working-class revolution, the most notable beneficiary was the Paris bourgeoisie. A new constitutional monarch, Louis-Philippe, was installed. He could be seen regularly strolling in the Tuileries gardens, sporting a top hat, tails and a green umbrella. Although Paris had 65, enterprises in , only 7, of them had over ten employees. Unemployment and overcrowding created appalling living conditions. Only one in five houses had running water. In cholera wiped out some 20, Parisians. Working conditions were abysmal, but strikes and trade unions were illegal.

Revolution came once more in , this time as part of a wave of republicanism sweeping Europe. In February citizens and insurrectionists, eventually strengthened by the defection of the National Guard, battled loyalist troops and forced King Louis-Philippe to flee the city and abdicate. Many of the survivors were sent to labour camps in Algeria. He appointed Baron Haussmann, a Protestant from Alsace, to carry out his plans. The Bois de Boulogne, a royal forest, in the west, and the Bois de Vincennes, in the south-east, gave the city green spaces.

This Paris remained physically more or less unchanged until the second world war. Until Parisians tossed their rubbish onto the streets for collection the following morning.

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The word has stuck and is now used by French people to mean a dustbin. Resistance continued under a new Republican government in Paris. As food supplies ran out, conditions in the city degenerated. Hundreds died of starvation during the harsh winter of A night-long bombardment further dented morale, killing and injuring some Parisians. Some historians have noted that the rich suffered little during the siege. There was no shortage of wine, and restaurants continued to serve the wealthy, who occasionally had to make do with dishes containing elephant from the zoo or rat.

On January 28th Paris finally surrendered. A royalist-dominated National Assembly was elected to negotiate peace. This alarmed Republicans, who feared a restoration of the monarchy. Thus, the Paris Commune was established, and this revolutionary municipal government ruled the city for 72 days. Its downfall came after seven days of street battles between the Communards and government troops, which left 20, insurrectionists dead. The destruction was so striking that Thomas Cook organised tours of British visitors to Paris to view the damage.

Given the damage inflicted upon it during the days of the Commune, Paris recovered remarkably quickly. Customers flocked to the new department stores grands magasins lining the boulevards: Galeries Lafayette, Au Printemps and Samaritaine. T he pioneering work of Louis Pasteur, a bacteriologist, and the physicists Pierre and Marie Curie put the University of Paris in the spotlight. Advances were made in a then-primitive technology known as the cinema. Artists and writers, French and foreign, made Paris their home. Among these were the founders of Cubism, Impressionism and Fauvism, and many avant-garde poets and writers such as Apollinaire, Laforgue and Max Jacob.

The carefree spirit of the s was captured by the can-can dancers at the Moulin Rouge, which opened in In September , German armies came within 15 miles of Paris. Post-war peace conventions were held in the French capital, and the body of an unknown solider was entombed beneath the Arc de Triomphe in In the aftermath of the war and during the Depression, Paris became a hotbed of radical politics. By over , people were unemployed. The French Communist Party and far-right Fascist groups thrived in the fraught economic climate.

As the population continued to grow, under-funded city services began to struggle and urban decay set in. The French army was too overwhelmed to try to defend the city. Hundreds of thousands of Parisians fled. A hardy underground resistance movement emerged to assist with the Liberation in August On August 25 General de Gaulle took charge of Paris. Like so many other European cities, Paris suffered from chronic post-war housing shortages. Of the 17 slum areas designed for clearance by Baron Haussmann, most were still intact in the s. Shantytowns grew up in the Parisian suburbs to house war refugees.

In the French colony of Algeria gained independence and nearly 1million African immigrants flooded into France. In Parisian police shot at a crowd of Algerian civil rights demonstrators. The unofficial death toll was later revealed to be around In the s Greater Paris had a population of around 7m. Better urban planning became essential. Small-scale industries, such as haute couture and jewellery- and furniture-making, continued to flourish in the city.

Paris got its first skyscraper in At 56 storey's high, the Tour Montparnasse was the tallest building in Europe at the time. On the outskirts of Paris, vast housing estates grand ensembles , were built to accommodate up to 10, families. Education however, remained badly overstretched, with overcrowded facilities and inefficient administration. This student uprising, which began in the Latin Quarter, spread across the country and led to a general strike by 9m workers. A socialist president, Francois Mitterrand, came to power in He oversaw the building of I.

NOVAK Hyde Park is the largest and most central of the chain of parks, stretches from Whitehall to Kensington, covers an area of some acres, is five miles round and provides an agreeable and shady walk of nearly three miles across. Until the time of James I it was still the deer park that Henry VII had made it, but Charles I laid out the ring, which became the setting for the fashionable world of their carriages. It was later the scene of duels and the haunt of cut-throats, but during the reign of George II, Queen Caroline caused it to be turned into the pleasant rural park it is today: she added the Serpentine Lake acres: in summer there is bathing at the Lido in Rotten Row , once a race-course, is a sandy track reserved solely for horsemen.

Kensington Gardens is joined to Hyde Park on the West and its green expense of acres, covered with tall shady trees, conveys the impression of being deep in the country rather than in the heart of one of the largest cities in the world. In the S.


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On the W. The S. Until when George II died, it was a royal residence. Over the years, Hyde Park has developed a tradition of hosting both local and national events, celebrations and performances. There are links with the military through the presence of Knightsbridge barracks on its boundary and the continuing practice of firing Gun Salutes from the Parade Ground. The Serpentine Lake is much used for boating and swimming, and Rotten Row, the world famous riding track, was the first public road to be lit at night in England.

N OVAK The Roman circus , however, was not so much of a fun place to perform. Often the star performers were eaten by lions, or killed in bloody combat. Originally designed as a sporting event where Roman soldiers could match their skills and prowess against one another in an olympian fashion it quickly evolved into pure carnage.

The bloodier the spectacle the more popular it became. People killing people, animals killing animals, animals killing people. It reached its gruesome height under the Emperor Nero. With the final decline of the Roman Empire the event disappeared, but some of its terminology and legacy survived. Modern blood sports can trace their origins back to the Roman arena - bull fighting and cock fighting, for example.


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  • Words like circus, arena, and colosseum are Roman terms to describe a place of mass entertainment. With the decline of the Roman Empire many of its former vassal states, like Britain, were left defenseless and unable to protect themselves from invasions from aggressive peoples such as the Saxons, Jutes, Angles, and, later, the Vikings.

    Communications broke down and left small communities isolated - a period in European history known as the Dark Ages. Groups of traveling entertainers began appearing - going from village to village bringing news, singing songs, and telling stories, after the Saxon fashion. For many these travelers were the only source of information and became very popular. In England these performers were called "gleemen"; eventually known as minstrels. Later in the Middle Ages, after the invasion by the Normans, a new entertainer appeared - the jugglour or jongleur. They supplanted the minstrels in popularity, but, like the rest of the country, the Saxon and Norman performers soon combined their skills and language.

    By the time of Queen Elizabeth I most of the earlier problems of invasion, turmoil, and isolation had been resolved and the country settled down to a more secure and prosperous life. Wandering vagabonds were seen as a threat and laws were passed to curtail their gypsy life. Minstrels and other traveling entertainers no longer had a place in Tudor society. They were equated with "Rogues, Vagabonds, and Sturdy Beggars". All were subject to punishment, but performers quickly adapted to this statute and the ever changing needs of developing communities.

    Instead of performing on street corners and village greens, they began working in new more permanent locations designed specifically for such events. In the seventeenth century country fairs were a popular event with the English populace. They became the major venue for performers to show off their skills. These fairs were not the well organized, smooth running operations we know today.

    They tended to be riotous and noisy events, and it took a rough and strong individual to be successful at them, but they provided the perfect forum for acrobats, jugglers, rope dancers, and bear trainers. Also, riding exhibitions became a regular feature. At this time more permanent facilities became available for the performer.

    Many of these were adjacent to established enterprises such as Sadler's Wells - named for a Mr. Sadler who, in , discovered a "medical" spring in his garden outside of London by the New River. Performers were encouraged to entertain his patrons in the garden and it is recorded that a well known rider, William Stokes, introduced performing horses to Sadler's Wells in the late 17th century.

    Today, of course, Sadler's Wells is a world famous Opera House. There were others but the first accredited circus building, and organized circus, had to wait until Although by the middle of the 18th Century much of what is considered important to a circus was already in place, it took one man to put it all together in the correct environment to invent the modern circus.

    That man was one Philip Astley. Astley was not born into a performing family. His father was a cabinet maker from Newcastle-Under-Lyme, England, and, from the time Philip was born, on January 8th, , his future seemed to be assured - master cabinet maker and carpenter. However, he was not particularly interested in wood but was in love with horses.

    At the age of seventeen he borrowed a horse and joined the Fifteenth Dragoons as a rough rider and horse breaker. Two years later his regiment was sent overseas to serve under the King of Prussia where he proved his daring and bravery. At Hamburg he saved a horse that had fallen overboard from their ship; at Emsdorf he captured the enemy standard; at Warburg he saved the life of the wounded Duke of Brunswick. By he was Sergeant Major Astley, stood over 6 feet tall with a huge frame and booming voice that, along with his extrovert nature and daredevil reputation, made him a celebrity.

    About this time he decided that he wanted to start a riding school to teach the nobility art d'equitation. Unfortunately he lacked the funding but heard of an innkeeper who had financed the purchase of his business with the proceeds of trick riding exhibitions. A perfect solution for a perfect equestrian. Thus, accompanied by his regimental commanders white charger, Gibraltar, which he had been presented with upon his discharge, he sort out an appropriate location to begin plying his vocation.

    Islington, on the north side of London, was a large area dedicated to recreation and many riding masters, down on their luck, entertained there, demonstrating their skills to attract clients for their riding schools. When Astley arrived there he discovered he needed to learn the art of presenting a show, so he hired on as a horse breaker. During this period he purchased two more horses and got married to a horsewoman named "Petsy". In he moved to the south side of the Thames and set up his riding school - opening it with a demonstration of both his and his wife's riding skills.

    Shortly after he was charging 6 pence admission. With the profits made from this simple beginning he was able to purchase some land near Westminster bridge, and built the first circus building. Originally it was more an open field surrounded by a kind of covered grandstand. Later he covered the whole area with a roof. Astley's greatest contribution to the modern circus was not so much combining his riding act with other performers clowns, for example but for the circus ring itself.

    Prior to Astley most riding exhibitions were presented in a linear fashion - the performer riding past his aud- ience as he performed a trick, then having to turn around, or ride back around the other side, before presenting the next trick. When Astley decided that a covered grandstand was needed he realized it would be more advantageous to both performer and audience if the rider worked in a circle. The rider could move from trick to trick without interruption and the people could see everything going on and a larger audience could attend as they sat all around the perform- ance arena. Also, as Astley discovered, by riding in a circle he could use the centrifugal force to aid his performance.

    With experimentation he discovered the optimum size of the ring to be 42 feet. Charles Hughes , a former rider at Astleys, opened a competing company in - not too far from Astley's booming enterprise - much to the chagrin of Astley. Hughes needed a name for his company. Why he chose the name he did is open to debate - perhaps he was a scholar of ancient history, or, more likely, after the large circular track used for exercising horses in Hyde Park.

    Whatever the case, he called his company drum roll! Astley was responsible for introducing the circus into many European countries, and several cities established permanent circus buildings. In , Astley opened Paris first circus, the Amphitheatre Anglois. The first circus in Russia was presented in at the royal palace in Saint Petersburg. This new form of entertainment finally crossed the Atlantic when, on April 3rd, , the first complete circus program was presented in a building on the southwest corner of 12th and Market streets, Philadelphia, by John Bill Ricketts.

    Ricketts, a British equestrian, went on to present circuses in New York and Boston, and the show continued, under varying names, through the first decade of the 19th century. George Washington saw a Ricketts show in and sold them a horse. The early traveling shows were very simple - in contrast to the flashy city shows. Usually a simple musical accompaniment of a violin, or two, with a juggler, a rope dancer, and a few acrobats - possibly some display of horsemanship.. The show set up in a field and took up collections. Later they worked in an enclosed space and charged admission.

    The advent of improved tent technology in the 's and the railways in America changed everything. While other acts were added to the show, the riding act was still the main attraction and this led to another standard feature of the modern circus - the ring- master. Though today the ringmaster tends to be the announcer, occasional foil of the clowns, and generally keeping the show flowing, originally his job was to keep the horses running correctly around the ring as the rider worked his tricks - hence his traditional riding costume.

    Full text of "The Pyrenees : a description of summer life at French watering places"

    France, the history of the Cirqus Voltaire : In the most rebellious of times during , one of the authors of the new time was Voltaire, a scholarly rascal with a vivid tongue and sharp quill. Along with other men of valor, began a movement of "Enlightenment" based in the scientific revolution of Galileo and Newton from the previous century.

    They felt the universe was infinite and that the spirit of man should be free to wander as well. Voltaire himself then brought together a group of the most talented street performers and philosophers of modern day France and founded the "Troupe des Voltaire" or Voltaire's Group in The men would speak from inside the masterful "ring" and voice their ideas to France and the World through the audience. This new name, "Cirqus Voltaire" was adopted and first spoken by Voltaire himself during a tense game of "9 Hole" Bagatelle at the Cafe Procope in Paris. Along with their romantic works of the pen, the Cirqus talent included jugglers, tiger tamers, high wire fellows, an old lady, and of course the lightning-ball walkers and throwers.

    The "Group des Voltaire" had the most marvelous acts, those of electricity, fire and passion, the same that willed France toward revolution in Voltaire" Francois Marie Arouet, - Born in Paris, Voltaire was the most influential writer and philosopher of the French Enlightenment.

    A man of noble background, he was inclined to aristocracy. He adopted the name Voltaire after his imprisonment in the Bastille for writing satiric verse. Jailed again briefly in the Bastille in , he was exiled to England for three years, then lived in France and Germany, and returned to Paris in Best known for his classical tragedies, he was also a poet and a correspondent of tremendous value.

    Voltaire was also known as a fighter for social reform. As a leader of the philosophies, he tried to reform the hierarchical French Ancient Regime, and the system of criminal justice and taxation. Voltaire opposed persecution and rejected materialism in favor of determinism. The frivolity of the Cirqus had always appealed to his manner, and took on the task of forming his own. During the 19th century European circuses and American circus began a divergence. The circus in England, and the other parts of Europe, continued in much the same manner as before, that is, a single ring.

    Towns are closer together so most traveling shows could travel with horse drawn carriages as they made their way around the country. Tent shows remained compact as the audiences, drawn from the surrounding villages, tended to be small, albeit appreciative. In the United States, however, conditions were very different.

    Distances between communities were much longer. Fortunately the new railways allowed traveling shows to commute the vast distances more effectively - the great train shows were born.