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Compare Tennyson's lines: "and these eyes will find The men I knew, and watch the chariot whirl About the goal again, and hunters race The shadowy lion, and the warrior-kings, In height and prowess more than human, strive ' Translation of E. Again for glory, while the golden lyre Is ever sounding in heroic ears Heroic hymns, and every way the vales Wind, clouded with the grateful incense-fume Of those who mix all odour to the Gods On one far height in one far-shining fire.

This sympathy, combined with his marvellous metrical skill, enabled the poet to master the Sapphic metre and produce a succession of Sapphic stanzas with the genuine ring and cadence of the Greek: ' All the night sleep came not upon my eyelids, Shed not dew, nor shook nor unclosed a feather, Yet with lips shut close and with eyes of iron Stood and beheld me.

Then to me so lying awake a vision Came without sleep over the seas and touched me, Softly touched mine eyelids and lips; and I too, Full of the vision, Saw the white irnplacable Aphrodite, Saw the hair unbound and the feet unsandalled Shine as fire of sunset on western waters; Saw the reluctant Feet, the straining plumes of the doves that drew her, Looking always, looking with necks reverted, Back to Lesbos, back to the hills whereunder Shone Mytilene;" etc.

There is a reminiscence in these lines of Sappho's ode to Aphrodite, which has inspired large portions of Swinburne's Anactoria, that monument jn "a baser and later language" to the "divine words which even when a boy [he] could not but recognize as divine. Here and there, I need not say, I have rendered into English the very words of Sappho.

The three great tragic poets in artistic sequence are Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides. In Aeschylus all is in the grand style and of a severe and awe-inspiring simplicity. Majestic heroes move in stately manner across the stage and fulfil the doom appointed by supernatural powers. And anxious to bring into benencent relation humanity and the gods he strove to penetrate to a higher unity in which the seeming discord should be resolved.

The war between the gods of heaven and heil is found to be no longer implacable, since both, constrained by Necessity and aided by her daemonic ministers, are working in the cause of Righteousness. Whereas Aeschylus represents superhuman heroes in conflict with the gods, Sophocles is pre-eminently the dramatist of the human heart. He excels in delineating with subtle touches the great primary emotions of the soul. And where Aeschylus finds the higher unity of apparent discord in a divine Righteousness, Sophocles finds a solution in the analysis of ' "Primer of Greek Literature.

Euripides, the youngest of the three tragedians, stands far from Sophocles and further from Aeschylus, representing a new order of ideas and a different conception of the dramatist's art. He is altogether more modern in the atmosphere of homeliness with which he surrounds his characters; in his unrestrained pathos, which made Aristotle call him the "most tragic" of the poets; in his religious ideas, which are tinctured by pantheism and strongly influenced by the doctrines of Anaxagoras.

In later years, when the Attic drama had spent its prime, Aristotle gave his definition of tragedy and formulated the canons dramatic poetry should observe. J "Porties" VI 2. As regards the Unities, which have played so important a part in the later influence of the Greek drama, it is only on the Unity of Action that Aristotle insists; though the Unities of Place and Time are, with a few exceptions, also strictly observed on the ancient stage.

According to the law of Unity of Place the dramatic action should be confined. It is these Unities of Action, Place and Time which strongly infiuenced the French seventeenth century drama, and, reinterpreted by French literary critics, were adopted as canons by Dryden and the classical school. Swinburne; next to him Sophocles was greatly admired; but whereas Shelley read Euripides and translated his satyric drama The Cyclops, Landor condemned him as a moralist rather than a dramatist and disliked his plays as containing more preachment than poetry.

And of Swinburne Edmund Gosse writes: "I never clearly understood the reason of Swinburne's frantical objection to Euripides which has even puzzled Dr. Shelley, "were now his most familiar companions in his wanderings and the sublime majesty of Aeschylus filled him with wonder and delight The result of his reading is apparent in Hellas and in the magnificent Prontetheus Unbound.

In the Preface to the former drama Shelley says: "The Persae of Aeschylus afforded me the first model of my conception, although the decision of the glorious contest now waging in Greece being yet suspended forbids a catastrophe parallel to the return of Xerxes and the desolation of the Persians. From our point of view the poem is chiefly remarkable on account of its ardent enthusiasm for Hellas and the rapturous vision in the final Chorus of a great, regenerated Greece.

In the Preface Shelley says: "The Greek tragic writers, in selecting as their subject any portion of their national history or mythology, employed in their treatment of it a certain arbitrary discretion. They by no means conceived themselves bound to adhere to the common ' Note on "Prometheus Unbound" by Mrs. I have presumed to employ a similar licence. The Prontetheus Unbound of Aeschylus supposed the reconciliation of Jupiter with his victim as the price of the disclosure of the danger threatened to his empire by the consummation of his marriage with Thetis.

Thetis, according to this view of the subject, was given in marriage to Peleus, and Prometheus, by the permission of Jupiter, delivered from his captivity by Hercules. Had I framed my story on this model, I should have done no more than have attempted to restore the lost drama of Aeschylus; an ambition which, if my preference to this mode of treating the subject had incited me to cherish, the recollection of the high comparison such an attempt would challenge might well abate.

But, in truth, 1 was averse from a catastrophe so feeble as that of reconciling the Champion with the Oppressor of mankind. The moral interest of the fable, which is so powerfully sustained by the sufferings and endurance of Prometheus, would be annihilated if we could conceive of him as unsaying his high language and quailing before his successful and perfidious adversary. The latter play was only the first piece of a trilogyx and was followed by Prometheus Unbound, of which a few disjointed fragments and certain details gathered from other writers have enabled scholars to reconstruct the plot.

For to Aeschylus Zeus was, in the words of Mr. It is Zeus who "leads mortals to wisdom in that he Ordained thatto suffer istolearn. Yet the Greek conception of the Godhead is different from the Christian and Zeus was not born the righteous Ruler of gods and men. There was a time when the new King had to fight for his position, to establish by violence his supremacy in heaven and earth. At that stage the trilogy of Prometheus begins. For in Prometheus Vinctus Zeus is still the young tyrant, using his power with reientless cruelty to crush the rebellious Champion of mankind. But Time brought peace and security of position and taught the Olympian King to be lenient and just.

And in Prometheus Unbound Zeus is portrayed in a kindly mood, ready to forgive and restore to favour the former rebel against his throne. Hardy and Aeschylus" Fortnightly Review. The task which Aeschylus as a dramatist undertook was to put into a form suitable for theatrical representation the familiar incidents of the story of Prome-! Prometheus Unbound. With Introduction by Vida D. Shelley's design, on the other hand, was to remodel an old Greek legend in such a way as to make it the vehicle of his revolutionary ideas, his ethical aspirations, his dreams and visions of a regenerated world.

Rossetti in his Memoir of Shelley says: "This is, I apprehend, what places Prometheus clearly, instead of disputably, at the summit of all later poetry: the fact that it embodies. It is the ideal poem of perpetual progression — the Atlantis of Man Emancipated. For Humanity is not a chained Titan of indomitable virtue, nor is evil purely external, the tyranny of some malignant Power. Such were the speculations laid down in Godwin's Political Justice and it was as Godwin's disciple that Shelley conceived the deliverance of Man.

Shelley's Prometheus Unbound differs from its Greek model not only in design and conception of the characters but also in spirit and poetical style. Instead of preserving the grand simplicity, the austere majesty of the Aeschylean drama,Shelley has produced a complex phantasmagoria, in which the Platonic mysticism is a feature no less striking than the profuseness of imagery and the redundance of style.

Once or twice, only, Shelley strikes the sublime note of his great master, as in the opening speech of the tortured Titan or in the dialogue between Ocean and Apollo at the beginning of Act III. Perhaps it is no wonder that Shelley's Prometheus should have the florid exuberance of a southern spring. For as the poet himself truly and happily remarks: "This poem was chiefly written upon the mountainous ruins of the Baths of Caracalla, among the flowery glades, and thickets of odoriferous blossoming trees, which are extended in ever winding labyrinths upon its immense platforms and dizzy arches suspended in the air.

The bright blue sky of Rome, and the effect of the vigorous awakening spring in that divinest climate, and the new life with which it drenches the spirits even to intoxication, were the inspiration of this drama. Ficstly it is not possible in any modern language to reproduce in exact counterpart the magie of words, the music, the peculiar cadence of the Greek.

Secondly Christianity has materially altered our ethical conceptions and it is Arnold's only concession to modern sentiment that he has refrained from portraying a heroine of the character of Electra, the protagonist of the drama to which his is the nearest approach. Judging Merope by the Aristotelian canons we find the structure of the drama to be in accordance with the Greek. In the first part we are acquainted with the state of affairs in Messen ia: we learn that Polyphontes, the murderer of king Cresphontes, has married Merope, the widowed queen; that in the tumult the two elder sons were slain, but Aepytus, the youngest, was concealed by his mother at the court of her father, the Arcadian king; we find Aepytus, grown to manhood, returned to Stenyclaros to avenge his father and claim the Messenian throne.

Then the situation is complicated by Aepytus relating to Polyphontes the story of his own death and Arcas, a trusty servant, announcing to Merope the disappearance of the prince from the Arcadian court. The fisrafixa-ig is ' J. Churton Collins. In the third part, the jtfvif, the complication is resolved: Polyphontes is slain while sacrificing at the altar, which is told by a messenger after the fashion. The Unities are strictly observed. Matthew Arnold has again closely imitated his Sophoclean model by assigning great prominence to the Chorus of Messenian maidens, who by recalling the past or moralizing on the present deepen for us the meaning of what is passing on the stage.

The Chorus, that essential feature of the Greek drama, held a peculiar position in the tragedies of Sophocles. We have seen that it was Aeschylus who introduced a second actor, thus creating the drama out of a choral hymn. This introduction led to the subordination of the Chorus to the dramatic action, although in his dramas it still held an important place. In the later plays of Euripides, however, the Chorus was not merely subordinated to the action but degraded into little more than a musical interlude. It was the happy invention of Sophocles, "the most ingenious and the most felicitous conception which ever suggested itself to an artist", to make the Chorus stand "spectator haud particeps" as the symbol of reflective and sympathetic humanity.

In the preface to Merope Matthew Arnold says: "The Chorus was, at each stage in the action, to collect and weigh the impressions which the action would at that stage naturally make on a pious and thoughtful mind; and was at last, at the end of the tragedy, when the issue of the action appeared, to strike the final balance. If the feelings with which the actual spectator regarded the course of the tragedy could be deepened by reminding him of what was past or by indicating to him what was to come, it was the province of the "ideal spectator" so to deepen it.

To combine, to harmonize, to deepen for the spectator the feelings naturally excited in him by the sight of what was passing on the stage — this is the one grand effect produced by the Chorus in Greek tragedy. The Choruses of Merope consist ofthree parts: the strophe and antistrophe, the antithesis of thought to thought, followed by the epode, which strikes the balance of the whole.

The mention of Arnold's structure of the Chorus ieads to a general consideration of his versification and style. He made no attempt to reproduce the Greek rhythms, only "to follow rhythms which produced on [his] own feeling a similar effect to that produced on it by Greek choric poetry. Nor does Matthew Arnold equal his Greek master in the subtle charms of expression and style. Arnold makes no attempt to imitate1 the subtle elaboration of his master's style, his studied artificiality of expression, the pregnant suggestiveness with which by a nice discrimination in the use of words, and by delicacies of collocation he conveys so much more than he formally and definitely presents.

Efcuvefa or dissimulation means in tragedy the contrast between that which seems and that which really is. Irony may be conscious or unconscious and may be revealed in action or in speech. In order that this salutary moral discipline may be effected, the protagonist whose tragic fate we watch should neither be perlectly good nor yet utterly wicked, but a human being like ourselves. What involves him in ruin must not be a repulsive crime, but some frailty or a great error committed in ignorance or from a mistaken notion of right and wrong.

He should moreover be a person of exalted station and possess great virtues to set off the weakness or the sin. These conditions Arnold's hero, Polyphontes, fulfils. By Polyphontes never fail'd in once Through twenty years; his mournful anxious zeal To eflface in me the memory of his crime. And Merope, looking down on his prostrate body, strikes the balance of his character in the words: "I find worth in thee and badness too.

But it has not the sweep, the ring, the melody, nor the sensuous beauty of that fascinating, though irregular drama. It is the form without the spirit, the body without the soul. In Swinburne's brilliant dramas Atalanta in Calydon and Erechtheus the Hellenic influence, the Hellenic inspiration are patent everywhere. They appear in the sentiment and the thought which are so thoroughly Greek, that it seems, as critics have observed, as if Swinburne had learned, for the occasion at least, to think as his Greek masters, to shake off the present and live and move in the guise and fashion of ancient times.

The two plays abound in Greek conceptions and ideas, expressed in a language which, though essentially romantic, invites comparison with the noblest passages of the great masters of the Attic stage. Through the poetry of both Atalanta in Calydon and Erechtheus runs, as a golden thread, a love of nature which is truly Greek, a pure, objective delight in natural phenomena, in sun, moon, stars and birds and flowers, in snow and fire, in the sea, especially in its violent moods, when the "wine-bright" waves are crested with flowery foam. Then both plays speak of a pure Hellenic joy in the bodily excellence and strength of men, in the full-grown beauty of men and women, of a keen appreciation of physical delights.

The passage in Atalanta, were Althaea, bemoaning the death of her brothers, says: "For all things else and all men may rentw; Yea, son for son the gods may give and take, But never a brother or sister any more," contains the same argument by which in Sophocles' drama Antigone justifies her devotion to the dead. The lines in Erechtheus, where the maiden Chthonia takes leave of the Athenian elders: "People, old men of my city, lordly wise and hoar of head I a spouseless bride and crownless but with garlands of the dead From the fruitful light turn silent to my dark unchilded bed.

The splendid marine picture of the battle between land and sea, contained in the fifth Chorus of Erechtheus, defies comparison with the spirited description of the battle of Salamis given by Aeschylus in the Persae; and neither Pindar, when he addresses Athens with: fr. Some of the technical devices of the Greek drama have been adopted: in Atalanta in Calydon there is skilful "stichomythia" or cut-and-thrust dialogue in alternate lines; and in Erechtheus the disclosure of Chthonia's doom is delayed by hint and question and euphemism, though the response is never for a moment in doubt.

In both plays, as in the Attic drama, the lyrical element is not restricted to the Choruses but extends to the more exalted parts of the episodes. We may divide the lyrical passages into such as fall into regular stanza-form and those that are built on the ode-structure of strophe, antistrophe, epode. The former kind is usual in Atalanta, whereas the latter prevails in Erechtheus, which is thus metrically the more orthodox of the two.

It was "the leaping and rolling crests of the stanzaic chants in Atalanta", the ringing, rhythmic music of the lines: "When the hounds of spring are on winter's traces The mother of months in meadows and plain Fills the shadows and windy places With lisp of leaves and ripple of rain. These antiphonies, however, are not modelled on any classical prototype. They differ from the great lyrics in Erechtheus, which are Pindaric Odes of the kind which Swinburne in the Dedicatory Epistle proclaims to be "something above all less pure and absolute kinds of song by the very nature and law of its being.

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Mine ears are amazed with the terror of trumpets, with darkness mine eyes, At the sound of the sea's host charging that deafens the roar of the sky's. Filled full of the terror and thunder of water, that slays as it dies. It was "the power in whose dark and infinite grasp Swinburne habitually saw the universe of man. Swinburne lived and thought in the nineteenth century, with its strong humanitarian tendencies, with its splendid achievements in science and action, its faith in the intellect and the energy of man.

And his belief in the greatness — nay the godhead of Man finds expression in these lines from the hymn entitled Hertha: "A creed is a rod, And a crown is of night; But this thing is God. To be man with thy might, To grow straight in the strength of thy spirit, and live out thy life as the light. Again it forms the theme of the exultant Hymn of Man described by the poet as uthe birthsong of a spiritual renascence," which concludes with the triumphant cry: "Glory to Man in the highest!

Both Aeschylus and Swinburne believed in a law of Righteousness as the resolving principle in the mystery of life. But whereas the ancient thinker conceived of this Righteousness as a superhuman Power, moulding the very will of the gods to its cause, Swinburne, the modern, the nineteenth century poet, brought Righteousness down from its high throne in heaven, a purely human principle, enshrined in the soul. Pan's pipe was thine, — Thine was the happier age of Gold. Theocritus, at once the creator and the unrivalled exemplar of the Bucolic or Pastoral Idyll, was a Sicilian by birth, spent part of his life in Cos and lived for some time in Alexandria under the patronage of Ptolemy II.

His early days in Sicily gave him an intimate acquaintance with the business of "the field and fold", with the joys and griefs of the shepherd's calling, with the rude and elementary poetry of the country, the folksongs of pastoral life. Then, as now, Greek herdsmen were singers and players and Theocritus found his material ready to his hand in the alternate or amoebaean strains which the Sicilian shepherds improvised on their festal days.

They join the rusticity of Sicilian and Coan shepherds to the artistry of the Alexandrian court. For on the one hand they breathe a kindly sympathy with simple things, a genuine love of nature, a truly Greek sense of the charms of country life. Here is the Greek sense for form in its perfection, here is the Greek delicacy, Greek melody as almost nowhere else, Greek lightness of touch, Greek restraint, and withal a love of simple things, a kindly, human sympathy with lowly life, a gentle humour, which rank him above any Greek predecessor.

Bion is chiefly known for his Lament for Adonis; the name of Moschus is inseparably connected with the EniTAfclOS BlftNOE, of which the splendid lines about the contrast between the seasons which are renewed, the garden which fades to bloom again, and the ephemeral lot of man who, once laid in his grave, sleeps an everlasting sleep, have become the classic model ' R. Greek bucolic poetry — the pastoral of Theocritus, Bion and Moschus — has infiuenced English literature in various ways. Indirect influence may be traced through the Georgics of Virgil, through the Spanish pastoral of Sannazaro, through the French of Marot, which was imitated by Spenser in the Shepheards Calender and lastly through the German of Solomon Gessner, the Theocritean poet-painter, who by means of idylls which were called pictures and pictures that were called idylls brought Theocritus home to the fire-sides of the common people and revived an interest in pastoral poetry not only in Germany but in England also.

The direct influence of Greek pastoral poetry is manifest in different forms. On this last indefinable, elusive influence Kerlin says: "A truth that it is well at the outset to recognize is that much of the most truly pastoral of English poetry — and especially is this true of later times — does not go under the name of pastoral at all. But it breathes country air, it is redolent of fields and pastures, orchards and garners; it "tastes of Flora and the country-green" ; it smells of full-fruited summer, and of harvest-tide; it is full of natural colour, and of rural sights and sounds.

The spirit of Theocritus is there, though the piping Daphnis or the complaining Corydon be wanting, and the bleat of lambs may be heard, though no sheep-crook be mentioned. Our younger school of poets in America are writers of this kind of pastorals, and they own Theocritus as master. This sort of poetry will always be pleasing; this sort of painting will always have its vogue, its devotees. Theocritus found current among the Sicilian peasantry the pathetic story of the love and early death of Daphnis, which perhaps symbolized the quickly fading beauty of spring.

In the first Idyll Thyrsis sings the sorrows and death of this victim of Aphrodite, who goes down to the stream lamented by the nymphs and by all living things of hills and woods. On this song were modelled Bion's dirge over the mystic Adonis and Moschus' lament for his brother-minstrel Bion.

And this perpetual elegy has been the mould, if not the inspiration of three great threnodies in the English language: Milton's Lycidas, Shelley's Adonais and Matthew Arnold's Thyrsis. The invocation of Thyrsis to the Sicilian nymphs: va. Idyll VII Keats Henry Alford said of that he had imbibed the very spirit of the idyll-writers of Greece.

Concerning his acquaintance with Theocritus Kerlin remarks: "From the intimacy which subsisted between Leigh Hunt and Keats we might naturally expect the former, with his ardent admiration of Theocritus and his understanding of the genius of Keats, to place the Idylls in the hands of the future author of Endymion and of the immortal odes, assured that their spell for him would be no less than that of the Homeric Epics in the translation of Chapman.

Passing by Landor, who perhaps owed to Theocritus the form of his Hellenics, we come to Tennyson, the most, by far the most Theocritean of English poets, who resembled his great master in the happy combination of genuine love of nature and rare artistic skill. Stedman, in the sixth chapter of Victorian Poets, dwells on the likeness of the Alexandrian to the Victorian age, points to the close study made by Tennyson of the Syracusan idylls and reveals the extent and nature of Tennyson's indebtedness to the Dorian father of idyllic song. Two kinds of obligation were noted by Stedman: a suggestion of "method, sentiment and purpose"; and an artistic imitation of choice passages, so that the modern is indebted to the ancient poet "for the very form and language, which render beautiful much of his most widely celebrated verse.

Both Stedman and Mustard draw attention to the striking resemblance between Tennyson's Godiva and the celebrated thirteenth Idyll of Theocritus. In a remarkable passage of the Memoir Tennyson's admiration for "the little Theocritean Idyll Hylas" is recorded by Palgrave in the following way: "We were sitting or so late at night in the Farringford at ticroom already mentioned; and Tennyson read over to me the little Theocritean Idyll Hylas, eminent for beauty in a treasure-house where all are beautiful.

XXX 3. Tennyson, if I remember rightly, ended with that involuntary half-sigh of delight which breaks forth when a sympathetic spirit closes, or turns from, some masterpiece of perfect art in words or colours. It is interesting to find that Godiva is in form directly modelled on this tavourite poem and, curiously enough, the story proper is told in exactly the same number of lines.

We may compare the prelude to Godiva: "Not only we, the latest Seed of Time, New men, that in the flying of a wheel Cry down the past, not only we, that prate Of rights and wrongs, have loved the people well, And loathed to see them overtaxed ; but she Did more, and underwent, and overcame, The woman of a thousand summers back Godiva, wife of that grim Earl. Oenone's words: "Dear mother Ida, hearken ere I die," ' "Memoir".

II : S' knoxkofovj;' The picture of the lizard who "with his shadow on he stone, rests like a shadow" is a reminiscence of d. II 38, The very beauty of Oenone, "loveliest The lines: "All things have rest. Death is the end of life; ah why Should all life labour be? Is it that we all forget that we are mortal and Fate hath allotted us so brief a span?..

O 't is ill to be a fisher with a ship for his house and the sea for his labour and the fishes for his slippery prey. Rather is it sleep beneath the leafy plane for me, and the sound hard by of a bubbling spring such as delights and not disturbs the rustic ear. Loeb's Classical Library. To watch the emerald-coloured water falling Through many a woven acanthus-wreath divine? Only to hear and see the far-off sparkling brine, Only to hear were sweet, stretched out beneath the pine.

V 31—34 and VII — The Gardener's Daughter shows a close resem blance in outline and spirit to the Thalysia or the Harvest Feast. The lark could scarce get out his notes for joy, To left and right The cuckoo told his name to all the hills; The mellow ouzel fluted in the elm; The redcap whistled; and the nightingale Sang loud, as tho' he were the bird of day. Then follows an account of the poefs friends Phrasidemus and Antigenes and a description of the Coan farm in summer ld.

VII ff. Lark and goldfinch sang and turtle moaned, and about the spring the bees hummed and hovered to and fro. All nature smelt of the opulent summertime, smelt of the season of fruit. The orchard picnic in Audley Court has a classical counterpart in the same feast at the Coan farm. Prime, which I knew. Ellen Aubrey, sleep, and dream of me," we have what Stedman calls the "isometric song, composed in the metre of the whole poem", which is a common device of Theocritus and of which Tennyson has thirteen, many of them in "riddling tripiets of old time", scattered through the English Idyls, The Princess and the Idylls of the King.

In Love and Duty, "The slow sweet hours that bring us all things good. XV , In Maud, lastly, the phrase ulabour and the mattockhardened hand" is a borrowing from ld. The list of reflections and reminiscences has not been exhausted but enough has been said to suggest the extent of Tennyson's obligations to the three Greek masters of idyllic song.

Wherever we turn in Tennyson's poetry, we are never long in meeting with the spirit of the Greek idyll, that spirit which is born of an exquisite susceptibility to the sights and sounds and charms of the country and a consummate skill for conveying impressions by means of felicitous phrase and suggestive music of words. False notes are never struck, and no discordant hues are admitted.

Platonism was in many respects an alien phenomenon in ancient Greece. Whereas the average Greek kept his feet firmly on the ground and lived in a world finite and actual and real, Plato scorned the earth and aspired to a spiritual heaven. Whereas the Greek view of life was determined by a peculiar directness, a tendency to dweil on the "actual and unimaginary qualities" of things, Plato was a mystic who behind the visible and temporal apprehended the eternal and unseen.

Again, whereas to the Greek, man was a unity of body and soul with brilliant possibilities which might be realized even in this finite life, Plato broke up this splendid unity, created an antagonism between the life of the body and that of the soul and preached the gospel of other-worldliness, conceiving the vision of a future world. For the purpose of the present study Plato's system of philosophy may be analyzed into the theory of Ideas, the doctrines of pre-existence and reminiscence, and the theory of Love.

The Platonic theory of Ideas supposes that there are two worlds. Thanks so much to everybody once again! Means a lot! Thank you so much to all who downloaded the books on the first day of the promotion. They are currently standing at 6, 8, 10 and 11 in the free Myths and Legends Arthurian chart on Amazon. Four more days to go! To any fans of fantasy fiction, laced with noble knights, evil villains, inventive violence and gory deaths, the quartet of Odyssey novels currently available on Amazon The Crownless King, The Flawless Knight, The Graceless Hero and The Fearless Coward will all be available for free between the 24th and 28th December!

Please share and have a lovely Christmas. Just finished trawling through a list of potential literary agents and am away to begin submitting the fifth book of the series, 'The Dauntless Heir', to them. Wish me luck! Having a look back through my old pictures and found this early attempt at a publicity shot, which I was planning to use for, well, I don't really know what, to be honest! Photo taken by amateur photographer and professional baldie, Coey Jremin! Here's some photos from the official 'launch' of The Crownless King, which was held in in Waterstones, Elgin, some blimey six years ago now!

I don't think I've changed much, I've just got a bit more hair unfortunately, not on my head tho! To all those of you new to my books, I just thought I'd share the over-arching premise behind the series. Oh, and of course, if any of you fancy actually buying any of the books, that would be very much appreciated as well! Possibly should have mentioned that too! The whole of the beautiful passage: "And at their feet the crocus brake like fire Violet, amaracus, and asphodel, Lotos and lilies: and a wind arose.

And overhead the wandering ivy and vine This way and that, in many a wild festoon Ran riot, garlanding the gnarled boughs With bunch and berry and flower thro' and thro'. On the tree-tops a crested peacock lit, And o'er him flowed a golden cloud, and lean'd Upon him, slowly dropping fragrant dew. Xurbv if. II — The long passage: "But through the anxious Persians Gudurz ran, And cross'd the camp which lay behind, and reach'd Out on the sands beyond it, Rustum's tents.

And Gudurz enter'd Rustum's tent, and found Rustum; and there Rustum sate Listless, and held a falcon on his wrist, And play'd with it; but Gudurz came and stood Before him; and he look'd and saw him stand, And with a cry sprang up and dropp'd the bird, And greeted'Gudurz with both hands and said: — "Welcomel these eyes could see no better sight. What news?

The Odyssey by Homer - Book 9 Summary and Analysis

IX — ; whereas at the same time it reflects the Homeric custom of first entertaining guests and then questioning them, as illustrated by Od. III 67— The passage: "And I to tarry with the snow-haired Zal, My father, whom the robber Afghans vex, And clip his borders short, and drive his herds, And he has none to guard his weak old age. There would I go, and hang my armour up, And with my great name fence that weak old man.

XI —, where Achilles' lament in the underworld is given: "And teil me of noble Peleus, ifthou hast heard aught, whether he still has honour among the host of the Myrmidons, or whether men do him dishonour throughout Hellas and Phthia, because old age binds him hand and foot. For I am not there to bear him aid beneath the rays of the sun in such strength as once was mine in wide Troy, when I slew the best of the host in defence of the Argives. If but in such strength I could come, were it but for an hour, to my father's house, I would give many a one of those who do him violence and keep him from his honour, cause to rue my strength and my invincible hands.

The simile: "And as afleid the reapers cut a swath Down through the middle of a rich man's corn And in the midst a stubble, short and bare — So on each side were squares of men, with spears Bristling, and in the midst, the open sand. Se Spa. Rustum's scornful words: "Speak not to me of truce, and pledge, and wine 1 Remember all thy valour; try thy feints And cunning 1 all the pity I had is gone; Because thou hast shamed me before both the hosts With thy light skipping tricks and thy girl's wiles.

Sohrab's words: — "Yet thy fierce boast is vain Thou didst not slay me, proud and boastful man! Nol Rustum slays me and this filial heart. For were I match'd with ten such men as thee, And I were that which till to-day I was, They should be lying here, I standing here, But that beloved name unnerved my arm — XVI — Sohrab's lam ent: "Yet him I pity not so much, but her, My mother, who in Ader-baijan dwells With that old king, her father, who grows grey With age, and rules over the valiant Koords, Her most I pity, who no more will see Sohrab returning from the Tartar camp, With spoils and honour, when the war is done.

VI — and his prayer for young Astyanax in — The simile contained in the lines: "Then with weak hasty fingers, Sohrab loosed His belt, and near the shoulder bared his arm, And show'd a sign in faint vermilion points Prick'd; as a cunning workman, in Pekin, Pricks with vermilion some clear porcelain vase, An emperor's gift — at early morn he paints, And all day long, and, when night comes, the lamp 5 Lights up his studious forehead and thin hands — So delicately prick'd the sign appear'd On Sohrab's arm, the sign of Rustum's seal.

Herbert Paul draws attention to the following speech of Balder: "Hermod the nimble, gild me not my death 1 Better to live a serf, a captured man, Who scatters rushes in a master's hall, Than to be crown'd king here, and rule the dead.

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One of her metres, the Sapphic stanza, has been preserved in the genuine Greek cadence in the following lines writteri at the request of Prof. Jebb by Tennyson: "Faded every violet, all the roses, Gone the glorious promise, and the victim Broken in his anger of Aphrodite Yields to the victor. The collection of spurious Anacreonta are probably all of the Christian era, many as late as A.

A stamp of severe symmetry and majesty belonged to the rites of the Dorian religion, to the Dorian temples and statues and poems. Dorian Lyric Poetry was the expression of Dorian life in all its public and social energies. The Dorian lyrist, unlike the Aeolian, says little of himself. In its most distinctive form, Dorian Lyric Poetry was meant to be sung, not by a single voice, but by a chorus.

Simonides of Ceos, writer of hymns, paeans, dirges, epitaphs and public odes is distinguished by the perfect purity of his style, by his unerring sense of symmetry and proportion, by the Greek culture and refinement revealed in his art. That he lived under special divine guardianship and protection is nafrated by Wordsworth in the following lines: "I ftnd it written of Simonides That travelling in strange countries, once he found A corpse that lay exposed upon the ground, For which, with pains, he caused due obsequies To be performed, and paid all holy fees.

Soon after this man's ghost unto him came, And told him not to sail, as was his aim. On board a ship, then ready for the seas. Simonides, admonishe'd by the ghost, Remaiued behind: the ship the following day Set sail. Thus was the tenderest Poet that could be Who sang in ancient Greece this moving lay, Saved out of many by his piety. Mackail in his Lectures on Poetry has pointed out, not only because it shows the strong attraction the ancient poet excercised over the modern, but also, because, like agood deal of Wordsworth's finest work, it is written in something very near the Simonidean style.

In strength, nobility, imagination, in stateliness, dignity, in technical skill he bears the palm of lyric poets of ancient and modern times. Yet the feelings inspired by the perusal of Pindar's poetry are rather those of awe and wonder than of genuine sympathy and pure delight. The science of his art never fails him. He handles great rhythmical masses with absolute mastery and precision. But we ache in this whirl of sound for the vox humana The Pindaric Ode with its regular arrangement of strophe, antistrophe, epode is constructed on a system of stringent metrical laws.

To this question of form we shall return near the end of this chapter when some kinds of Pindarics in English poetry will be discussed. Gray, who in The Bard and The Progress of Poesy observed the strict laws of Pindaric hymnology, was said by Mason to possess Pindar's fire; Cowley's tombstone calls him "the English Pindar"; but neither statement is justified by fact. For all that it is certain, as Tucker observes, "that over all modern lyric poets, even over those who could not always follow his meaning, Pindar has exercised the sway of a master and imperial spirit.

In a letter to James Spedding he says: "I have written several things since I saw you, some emulative of the HSl y. We quoted above the Alcaics to Milton, which the poet himself annotated in the following way: "My Alcaics are not intended for Horatian Alcaics, nor are Horaces Alcaics the Greek Alcaics, nor are his Sapphics, which are vastly inferior to Sappho's, the Greek Sapphics. The Horatian Alcaic is perhaps the stateliest metre in the world except the Virgilian hexameter at its best; but the Greek Alcaic.

Note 1. The song in The Millev's Daughter, — recalls the twenty-second ode of the Anacreontea. In the lines "To the Rev. Brookfield" ovop — dream of a shadow — go," the quotation is from Pyth. The passage in Sea Dreams : "my poor venture but a neet of glass Wrecked on a reef of visionary gold," has been compared with Pindar's fragment, Scol. IX, "and a sea of golden wealth we all alike go sailing toward an unreal strand. From the Memoir we know that Tennyson especially admired "the great picture of the life of Heaven" in the second Olympian ode, and the picture of the Elysium in Hades in the threnody rota-t Xkfziru pb.

To the first of these Greek poems Tennyson alludes in the description of the "flowery levels underneath the crag" in The Princess, III: "for indeed these fields Are lovely, lovelier not the Elysian lawns. Where paced the Demigods of old, and saw The soft white vapour streak the crowned towers Built to the Sun. II "Then whosoever. Compare Tennyson's lines: "and these eyes will find The men I knew, and watch the chariot whirl About the goal again, and hunters race The shadowy lion, and the warrior-kings, In height and prowess more than human, strive ' Translation of E.

Again for glory, while the golden lyre Is ever sounding in heroic ears Heroic hymns, and every way the vales Wind, clouded with the grateful incense-fume Of those who mix all odour to the Gods On one far height in one far-shining fire. This sympathy, combined with his marvellous metrical skill, enabled the poet to master the Sapphic metre and produce a succession of Sapphic stanzas with the genuine ring and cadence of the Greek: ' All the night sleep came not upon my eyelids, Shed not dew, nor shook nor unclosed a feather, Yet with lips shut close and with eyes of iron Stood and beheld me.

Then to me so lying awake a vision Came without sleep over the seas and touched me, Softly touched mine eyelids and lips; and I too, Full of the vision, Saw the white irnplacable Aphrodite, Saw the hair unbound and the feet unsandalled Shine as fire of sunset on western waters; Saw the reluctant Feet, the straining plumes of the doves that drew her, Looking always, looking with necks reverted, Back to Lesbos, back to the hills whereunder Shone Mytilene;" etc.

There is a reminiscence in these lines of Sappho's ode to Aphrodite, which has inspired large portions of Swinburne's Anactoria, that monument jn "a baser and later language" to the "divine words which even when a boy [he] could not but recognize as divine. Here and there, I need not say, I have rendered into English the very words of Sappho.

The three great tragic poets in artistic sequence are Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides. In Aeschylus all is in the grand style and of a severe and awe-inspiring simplicity. Majestic heroes move in stately manner across the stage and fulfil the doom appointed by supernatural powers. And anxious to bring into benencent relation humanity and the gods he strove to penetrate to a higher unity in which the seeming discord should be resolved.

The war between the gods of heaven and heil is found to be no longer implacable, since both, constrained by Necessity and aided by her daemonic ministers, are working in the cause of Righteousness. Whereas Aeschylus represents superhuman heroes in conflict with the gods, Sophocles is pre-eminently the dramatist of the human heart.

He excels in delineating with subtle touches the great primary emotions of the soul. And where Aeschylus finds the higher unity of apparent discord in a divine Righteousness, Sophocles finds a solution in the analysis of ' "Primer of Greek Literature. Euripides, the youngest of the three tragedians, stands far from Sophocles and further from Aeschylus, representing a new order of ideas and a different conception of the dramatist's art. He is altogether more modern in the atmosphere of homeliness with which he surrounds his characters; in his unrestrained pathos, which made Aristotle call him the "most tragic" of the poets; in his religious ideas, which are tinctured by pantheism and strongly influenced by the doctrines of Anaxagoras.

In later years, when the Attic drama had spent its prime, Aristotle gave his definition of tragedy and formulated the canons dramatic poetry should observe. J "Porties" VI 2. As regards the Unities, which have played so important a part in the later influence of the Greek drama, it is only on the Unity of Action that Aristotle insists; though the Unities of Place and Time are, with a few exceptions, also strictly observed on the ancient stage.

According to the law of Unity of Place the dramatic action should be confined. It is these Unities of Action, Place and Time which strongly infiuenced the French seventeenth century drama, and, reinterpreted by French literary critics, were adopted as canons by Dryden and the classical school. Swinburne; next to him Sophocles was greatly admired; but whereas Shelley read Euripides and translated his satyric drama The Cyclops, Landor condemned him as a moralist rather than a dramatist and disliked his plays as containing more preachment than poetry.

And of Swinburne Edmund Gosse writes: "I never clearly understood the reason of Swinburne's frantical objection to Euripides which has even puzzled Dr. Shelley, "were now his most familiar companions in his wanderings and the sublime majesty of Aeschylus filled him with wonder and delight The result of his reading is apparent in Hellas and in the magnificent Prontetheus Unbound.

In the Preface to the former drama Shelley says: "The Persae of Aeschylus afforded me the first model of my conception, although the decision of the glorious contest now waging in Greece being yet suspended forbids a catastrophe parallel to the return of Xerxes and the desolation of the Persians. From our point of view the poem is chiefly remarkable on account of its ardent enthusiasm for Hellas and the rapturous vision in the final Chorus of a great, regenerated Greece. In the Preface Shelley says: "The Greek tragic writers, in selecting as their subject any portion of their national history or mythology, employed in their treatment of it a certain arbitrary discretion.

They by no means conceived themselves bound to adhere to the common ' Note on "Prometheus Unbound" by Mrs. I have presumed to employ a similar licence. The Prontetheus Unbound of Aeschylus supposed the reconciliation of Jupiter with his victim as the price of the disclosure of the danger threatened to his empire by the consummation of his marriage with Thetis.

Thetis, according to this view of the subject, was given in marriage to Peleus, and Prometheus, by the permission of Jupiter, delivered from his captivity by Hercules. Had I framed my story on this model, I should have done no more than have attempted to restore the lost drama of Aeschylus; an ambition which, if my preference to this mode of treating the subject had incited me to cherish, the recollection of the high comparison such an attempt would challenge might well abate.

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But, in truth, 1 was averse from a catastrophe so feeble as that of reconciling the Champion with the Oppressor of mankind. The moral interest of the fable, which is so powerfully sustained by the sufferings and endurance of Prometheus, would be annihilated if we could conceive of him as unsaying his high language and quailing before his successful and perfidious adversary.

The latter play was only the first piece of a trilogyx and was followed by Prometheus Unbound, of which a few disjointed fragments and certain details gathered from other writers have enabled scholars to reconstruct the plot. For to Aeschylus Zeus was, in the words of Mr. It is Zeus who "leads mortals to wisdom in that he Ordained thatto suffer istolearn.

Yet the Greek conception of the Godhead is different from the Christian and Zeus was not born the righteous Ruler of gods and men. There was a time when the new King had to fight for his position, to establish by violence his supremacy in heaven and earth. At that stage the trilogy of Prometheus begins.

For in Prometheus Vinctus Zeus is still the young tyrant, using his power with reientless cruelty to crush the rebellious Champion of mankind. But Time brought peace and security of position and taught the Olympian King to be lenient and just. And in Prometheus Unbound Zeus is portrayed in a kindly mood, ready to forgive and restore to favour the former rebel against his throne. Hardy and Aeschylus" Fortnightly Review. The task which Aeschylus as a dramatist undertook was to put into a form suitable for theatrical representation the familiar incidents of the story of Prome-!

Prometheus Unbound. With Introduction by Vida D. Shelley's design, on the other hand, was to remodel an old Greek legend in such a way as to make it the vehicle of his revolutionary ideas, his ethical aspirations, his dreams and visions of a regenerated world. Rossetti in his Memoir of Shelley says: "This is, I apprehend, what places Prometheus clearly, instead of disputably, at the summit of all later poetry: the fact that it embodies.

It is the ideal poem of perpetual progression — the Atlantis of Man Emancipated. For Humanity is not a chained Titan of indomitable virtue, nor is evil purely external, the tyranny of some malignant Power. Such were the speculations laid down in Godwin's Political Justice and it was as Godwin's disciple that Shelley conceived the deliverance of Man. Shelley's Prometheus Unbound differs from its Greek model not only in design and conception of the characters but also in spirit and poetical style.


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Instead of preserving the grand simplicity, the austere majesty of the Aeschylean drama,Shelley has produced a complex phantasmagoria, in which the Platonic mysticism is a feature no less striking than the profuseness of imagery and the redundance of style. Once or twice, only, Shelley strikes the sublime note of his great master, as in the opening speech of the tortured Titan or in the dialogue between Ocean and Apollo at the beginning of Act III.

Perhaps it is no wonder that Shelley's Prometheus should have the florid exuberance of a southern spring. For as the poet himself truly and happily remarks: "This poem was chiefly written upon the mountainous ruins of the Baths of Caracalla, among the flowery glades, and thickets of odoriferous blossoming trees, which are extended in ever winding labyrinths upon its immense platforms and dizzy arches suspended in the air.

The bright blue sky of Rome, and the effect of the vigorous awakening spring in that divinest climate, and the new life with which it drenches the spirits even to intoxication, were the inspiration of this drama. Ficstly it is not possible in any modern language to reproduce in exact counterpart the magie of words, the music, the peculiar cadence of the Greek.

Secondly Christianity has materially altered our ethical conceptions and it is Arnold's only concession to modern sentiment that he has refrained from portraying a heroine of the character of Electra, the protagonist of the drama to which his is the nearest approach. Judging Merope by the Aristotelian canons we find the structure of the drama to be in accordance with the Greek. In the first part we are acquainted with the state of affairs in Messen ia: we learn that Polyphontes, the murderer of king Cresphontes, has married Merope, the widowed queen; that in the tumult the two elder sons were slain, but Aepytus, the youngest, was concealed by his mother at the court of her father, the Arcadian king; we find Aepytus, grown to manhood, returned to Stenyclaros to avenge his father and claim the Messenian throne.

Then the situation is complicated by Aepytus relating to Polyphontes the story of his own death and Arcas, a trusty servant, announcing to Merope the disappearance of the prince from the Arcadian court. The fisrafixa-ig is ' J. Churton Collins. In the third part, the jtfvif, the complication is resolved: Polyphontes is slain while sacrificing at the altar, which is told by a messenger after the fashion. The Unities are strictly observed. Matthew Arnold has again closely imitated his Sophoclean model by assigning great prominence to the Chorus of Messenian maidens, who by recalling the past or moralizing on the present deepen for us the meaning of what is passing on the stage.

The Chorus, that essential feature of the Greek drama, held a peculiar position in the tragedies of Sophocles. We have seen that it was Aeschylus who introduced a second actor, thus creating the drama out of a choral hymn. This introduction led to the subordination of the Chorus to the dramatic action, although in his dramas it still held an important place. In the later plays of Euripides, however, the Chorus was not merely subordinated to the action but degraded into little more than a musical interlude.

It was the happy invention of Sophocles, "the most ingenious and the most felicitous conception which ever suggested itself to an artist", to make the Chorus stand "spectator haud particeps" as the symbol of reflective and sympathetic humanity. In the preface to Merope Matthew Arnold says: "The Chorus was, at each stage in the action, to collect and weigh the impressions which the action would at that stage naturally make on a pious and thoughtful mind; and was at last, at the end of the tragedy, when the issue of the action appeared, to strike the final balance.

If the feelings with which the actual spectator regarded the course of the tragedy could be deepened by reminding him of what was past or by indicating to him what was to come, it was the province of the "ideal spectator" so to deepen it. To combine, to harmonize, to deepen for the spectator the feelings naturally excited in him by the sight of what was passing on the stage — this is the one grand effect produced by the Chorus in Greek tragedy.

The Choruses of Merope consist ofthree parts: the strophe and antistrophe, the antithesis of thought to thought, followed by the epode, which strikes the balance of the whole. The mention of Arnold's structure of the Chorus ieads to a general consideration of his versification and style. He made no attempt to reproduce the Greek rhythms, only "to follow rhythms which produced on [his] own feeling a similar effect to that produced on it by Greek choric poetry.

Nor does Matthew Arnold equal his Greek master in the subtle charms of expression and style. Arnold makes no attempt to imitate1 the subtle elaboration of his master's style, his studied artificiality of expression, the pregnant suggestiveness with which by a nice discrimination in the use of words, and by delicacies of collocation he conveys so much more than he formally and definitely presents.

Efcuvefa or dissimulation means in tragedy the contrast between that which seems and that which really is. Irony may be conscious or unconscious and may be revealed in action or in speech. In order that this salutary moral discipline may be effected, the protagonist whose tragic fate we watch should neither be perlectly good nor yet utterly wicked, but a human being like ourselves. What involves him in ruin must not be a repulsive crime, but some frailty or a great error committed in ignorance or from a mistaken notion of right and wrong.


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He should moreover be a person of exalted station and possess great virtues to set off the weakness or the sin. These conditions Arnold's hero, Polyphontes, fulfils. By Polyphontes never fail'd in once Through twenty years; his mournful anxious zeal To eflface in me the memory of his crime.

Hellenic influence on the English poetry of the nineteenth century

And Merope, looking down on his prostrate body, strikes the balance of his character in the words: "I find worth in thee and badness too. But it has not the sweep, the ring, the melody, nor the sensuous beauty of that fascinating, though irregular drama. It is the form without the spirit, the body without the soul. In Swinburne's brilliant dramas Atalanta in Calydon and Erechtheus the Hellenic influence, the Hellenic inspiration are patent everywhere.

They appear in the sentiment and the thought which are so thoroughly Greek, that it seems, as critics have observed, as if Swinburne had learned, for the occasion at least, to think as his Greek masters, to shake off the present and live and move in the guise and fashion of ancient times. The two plays abound in Greek conceptions and ideas, expressed in a language which, though essentially romantic, invites comparison with the noblest passages of the great masters of the Attic stage.

Through the poetry of both Atalanta in Calydon and Erechtheus runs, as a golden thread, a love of nature which is truly Greek, a pure, objective delight in natural phenomena, in sun, moon, stars and birds and flowers, in snow and fire, in the sea, especially in its violent moods, when the "wine-bright" waves are crested with flowery foam. Then both plays speak of a pure Hellenic joy in the bodily excellence and strength of men, in the full-grown beauty of men and women, of a keen appreciation of physical delights.

The passage in Atalanta, were Althaea, bemoaning the death of her brothers, says: "For all things else and all men may rentw; Yea, son for son the gods may give and take, But never a brother or sister any more," contains the same argument by which in Sophocles' drama Antigone justifies her devotion to the dead. The lines in Erechtheus, where the maiden Chthonia takes leave of the Athenian elders: "People, old men of my city, lordly wise and hoar of head I a spouseless bride and crownless but with garlands of the dead From the fruitful light turn silent to my dark unchilded bed.

The splendid marine picture of the battle between land and sea, contained in the fifth Chorus of Erechtheus, defies comparison with the spirited description of the battle of Salamis given by Aeschylus in the Persae; and neither Pindar, when he addresses Athens with: fr. Some of the technical devices of the Greek drama have been adopted: in Atalanta in Calydon there is skilful "stichomythia" or cut-and-thrust dialogue in alternate lines; and in Erechtheus the disclosure of Chthonia's doom is delayed by hint and question and euphemism, though the response is never for a moment in doubt.

In both plays, as in the Attic drama, the lyrical element is not restricted to the Choruses but extends to the more exalted parts of the episodes. We may divide the lyrical passages into such as fall into regular stanza-form and those that are built on the ode-structure of strophe, antistrophe, epode. The former kind is usual in Atalanta, whereas the latter prevails in Erechtheus, which is thus metrically the more orthodox of the two. It was "the leaping and rolling crests of the stanzaic chants in Atalanta", the ringing, rhythmic music of the lines: "When the hounds of spring are on winter's traces The mother of months in meadows and plain Fills the shadows and windy places With lisp of leaves and ripple of rain.

These antiphonies, however, are not modelled on any classical prototype. They differ from the great lyrics in Erechtheus, which are Pindaric Odes of the kind which Swinburne in the Dedicatory Epistle proclaims to be "something above all less pure and absolute kinds of song by the very nature and law of its being. Mine ears are amazed with the terror of trumpets, with darkness mine eyes, At the sound of the sea's host charging that deafens the roar of the sky's. Filled full of the terror and thunder of water, that slays as it dies.

It was "the power in whose dark and infinite grasp Swinburne habitually saw the universe of man. Swinburne lived and thought in the nineteenth century, with its strong humanitarian tendencies, with its splendid achievements in science and action, its faith in the intellect and the energy of man. And his belief in the greatness — nay the godhead of Man finds expression in these lines from the hymn entitled Hertha: "A creed is a rod, And a crown is of night; But this thing is God. To be man with thy might, To grow straight in the strength of thy spirit, and live out thy life as the light.

Again it forms the theme of the exultant Hymn of Man described by the poet as uthe birthsong of a spiritual renascence," which concludes with the triumphant cry: "Glory to Man in the highest! Both Aeschylus and Swinburne believed in a law of Righteousness as the resolving principle in the mystery of life. But whereas the ancient thinker conceived of this Righteousness as a superhuman Power, moulding the very will of the gods to its cause, Swinburne, the modern, the nineteenth century poet, brought Righteousness down from its high throne in heaven, a purely human principle, enshrined in the soul.

Pan's pipe was thine, — Thine was the happier age of Gold. Theocritus, at once the creator and the unrivalled exemplar of the Bucolic or Pastoral Idyll, was a Sicilian by birth, spent part of his life in Cos and lived for some time in Alexandria under the patronage of Ptolemy II. His early days in Sicily gave him an intimate acquaintance with the business of "the field and fold", with the joys and griefs of the shepherd's calling, with the rude and elementary poetry of the country, the folksongs of pastoral life.

Then, as now, Greek herdsmen were singers and players and Theocritus found his material ready to his hand in the alternate or amoebaean strains which the Sicilian shepherds improvised on their festal days. They join the rusticity of Sicilian and Coan shepherds to the artistry of the Alexandrian court.