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Critical Mass in Physics
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- Voie vers l’éveil (La) (Sciences Humaines) (French Edition);
- Shift Happens: Power to the Pedals.
Sort order. Eugenio rated it really liked it Sep 10, Sibhs rated it it was ok Oct 17, Travis Culley rated it really liked it Dec 27, Gary rated it really liked it Mar 21, Amar Pai rated it it was ok Oct 02, Lauren marked it as to-read Oct 05, Brian marked it as to-read Nov 21, The answer is the formation of a critical mass of people necessary to move marginal ideas to a majority consensus.
Pyotr Kropotkin wrote:. Finally, our studies of the preparatory stages of all revolutions bring us to the conclusion that not a single revolution has originated in parliaments or in any other representative assembly. All began with the people.
Shift Happens! : Critical Mass At 20 by Chris Carlsson | eBay
And no revolution has appeared in full armor — born, like Minerva out of the head of Jupiter, in a day. They all had their periods of incubation during which the masses were very slowly becoming imbued with the revolutionary spirit, grew bolder, commenced to hope, and step by step emerged from their former indifference and resignation. And the awakening of the revolutionary spirit always took place in such a manner that at first, single individuals, deeply moved by the existing state of things, protested against it, one by one.
But the indifference of society was shaken by these progenitors. Then, little by little, small groups came to be imbued with the same spirit of revolt; they also rebelled — sometimes in the hope of local success — in strikes or in small revolts against some official whom they disliked, or in order to get food for their hungry children, but frequently also without any hope of success: simply because the conditions grew unbearable.
Not one, or two, or tens, but hundreds of similar revolts have preceded and must precede every revolution. When an oppressive regime is in power, a change is inevitable. However, it is almost impossible to predict when that change will occur. Often, a large number of people want change and yet fear the consequences or lack the information necessary to join forces.
When single individuals act upon their feelings, they are likely to be punished without having any real impact. Other people are encouraged by the first group, and the idea spreads rapidly. One example occurred in China in While the desire for change was almost universal, the consequences felt too dire. When a handful of students protested for reform in Beijing, authorities did not punish them. We have all seen the classic image of a lone student, shopping bags in hand, standing in front of a procession of tanks and halting them.
Those few students who protested were the critical mass. Demonstrations erupted in more than towns all over the country as people found the confidence to act. In most societies, 20 percent of criminals commit 80 percent of crimes. Twenty percent of motorists cause 80 percent of all accidents.
Twenty percent of beer drinkers drink 80 percent of all beer. When it comes to epidemics, though, this disproportionality becomes even more extreme: a tiny percentage of people do the majority of the work. Rising crime rates are also the result of a critical mass of people who see unlawful behavior as justified, acceptable, or necessary.
Critical Mass At 20
It takes only a small number of people who commit crimes for a place to seem dangerous and chaotic. Gladwell explains how minor transgressions lead to more serious problems:. Wilson and George Kelling. Wilson and Kelling argued that crime is the inevitable result of disorder. If a window is broken and left unrepaired, people walking by will conclude that no one cares and no one is in charge. Soon, more windows will be broken, and the sense of anarchy will spread from the building to the street it faces, sending a signal that anything goes. In a city, relatively minor problems like graffiti, public disorder, and aggressive panhandling, they write, are all the equivalent of broken windows, invitations to more serious crimes….
The first of these is the Law of the Few. Gladwell states that certain categories of people are instrumental in the creation of tipping points. These categories are:. Heroin is sticky because it is physiologically addictive. Twitter is sticky because we want to keep returning to see what is being said about and to us. Game of Thrones is sticky because viewers are drawn in by the narrative and want to know what happens next. Once something reaches a critical mass, stickiness can be considered to be the rate of decline.
The more sticky something is, the slower its decline. Understanding how a tipping point works can help to clarify the concept of critical mass. Computational analysis was used to establish where the shift from minority to majority lies. According to director of research Boleslaw Szymanski:. When the number of committed opinion holders is below 10 percent, there is no visible progress in the spread of ideas.
Critical Mass Celebrates 20 Years of Cycling for Change
It would literally take the amount of time comparable to the age of the universe for this size group to reach the majority. Once that number grows above 10 percent, the idea spreads like flame. What matters is that those people are set in their beliefs and do not respond to pressure to change them. Instead, they pass their ideas on to others.
Much lower. See Dictatorship of the Minority. In general, people do not like to have an unpopular opinion and are always seeking to try locally to come to a consensus … As agents of change start to convince more and more people, the situation begins to change.
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People begin to question their own views at first and then completely adopt the new view to spread it even further. The potential use of this knowledge is tremendous. Now that we know how many people are necessary to form a critical mass, this information can be manipulated — for good or evil. The choice is yours. Stop me if this sounds familiar.
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There is a person who toils alone for years in relative obscurity before finally cracking the code to become a hero. The myth of the lone genius. The Pygmalion Effect is a powerful secret weapon. Since then, the leaderless ride has spread to over cities around the world, buoying spirits of cyclists while occasionally infuriating drivers.
Carlsson, who co-edited the book, believes that metropolitan measures to promote bicycle safety have increased but that a fundamental shift in the attitudes of people toward bicycles as a primary means of transportation still has a ways to go. Cities like Berlin, Copenhagen and Amsterdam are exemplars of bicycle-friendly cities, according to Carlsson. Marie Huijbregts, 28, is one of those supporters who showed up on two wheels, but her journey was far from ordinary. The Paris-based bicyclist started her ride from Guadalajara, Mexico, in May of this year, reaching San Francisco a few days ago to volunteer at various events during the weeklong celebration.
Huijbregts says bicycle ridership has increased exponentially in Paris. But bad behavior aside, there is a more fundamental reason to oppose Critical Mass, according to Rob Anderson, who runs the blog District 5 Diary. Anderson questions the basic legality of the ride itself. A complete calendar of events can be found here. I have sat in buses for min.