Their literary works are emblematic of the range of poetic styles that make up the American literary landscape. Brief biographical information on each poet follows:. A stage performer and sound artist as well as a poet, Duriel E. Her work has been featured in numerous literary journals and translated into German, Polish, and Spanish. Jess is an associate professor of English at the College of Staten Island and the poetry and fiction editor for the African American Review.
He is a founding member of the Dark Noise Collective, a national spoken-word poetry group. His work has appeared in the Beloit Poetry Journal , Kinfolks , Poetry , and Ploughshares , amongst other notable publications. View as List Grid. Reserve Add to Basket. Clairvaux, Jura, France: View a map.
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All rights reserved. Shop By. Rare first editions, signed and inscribed copies, deluxe and collectible editions of books of poetry; also individual poems and related ephemera. Showing items of View View 20 View 40 View Page: 1 2 3 4 5 Next. First edition, first printing. Review copy, inscribed by the author on the front free endpaper, "Burt Britton, Joy! Maya Angelou", with the publishers review copy slip loosely inserted.
Britton also collected self-portraits, or "self-doodles", Learn More. Stock Code: First edition, first impression, one of copies, in the first issue binding with a flat spine, and with the misprint "floor" for "sea" on p. Bishop has made two small corrections Pasternak, 9 February ", on the front free endpaper.
First edition, first impression of the first issue of The Criterion, containing the first appearance in print of T. Eliot's The Waste Land, arguably the most significant poem of the 20th century. The poem was first published in book-form in December in New York. The journal, a notably international affair, also includes This slim volume is uncommon, especially in the jacket. The collection was promoted and published by Sassoon after Owen's death with the backing of Edith Sitwell. The work, which is often described as the greatest Some Trees was Ashbery's first collection.
The selection The recipient was fellow poet and core member of the New York School of poets Barbara Guest First edition, first impression, with the rare dust jacket. First edition, first printing, signed by Bishop above her name on the title page. In McIlree Lomer, a Uranian First Vale Press edition, one of unnumbered copies on paper a further 8 were issued on vellum , handsomely bound.
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First trade edition, first impression, the dedication copy, inscribed by the author on the half-title verso "To Sir Ian Hamilton from John Drinkwater ". First edition, first impression, Sayers's own copy of her first appearance in book form, with her ownership signature to the half-title and authorial corrections in manuscript to her poem "Lay" p. Sayers composed the poem while in her final year First edition, one of 20 copies containing a manuscript poem, this copy with The Hawk in the Rain, additionally signed and numbered by the author, this being number 37, and bound in decorative wrappers.
This edition was published with a total limitation of , of which six were bound in green morocco with each poem written Presentation copy, inscribed by the author on the front free endpaper "always from Dylan to John ". High Windows , a broadside issued by the poem of the month club, signed by the poet at the bottom.
Larkin wrote the piece after watching a television programme about the British mining industry, imagining a fatal explosion First Rockwell Kent edition, number of 1, copies signed by the artist. Pickering with both stamps inside front free endpaper. Basil Montagu Pickering was a publisher and bookseller, the son of William Pickering. He had the book bound in a number of different bindings—from yellowish brown to reddish orange to purple. This color change is significant. As the last antebellum edition of Leaves ;, this book appeared on the edge of the Civil War.
The nation was now no longer "woven" "out of hopeful green stuff" as Whitman had described the grass in , but was on the edge of a massive bloodletting that would result in over , deaths. The color shift from green to dark red, burnt orange, or purple is one that Whitman would play on for the rest of his life, issuing some of his final books in both green and dark red covers, as if to suggest that his work and all life hover between green and red, nature and blood, spring and autumn, beginnings and endings.
The emblems he chose for this volume underscore this shift in tone. On the front cover "Leaves of Grass" appears blindstamped around a blindstamped globe, revealing the Western hemisphere, floating in clouds fig. The letters of "Leaves of Grass" have stylized tendrils emerging from the "L" and "G. Above the name is a blindstamped hand with a butterfly perched on a pointing finger; this emblem of the union of man and nature, of the body and the soul, reappears several times in the book, and some years later Whitman brought the figure to life by posing for a photograph with a cardboard butterfly perched on his thumb.
On the back cover is the image of a sun fig. Is the red of the cover the first light of a new dawn or the last light before darkness? In the fateful year of , the fate of the United States was unclear, and no one knew whether it would emerge from its internecine conflict stronger than before or utterly destroyed. Was the American hemisphere rising out of the clouds, harbinger of a newly unified world, an international democracy, or was it descending into the clouds, harbinger of a continuing fragmentation and division that would destroy the hopes of national and international unity?
The emblems on the cover are repeated throughout the book, where their ambiguity only increases as they punctuate Whitman's poetry that tries desperately to hold North and South together, and that in the "Calamus" poems offers up a vision of men loving men to counter the horror of fratricide that threatened the nation at this pivotal moment in its history. Rand and Avery print shop. He carried with him his notebooks in which he had carefully recorded the array of typefaces he wanted to use in this wildly mixed typographical volume figs.
Great primer ornamented. Enfans d'Adam. We can only imagine the discussions and arguments that went on between Whitman and the typesetters as the professional compositors found their shop invaded by an author who was also a printer. Yesterday the foreman of the press-room. It is quite 'odd,' of course. He illustrated his hopes typographically as well as textually. Thayer and Eldridge, like so many publishers after the beginning of the Civil War, went out of business by the end of , and their projected long relationship with Whitman never materialized though Whitman and Eldridge would stay close friends and would meet again in Washington during the war.
the bankrupt includes a rare poetry collection Manual
Whitman would not have a commercial publisher again for twenty years. Thayer and Eldridge sold the electrotyped plates of the edition at auction. The publisher Richard Worthington bought the plates for the edition in after they had passed through a number of other hands , and he began in to reissue the book fig.
Whitman and Worthington reached an uneasy truce whereby Worthington paid Whitman a small royalty that Whitman accepted without ever acknowledging Worthington's right to keep issuing the book. Early reviews of this edition often commented on the physical object itself: "The paper, print, and binding are indeed superb," wrote one reviewer in The Spectator ; "but one thing these gentlemen have forgotten: where are the phallic emblems, and the figures of Priapus and the Satyrs that should have adorned the covers and the pages of this new gospel of lewdness and obscenity?
Its frontispiece should have been, not the head and shoulders of the author, but a full-length portrait drawn as he loves to depict himself in his 'poems'—naked as an Anabaptist of Munster, or making love like Diogenes coram populo. Walt Whitman's Leaves of Grass had been printed on paper as dirty as his favourite topics,—if the book itself had presented the general aspect of that literature which usually falls under no other criticism than that of the police office, we should have passed it by without notice, as addressing only such a public as we have no concern with; but when a volume containing more obscenity and profanity than is perhaps elsewhere to be found within the same compass, presents itself in all the glories of hot-pressed paper, costly binding, and stereotype printing, and we believe as a fourth edition, it is manifest that it not only addresses, but has found a public of a much wider class, and it becomes a question how such a book can have acquired a vogue and popularity that could induce an American publisher to spend so much upon its outward setting-forth.
Leaves of Grass Imprints. Boston: Thayer and Eldridge, June Thayer and Eldridge published this paperbound pamphlet made to resemble fading brown leather in order to advertise the edition of Leaves of Grass fig. There is a single leaf advertising the availability of Leaves of Grass ; the verso features a sample table of contents from the edition. At the back is a similar leaf of advertisements which features excerpts from New York Illustrated and the Boston Saturday Evening Gazette.
The verso of this leaf advertises the "Just Published" edition as "An Elegant Book" and as "[o]ne of the finest specimens of modern book making. Drum-Taps and Sequel to Drum-Taps — The Civil War changed everything, including Whitman's publishing plans. While he did not contemplate abandoning Leaves of Grass , he did begin planning his first book not titled Leaves of Grass. Even in , Thayer and Eldridge, before going bankrupt, had advertised a new forthcoming volume by Whitman to be called Banner at Day-Break.
When the war began, he had started writing war poems while still living in New York. Poetry publishing had come to a virtual halt in the U. War poetry was not popular only Whittier seems to have succeeded , and in , when Whitman finally got around to publishing the book, much of the nation wanted to begin to forget the war, not relive it. Whitman now had a clerkship in the government, giving him a source of income and allowing him to think about paying a printer and a binder.
He prepared a broadside to advertise the book, and, like his manuscript list of contents for the Leaves , this one lists a very different set and sequence of poems than appeared in the book just a couple of months later. He prepared the broadside before contracting with the printer Peter Eckler in New York. Eckler — was a radical publisher, a longtime member of the New York Freethinkers, who would eventually reprint a number of Whitman's favorite books—Volney's Ruins , the works of Thomas Paine Eckler also wrote a biography of Paine , and the atheist Robert Ingersoll's works.
As was the case with the radical abolitionists Thayer and Eldridge, Eckler's association with Whitman suggests the poet's radical political and philosophical leanings. Eckler advised Whitman to hold off on publication, since the price of paper was going to come down, but Whitman insisted on pushing ahead and, as he did with the edition of Leaves , he re-ordered his poems to make them fit on nine eight-page signatures: the final poem appears on page 72 of the book, and every page is filled with type; he often inserts very short poems to fill up any blank space on a page. Alvord from stereotype plates.
Whitman's decision to push ahead with the publication turned out to be unfortunate, since Lincoln's assassination occurred while the book was being printed. Whitman quickly added a short poem that he squeezed into the final signature, called "Hush'd be the Camps To-day," with the notation "A.
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He had already paid J. Copies of the original Drum-Taps without the sequel appeared in a brownish red cover and are now very rare fig. Back in Washington, DC, Whitman had three more eight-page signatures printed up, carefully filling up the additional 24 pages with poems, some composed rapidly, including his great odes to Lincoln, "O Captain! My Captain!
On the title page, too, is a striking rendition of the title of "When Lilacs Last in the Door-Yard Bloom'd," with the letters formed out of broken limbs and branches, the title visually alluding to the reconstruction the nation would be going through as it tried to form a union again out of the shattered fragments of the war. There is a poignancy to the small "and other pieces" that follows the "Lilacs" title on the title page, since "Lilacs" itself focuses on "the debris and debris of all dead soldiers" and on "the staffs all splinter'd and broken.
The small volume was available for sale by the beginning of November, Gibson Brothers printed copies, and Abraham Simpson bound copies. One reviewer called the book a "plain slight volume. The Fourth Edition of Leaves of Grass The first postbellum edition of Leaves of Grass is probably the least studied of the various Whitman editions and the most difficult to find. Though there was only one printing of this edition, there are at least three different versions because Whitman was already trying to figure out how or even whether the Civil War fit into Leaves of Grass. At times Whitman indicated Leaves was now a book of the past, "proofs of phases passed away," but at other times he believed that Leaves would have to evolve with the changing nation, absorb its traumas and work toward its uncertain future.
This is the least impressive Leaves of Grass as a physical specimen. For the first time, there is no frontispiece engraving of the poet and no visual decorations at all. The printing is unimaginative, the bindings in two forms insubstantial, and the variations maddening. Whitman paid to have the volume printed, and he clearly sought the cheapest way to get the job done.
But in terms of what the edition has to teach us, it is an important one indeed, as Whitman here has begun to reformulate Leaves of Grass for a newly reconstructed United States of America, a nation now tempered and sobered by a bloody internal war that would forever haunt its history and undermine the optimistic predictions of America's future. The very plain typeface in such striking contrast to the flamboyance of the wild variety of type in the edition, and the absence of Whitman's defiant working-class frontispiece of and or the bohemian frontispiece of , all signal a quieting of Whitman's "barbaric yawp" and a stripped and bare reassessment of the nation's and the poet's prospects figs.
In the first copies of the edition, Whitman performed his own textual version of healing surgery, suturing the leftover and still-unbound pages of Drum-Taps and Sequel to Drum-Taps into the back of his new volume, thus binding the poetry of the war into Leaves of Grass. This was the first step in Whitman's ongoing experiment with how to bleed the Civil War into Leaves.
In the and editions, he would radically shuffle and cluster his Drum-Taps poems so as to make the war integral to instead of simply appended to Leaves of Grass. So the first copies of this edition include Drum-Taps , Sequel to Drum-Taps though not listed in the primary table of contents , and a new separately printed cluster of poems called Songs Before Parting bound into the back of Leaves of Grass as separate entities with their own title pages and pagination.
When he ran out of the already printed and unbound copies of Drum-Taps and Sequel , he issued a version with only Leaves and Songs Before Parting. Then he issued a version with only Leaves of Grass. There have been reports of other variations as well—a copy with Drum-Taps and Songs Before Parting but without Sequel. Rossetti was a great admirer of Whitman's work, and he began a long correspondence with Whitman about the nature of the selection, suggesting that a number of Whitman's more controversial terms like "father-stuff" would need to be altered for British sensibilities.
Whitman initially agreed, but he balked when Rossetti began to talk about cleaning up all the poems and issuing a complete expurgated edition of Whitman's work. Whitman finally agreed that Rossetti could omit any poems in which he found anything objectionable, but he could not alter poems. The result was a book that did not include "Song of Myself" or any other controversial Whitman poems.
The frontispiece portrait fig. Sexuality was thus removed both visually and linguistically. Whitman tried desperately to get Hotten to change the engraving, which he called "a marked blemish" on the volume; Hotten indicated he would replace it, but then reneged. Late in his life, Whitman regretted making his compromise with Rossetti, allowing an expurgated edition to appear: "I'd say even to dear Rossetti, all or nothing. This would not be Whitman's last encounter with Hotten, who would several years later print a pirated edition of the fifth edition of Leaves of Grass. Hotten was an aggressive publisher, initially printing up copies of Poems by Walt Whitman and having a thousand bound it would be reprinted in various editions well into the s by Chatto and Windus, which took over Hotten's firm when Hotten died in While Whitman had increasingly negative feelings about Hotten, when Rosssetti's selected edition first appeared the poet was impressed and even endorsed Hotten's idea to distribute the book in the U.
Hotten, meanwhile, advertised the book by associating Whitman with Swinburne and William Blake whose works he also published. The bibliographic chaos evidenced in the production of the edition of Leaves of Grass only proliferates with the new and completely restructured edition of The first issue of this book appeared in September , bearing an date on the title page but on the copyright page. Again, no author or publisher is listed on the title page, only a place and date, and the place this time is as it was for Sequel to Drum-Taps Washington, D.
It is ironic, then, that for this first Washington edition of Leaves , he returned to New York to have the book printed there by the publisher J. Redfield, " Fulton St. Chapin with the Leaves , served as a publisher under contract but assumed little or none of the costs of compositing or printing the book; Whitman paid the bills.
Leaves of Grass was not selling well, and publishers were unwilling to take much of a risk on it; Whitman was still depending on friends and connections and his own bargaining skills to get publishers to do the work as cheaply as possible. Still, Redfield's name appears on the front cover of the book, on the light green background that Whitman came to prefer around this time, binding his book in green for the first time since before the war fig. Both places were crucial for Whitman, and the edition inscribes the dual allegiance.
Redfield had been the publisher of a second edition of John Burroughs's little book about Whitman Notes on Walt Whitman Poet and Person in , so—just as he had used William O'Connor's publisher to help distribute the edition—he now enlisted Burroughs's publisher for the edition. It is notable that the nominal publishers of the and editions both published books about Whitman for which they put out more money than they did in publishing books by Whitman.
As was the case when he initially wrote Drum-Taps , it now seemed to him that Leaves had somehow come to conclusion, and that the edition would be the last. He had absorbed the war into his book, and he felt he needed to turn to something new. He was imagining a companion volume to Leaves , a book that he said would focus on the spirit in the way that Leaves had focused on the body.
He called this new book Passage to India , and he had Redfield print it and issue the slim volume in light yellow-green wrappers, with Redfield listed on the cover as publisher fig. Several months before the book appeared, Whitman wrote to his old Brooklyn friends Andrew and Thomas Rome, the printers who had done the first edition of Leaves , and indicated that he had sent his Passage to India manuscript to them to have it set in type and proofread.
Clearly, Whitman was maintaining his longstanding friendship with these Brooklyn job printers, who continued to set type for Whitman over the years they also set type for proofsheets of a number of his poems. He continued to look to the Romes' job shop as a place for quick typesetting to give him his poems in printed form so he could see what they looked like on the page, do his final corrections on typeset copies of his poems instead of having to work further with his often chaotic manuscripts, and then turn in the Rome sheets to the publisher as printer's copy.
Andrew and Tom Rome remained his personal typesetters. The little Passage to India book was conceived by Whitman as the start of his new big second book project. He announced in a preface to another small pamphlet called As a Strong Bird on Pinions Free that Leaves , his "epic of Democracy," had now had its "published expression," and that "the present and any future pieces from me are really but the surplusage forming after that Volume, or the wake eddying behind it.
But, at the same time, he was already binding Passage to India into Leaves , including it in his second issue of the edition, where—just as he sewed Drum-Taps and Sequel into the edition—he bound in the pages of Passage , still bearing their own title page and pagination. As was always the case for Whitman, his wavering notions about his books and their relationship to each other are permanently on record in the array of book objects he created. At the back of this second issue was an advertisement that ironically let readers who were holding in their hands a book with Passage included know where they could purchase individual copies of Passage to India.
This little book, reprinting Whitman's poem that was commissioned for the Managers American Institute Exhibition in New York in , was printed by Roberts Brothers in Boston, and stereotyped by John Wilson and Son in an edition of 2, copies; at least copies remained unbound as late as Whitman eventually re-titled the poem "Song of the Exposition" and included it in Leaves of Grass.
Whitman issued the book in two different colored bindings figs. He had moved from green to red from the s to the s, but now he embraced both colors, though still keeping them separate. He was proud of this little book, talking about how "wonderfully neat" it was: "How healthy the print! So much for Whitman at this point seemed split in two—New York and Washington, antebellum and postbellum, Leaves and Passage to India , poetry and prose.
One side of Whitman wanted to keep things separate, divide his life and his books into two, but another side usually the winning side desired to merge them again, to join the dichotomies. It was the dynamic of his own nation, what the North and South had gone to war over—to be separate or to remain united—and he was living it out in his own life and in his books, both in what his books were about, and in what his books manifested in their physical appearance.
A single book, but two different covers: one spring, one fall; one youth, one age. Whitman books proliferated in these early years of the s. His long, rambling essay Democratic Vistas , bringing together three separate essays he had written two of which appeared in the journal Galaxy , where the third was scheduled to appear but never did , appeared as a pamphlet in , also issued by Redfield in the same light green paper covers fig.
Around copies were printed, but the book did not cause a ripple, receiving only two known substantial reviews, both in England, where many of the original copies were shipped to be sold there. Whitman's democratic theories and his projection of a reconstructed democratic future clearly resonated more in England than in the United States, and starting in , handsome and even deluxe editions of Democratic Vistas with other shorter prose pieces by Whitman appeared in Britain as part of the popular Camelot Series issued by the publisher Walter Scott in various bindings figs. One of the oddest of Whitman's books, this little gathering of poems emerged from his desire to "print my College Poem in a small book.
Whitman made the most of the fact that he had now become respected enough to be invited to the Ivy League by making sure the event was covered in many newspapers and by issuing this commemorative book containing his Dartmouth poem and six others. The most important thing about the little book is the preface, one of Whitman's most revealing and thoughtful examinations of his work, its direction, and its purpose. Whitman returned to his pre-war dark green cover with the title goldstamped on the front fig. It was printed by Samuel W. Green in New York in an edition of copies, or so of which were bound.
The second printing of the 5th edition includes two issues. The first issue bears the same copyright page and date as the previous printing and has a similar title page with now substituted for fig. Whitman at this point did not call these add-ons to Leaves of Grass "annexes," as he would officially label his old-age poems that he appended to the final editions of Leaves, but he clearly had begun to think of his book as easily expandable: ever since he had sewed the Sequel into Drum-Taps , it was as if he realized the convenience of simply annexing separately published items as the first step in incorporating that work fully into the book.
So Drum-Taps , Sequel , and Songs before Parting get annexed to the edition, then absorbed seamlessly into the edition, which itself expands by annexing Passage to India , which would then get absorbed into the edition. Whitman's experience as a housebuilder may be relevant to the way he imagined book objects: when you needed more space for a new resident, you added an annex.
Whitman was much more content with this printing of the fifth edition, what he called his "new edition, from the same plates as the last, only all bound in One Vol. For this printing, Whitman also had a new printing of Passage to India made, still with its own title page now dated , but he first used up the remaining sheets of the printing of Passage , binding them in to the first copies with a canceled title leaf before using the new Passage sheets.
One copy of the edition on display in the exhibition was owned by J. Rolleston, Whitman's earliest German translator fig. As is the case in many nineteenth-century copies of Whitman's books, the owner used blank spaces on the pages to talk back to or to talk about Whitman; Rolleston's notes at the end of the table of contents in the space where Passage to India should be indicated draw a connection between Whitman and Wordsworth: "Walt Whitman answers remarkably to Wordsworth's definition of a poet, see Pref.
Of Lyrical Ballads, 'a poet is a man, speaking to men. Things get even more bibliographically murky with the decision by the London publisher, John Camden Hotten, who had published William Michael Rossetti's expurgated Poems by Walt Whitman , to pirate an edition of the Leaves. Rossetti and Hotten had hoped to be able to bring out at some point a full and unexpurgated edition of Leaves indeed, Rossetti had hoped his expurgated edition would pave the way for such an edition , but only Hotten could have figured out this underhanded way to make it happen.
Hotten was a colorful figure in British publishing, infamous for his involvement in what many considered to be pornographic literature. He became Swinburne's publisher when other publishers shied away from him because of charges of obscenity. He published many American writers including Hawthorne, Lowell, Holmes, and Ambrose Bierce , and he was notorious for offering spurious editions of various writers.
Some bibliographers, including Joel Myerson, label this the sixth edition of Leaves of Grass , even though Whitman had no involvement with it or even knowledge of it , and even though it is a type facsimile of the fifth edition. Since it is an entirely new setting of type, however, it does fall into a category of its own. Hotten printed his pirated edition anonymously in England, carefully resetting the entire book to look just like the original American publication, so that he could pose as the importer and distributor instead of the publisher, in order to avoid riling the authorities about possible violations of English censorship laws it was less risky to import books that might break obscenity statutes than to publish them.
While the edition does closely resemble the second issue of the American fifth edition it hoped to forge, many differences have been discerned. This edition was printed and bound in folios of 8's, rather than 12's. It bears the copyright rather than and includes the text of After All, Not to Create Only which is not listed in the table of contents , in addition to Leaves of Grass and Passage to India which are listed in the table of contents.
At the page level this edition varies from the fifth edition in line breaks and the decorative elements between poems. Hotten offered the book in three colorful bindings figs. The spine is goldstamped with a decorative element at the very top and bottom.
It is ironic that the pirated British version of Whitman's fifth edition was marketed with more durable covers than Whitman could afford for the original. In , during America's centennial celebration, Whitman, now living in Camden, New Jersey, decided to reissue the fifth edition, repackaged now as a "Centennial Edition" and "Author's Edition," with each copy personally signed by Whitman.
His first attempt to do this involved getting James Arnold, a binder in Philadelphia, to bind the leftover pages of the second printing in a new binding, a light brown leather and orange cloth, blank front and back covers, with a spine goldstamped with double rules and decorative floral panels. This edition of Leaves thus becomes the first to bear Whitman's name on the title page, though it is not printed on the page, only signed. Technically, then, his title page remains stripped of his name. As we have seen, Whitman from forward was chary about wasting paper; his printer's eye did not like much blank space and his tight financial situation could not allow it.
In this case, it's as if he could not stand the half-blank pages he found in the fifth edition and so filled them up with poems that closed the spaces just as he had done in Drum-Taps. The intercalations have a different typeface for the titles, creating a touch of the typographical playfulness he had achieved in the edition when he reprinted the book again and included the intercalated poems, however, he standardized the typeface. One additional striking intercalation is Whitman's change of the title of his famous Civil War poem; called "The Dresser" up through the edition, he now altered it to "The Wound-Dresser" and had the new title printed in type that matches the typeface of other titles and pasted in over the old title.
We have seen Whitman altering his books in many ways, but this version is the first to try pasting in additions and revisions. Whitman had originally conceived this issue as a special volume in another way: it would become the illustrated edition of Leaves. His notebooks show he was working in the mids to contact the engravers of his early frontispiece images—John C. McRae, who did the portrait, and Stephen Alonzo Schoff, who did the portrait and who was now engraving for the U. Since the edition had been stereotyped and the plates sold at auction, Whitman could not retrieve Schoff's engraving, but he managed to get the steel engraving and also to procure a new wood engraving from William James Linton, an outstanding British engraver, based on an photograph of Whitman by G.
Potter fig. So this issue of Leaves includes two images, the first images of Whitman to appear in his book since , and the first reprinting of the famous portrait in twenty years. This volume also includes a single leaf inserted between the back flyleaves advertising a number of Whitman's works, including various editions of Leaves of Grass , Two Rivulets , and Memoranda During the War. Whitman then undertook a third printing of the fifth edition, printed by Samuel W.
The first issue of this printing is known as the "false" edition and bears a cancelled title leaf, while in the second issue the title leaf is integral and is quite similar to the title page in the second printing, second issue, with the title, short poem, Whitman's signature, and the place and date of publication fig.
The McRae engraving and the new Linton engraving remain in this issue as does a similar advertisement for Whitman's work between the back flyleaves. The binding, once again done by James Arnold, is somewhat different with half cream leather and red, blue, and green marbled paper.
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In a continuing effort to cash in on the nation's centennial celebration, Whitman decided in "to bring out a volume. Prose had long been involved in Whitman's poetry, of course: the first edition of Leaves of Grass began with a long prose preface, and the edition contained the long prose letter to Emerson as well as Emerson's letter to Whitman and a number of reviews of Leaves. But now he engaged in a much more experimental way the joining of poetry and prose: Two Rivulets combines prose and poetry on the same page by separating the two with a wavy line, poetry running across the top of the page and prose along the bottom fig.
Whitman limited this Centennial Edition to copies, printed in Camden his first book to be printed in his new city and bound by James Arnold in Philadelphia in two different bindings black leather with marbled paper sides, and brown leather with orange cloth.
The volume contains a copy of a G. Pearsall photograph of Whitman pasted onto a sheet of paper and inserted just before the title page indicating: "Photo'd from Life, Sept. A second printing has the same title page and contains the same printed sheets for the following sections, Two Rivulets , Centennial Songs , Memoranda During the War , but all other pieces have been printed with revised plates. The Pearsall photograph is not signed in all these copies. Whitman's friend and literary executor Thomas Harned claimed that Whitman set type for some of this book "at the printing office of the 'Post' in Camden," where the editor, Henry Bonsall, "extended to him all the facilities of a printing establishment.
Bonsall, the owner and editor of the Camden Daily Post and New Republic , along with his son Bart who co-edited and eventually ran the Post , became for Whitman what Andrew and James Rome had been for so many years—the printers who would always do Whitman a favor, make their shop available to Whitman, set things in type for him to use as proofsheets, let Whitman set some type himself. Their print shop made possible Whitman's explosion of new books during the s. The book is a striking example of Whitman's innovation in design.
It also demonstrates his recurring desire to pull together the various books he had published over the previous months and years under one cover, with smaller separate publications always eventually working their way into larger compilations. Whitman had the first copies bound to match his first printing of the Leaves , so that the two books could be sold as a Centennial set, then bound the rest to match the later printings of the Leaves , again to be offered as a matching set of his "complete" works. It is notable that he keeps Passage to India where he had placed "When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom'd" in the Two Rivulets volume instead of incorporating it into Leaves , as if he is still thinking of it as a potential separate book.
Only in would he finally collapse Passage into Leaves. Whitman had been working on this project ever since the Civil War, when he began keeping notebooks about his experiences with soldiers he encountered when he went to Fredericksburg to check on his wounded brother George.