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Temples and tombs built by a pharaoh famous for her projects, Hatshepsut , were massive and included many colossal statues of her. Pharaoh Tutankamun 's rock-cut tomb in the Valley of the Kings was full of jewelry and antiques. In some late myths, Ptah was identified as the primordial mound and had called creation into being, he was considered the deity of craftsmen, and in particular, of stone-based crafts. Imhotep , who was included in the Egyptian pantheon , was the first documented engineer. In Hellenistic Egypt , lighthouse technology was developed, the most famous example being the Lighthouse of Alexandria.

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Alexandria was a port for the ships that traded the goods manufactured in Egypt or imported into Egypt. A giant cantilevered hoist lifted cargo to and from ships. This lighthouse was renowned in its time and knowledge of it was never lost. A drawing of it created from the study of many references, is shown at the right. The Nile valley has been the site of one of the most influential civilizations in the world with its architectural monuments, which include the pyramids of Giza and the Great Sphinx —among the largest and most famous buildings in the world. The most famous pyramids are the Egyptian pyramids —huge structures built of brick or stone, some of which are among the largest constructions by humans.

Pyramids functioned as tombs for pharaohs. In Ancient Egypt, a pyramid was referred to as mer , literally "place of ascendance. It is one of the Seven Wonders of the World , and the only one of the seven to survive into modern times. The Ancient Egyptians capped the peaks of their pyramids with gold and covered their faces with polished white limestone, although many of the stones used for the finishing purpose have fallen or been removed for use on other structures over the millennia.

The Red Pyramid of Egypt c. Menkaure's Pyramid , likely dating to the same era, was constructed of limestone and granite blocks. The Great Pyramid of Giza c. Other uses in Ancient Egypt , [10] include columns , door lintels , sills , jambs , and wall and floor veneer.


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The ancient Egyptians had some of the first monumental stone buildings such as in Sakkara. How the Egyptians worked the solid granite is still a matter of debate. Archaeologist Patrick Hunt [11] has postulated that the Egyptians used emery shown to have higher hardness on the Mohs scale. Regarding construction, of the various methods possibly used by builders, the lever moved and uplifted obelisks weighing more than tons.

Obelisks were a prominent part of the architecture of the ancient Egyptians, who placed them in pairs at the entrances of various monuments and important buildings, such as temples. The word "obelisk" is of Greek rather than Egyptian origin because Herodotus, the great traveler, was the first writer to describe the objects. Twenty-nine ancient Egyptian obelisks are known to have survived, plus the unfinished obelisk being built by Hatshepsut to celebrate her sixteenth year as pharaoh.

It broke while being carved out of the quarry and was abandoned when another one was begun to replace it. The broken one was found at Aswan and provides the only insight into the methods of how they were hewn. The obelisk symbolized the sky deity Ra and during the brief religious reformation of Akhenaten, was said to be a petrified ray of the Aten, the sun disk. It is hypothesized by New York University Egyptologist Patricia Blackwell Gary and Astronomy senior editor Richard Talcott that the shapes of the ancient Egyptian pyramid and Obelisk were derived from natural phenomena associated with the sun the sun-god Ra being the Egyptians' greatest deity.

The Egyptians also used pillars extensively. It is unknown whether the Ancient Egyptians had kites , but a team led by Maureen Clemmons and Mory Gharib raised a 5,pound, foot 4. A ramp is an inclined plane, or a plane surface set at an angle other than a right angle against a horizontal surface. The inclined plane permits one to overcome a large resistance by applying a relatively small force through a longer distance than the load is to be raised. An inclined plane is one of the commonly-recognized simple machines. The Ancient Egyptians had knowledge to some extent of sail construction.

This is governed by the science of aerodynamics. Egyptian ship with a loose-footed sail, similar to a longship.

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From the 5th dynasty around BC. Model ship from the Old Kingdom — BC. Stern-mounted steering oar of an Egyptian riverboat depicted in the Tomb of Menna c. Note that the sail is stretched between yards. Loading Egyptian vessels with the produce of Punt. Shows folded sails, lowered upper yard, yard construction, and heavy deck cargo.

Ancient Egyptians had experience with building a variety of ships. Sneferu's ancient cedar wood ship Praise of the Two Lands is the first reference recorded to a ship being referred to by name. Although quarter rudders were the norm in Nile navigation, the Egyptians were the first to use also stern-mounted rudders not of the modern type but center mounted steering oars.

Irrigation as the artificial application of water to the soil was used to some extent in Ancient Egypt, a hydraulic civilization which entails hydraulic engineering. Before technology advanced, the people of Egypt relied on the natural flow of the Nile River to tend to the crops. Although the Nile provided sufficient watering survival domesticated animals, crops, and the people of Egypt, there were times where the Nile would flood the area wreaking havoc amongst the land. They were made by winding molten glass around a metal bar and were highly prized as a trading commodity, especially blue beads, which were believed to have magical powers.

The Egyptians made small jars and bottles using the core-formed method. Glass threads were wound around a bag of sand tied to a rod. The glass was continually reheated to fuse the threads together.

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The glass-covered sand bag was kept in motion until the required shape and thickness was achieved. The rod was allowed to cool, then finally the bag was punctured and the sand poured out and reused. The Egyptians also created the first colored glass rods which they used to create colorful beads and decorations. They also worked with cast glass, which was produced by pouring molten glass into a mold, much like iron and the more modern crucible steel.

The Egyptians were a practical people and this is reflected in their astronomy [32] in contrast to Babylonia where the first astronomical texts were written in astrological terms. In Lower Egypt, priests built circular mud-brick walls with which to make a false horizon where they could mark the position of the sun as it rose at dawn, and then with a plumb-bob note the northern or southern turning points solstices.

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This allowed them to discover that the sun disc, personified as Ra, took days to travel from his birthplace at the winter solstice and back to it. Meanwhile, in Upper Egypt a lunar calendar was being developed based on the behavior of the moon and the reappearance of Sirius in its heliacal rising after its annual absence of about 70 days. After unification, problems with trying to work with two calendars both depending upon constant observation led to a merged, simplified civil calendar with twelve day months, three seasons of four months each, plus an extra five days, giving a year day but with no way of accounting for the extra quarter day each year.

Day and night were split into 24 units, each personified by a deity. A sundial found on Seti I's cenotaph with instructions for its use shows us that the daylight hours were at one time split into 10 units, with 12 hours for the night and an hour for the morning and evening twilights. Key to much of this was the motion of the sun god Ra and his annual movement along the horizon at sunrise. Out of Egyptian myths such as those around Ra and the sky goddess Nut came the development of the Egyptian calendar , time keeping, and even concepts of royalty.

An astronomical ceiling in the burial chamber of Ramesses VI shows the sun being born from Nut in the morning, traveling along her body during the day and being swallowed at night.

During the Fifth Dynasty six kings built sun temples in honour of Ra. The temple complexes built by Niuserre at Abu Gurab and Userkaf at Abusir have been excavated and have astronomical alignments, and the roofs of some of the buildings could have been used by observers to view the stars, calculate the hours at night and predict the sunrise for religious festivals.

Claims have been made that precession of the equinoxes was known in Ancient Egypt prior to the time of Hipparchus. Note however that the Egyptian observation of a slowly changing stellar alignment over a multi-year period does not necessarily mean that they understood or even cared what was going on. For instance, from the Middle Kingdom onwards they used a table with entries for each month to tell the time of night from the passing of constellations. These went in error after a few centuries because of their calendar and precession, but were copied with scribal errors long after they lost their practical usefulness or the possibility of understanding and use of them in the current years, rather than the years in which they were originally used.

The Edwin Smith Papyrus is one of the first medical documents still extant, and perhaps the earliest document which attempts to describe and analyze the brain: given this, it might be seen as the very beginnings of neuroscience. However, medical historians believe that ancient Egyptian pharmacology was largely ineffective.

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Parkins, sewage pharmacology first began in ancient Egypt and was continued through the Middle Ages, [38] and while the use of animal dung can have curative properties, [40] it is not without its risk. Practices such as applying cow dung to wounds, ear piercing, tattooing, and chronic ear infections were important factors in developing tetanus. Snoek wrote that Egyptian medicine used fly specks, lizard blood, swine teeth, and other such remedies which he believes could have been harmful.

Mummification of the dead was not always practiced in Egypt. Once the practice began, an individual was placed at a final resting place through a set of rituals and protocol. The Egyptian funeral was a complex ceremony including various monuments, prayers, and rituals undertaken in honor of the deceased. The poor, who could not afford expensive tombs, were buried in shallow graves in the sand, and because of the arid environment they were often naturally mummified.

Evidence indicates that Egyptians made use of potter's wheels in the manufacturing of pottery from as early as the 4th Dynasty. The Egyptians developed a variety of furniture. There in the lands of ancient Egypt is the first evidence for stools , beds , and tables such as from the tombs similar to Tutenkhamen's. Some have suggested that the Egyptians had some form of understanding electric phenomena from observing lightning and interacting with electric fish such as Malapterurus electricus or other animals such as electric eels.

Bolko Stern has written in detail explaining why the copper covered tops of poles which were lower than the associated pylons do not relate to electricity or lightning, pointing out that no evidence of anything used to manipulate electricity had been found in Egypt and that this was a magical and not a technical installation. Egyptian education is a central, social and economic force in the Middle East. For hundreds of years Al Azhar University has been the centre of Islamic thinking and education. More recently Egypt became the leader in secular education as Mohammed Ali established the first medical, veterinarian,….

By Anthony McDermott. Ever since Nasser overthrew Prince Farouk in , Egypt has held a special, leading position within the Arab world. It is now facing major problems, the most serious of which are the growing strength of the Muslim fundamentalists, continuing population growth and external debt problems. Egypt was the first of the Arab-speaking Muslim countries to come into close contact with modern European states. The experience was not a particularly happy one. It resulted in political and economic subjugation and in the breakdown of her traditional culture and society: but it led also to her….

Edited by Various. Routledge Library Editions: Egypt brings together as one set, or individual volumes, a series of previously out-of-print classics from a variety of academic imprints. By Georgie D. This study gives a comprehensive account of the evolution of the educational system in Modern Egypt, set against the events of the last twenty five years.

Murray Merely to inhabit a desert demands much skill, craft, experience and travel. The author, with twenty-five years of accumulated knowledge, here sets out to… Paperback — Routledge Routledge Library Editions: Egypt. Cooper The assassination of Sadat brings to an end another era in Egyptian history. Focusing on the upheavals in the Egyptian political and economic structure over the… Paperback — Routledge Routledge Library Editions: Egypt.

Vatikiotis As the leaders of a revolutionary, nationalist regime, the Egyptian Free Officers who came to power following the Revolution committed themselves to the attainment of goals associated with modernization, namely rapid economic development based on State planning and industrialization and the… Paperback — Routledge Routledge Library Editions: Egypt. Egypt's Economic Potential RLE Egypt 1st Edition By Roberto Aliboni Over the last ten years the Egyptian economy has undergone a major transformation which has led to greater decentralisation and international competition.

This transformation, along with changing circumstances in the surrounding Arab areas and the end of hostilities with Israel, has given a boost… Paperback — Routledge Routledge Library Editions: Egypt.

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With many engravings, nearly 50 coloured plates and a map, 1st Edition By Percy Falcke Martin A work of history, culture, politics, economics, packed with period photographs and period insights. Carter This book explores the political relationship between the Muslim majority and Coptic minority in Egypt between and A unique retrospective, it features probing interviews with Egyptian intellectuals, writers, political and… Paperback — Routledge Routledge Library Editions: Egypt.

More recently Egypt became the leader in secular education as Mohammed Ali established the first medical, veterinarian,… Paperback — Routledge Routledge Library Editions: Egypt.