The A to Z of Sexspionage covers the whole scope of the phenome- non, covering its long and continuing practice, the large numbers of countries and organizations that have applied its use or had to fend it off, and the many forms and varieties it can take. Just how long sexspi- onage has been around— and in how many different contexts it has emerged— immediately becomes clear when one glances through the chronology.
The motivation, techniques, and results are summed up an- alytically in the introduction. Bur the most significant and occasionally raciest parts are the numerous case histories in the dictionary section. Other entries deal with very dubious techniques such as the bra camera, swallows and ravens, and the honeytrap. For those whose appetite is whetted by this book, further reading can be found in the bibliography.
This volume was written by Nigel West, a historian who specializes in intelligence, and who is certainly one of the best such authors. Association of Former Intelligence Offi- cers. This was due to a long series of books, articles, and reference works on intelligence, starting with his first publication in and with a list that is still growing. This is now his fifth historical dic- tionary; West previously produced the volumes on British intelligence, international intelligence, Cold War counterintelligence, and World War II intelligence.
Michael Bialoguski, and Markus Wolf. Augusta Morris re- leased from prison. Edith Cavell executed. Mata Hari re- cruited in Amsterdam. Sir Roger Casement arrested in Ireland. Mata Hari arrested and executed. Agnes Smedley indicted on espionage charges. MI5 investigates Nellie Williams. Agnes Smedley trav- els to Shanghai. Wil- helm Reich publishes The Sexual Revolution.
The a To Z Of Sexspionage
Olga Gray recruited by Max Knight. George Hill pub- lishes Go Spy the Land. Ernest Oldham commits suicide. Robert and Marjorie Switz move to Paris. Wallis Simpson placed un- der surveillance by MI5. The Salon Kitty opens in Berlin. Gertrude Schilbeck lures Ignace Reiss into a trap in Lausanne. La Plevitskaya confesses to the murder of General Skoblin. Olga Gray gives evidence against Percy Glading. John King arrested. Vera Schalburg arrested in Scotland. Anna Wolkoff convicted in London.
Ursula Kuczynski falls in love with Len Beurton. Dusko Popov arrives in London. Alberto Lais expelled from the United States. Richard Sorge arrested in Tokyo. Inga Arvad and John F. Kennedy in- vestigated by the FBI. Mary Bancroft recruited by Allen Dulles in Bern. Ilse Stoebe arrested in Berlin. TATE meets Mary.
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Denis Rake falls in love with Max Haider in Paris. Death of Jacob Golos in New York. Viviana Diaz arrested in Trinidad. Adrienne Molnar per- suades Willi Hamburger to defect. Victor Kravchenko defects in the United States. Theresa Jardine posted to Kandy. Richard Sorge exe- cuted in Tokyo. Elizabeth Bentley defects in New York. Igor Gouzenko defects in Ottawa. Ted Hall marries Joan Krakover.
Annabelle Bucar begins an affair with Konstantin Lapshin. Anne-Marie Snellman recruits her lover, Urho Kekkonen. The CIA introduces poly- graph tests. Guy Burgess appointed to Washington, D. Susanne Sievers arrested in Leipzig. Frank Bossard posted to Germany. John Vassall posted to Moscow. Vladimir and Evdokia Petrov defect in Australia. Piotr Deri- abin defects in Austria. Elli Barczatis and Karl Laurenz beheaded. James Mintkenbaugh discharged from the U. Tom Driberg interviews Guy Burgess in Moscow.
Lutsky cultivates a passport clerk in Wellington. Death of Walter Duranty. Kenneth Alsop blackmailed in Moscow. Maurice Dejean honey- trapped in Moscow. Bernon Mitchell and William Martin visit Cuba. Irwin Scarbeck com- promised in Warsaw. Marianne Lenzkow recruited under a false flag. Margarethe Lubig recruited by the Hauptverwaltung Aufkrarung. Louis Guibaud shoots himself after being honeytrapped in Moscow. Dmitri Polyakov compromises Maria Do- brova. Ivan Skripov expelled from Canberra. Yuri Krotkov defects in London. John Profumo resigns. Stephen Ward commits suicide.
Eleanor Philby joins Kim in Moscow. Ivor Rowsell withdrawn from Moscow after an attempt to honeytrap him. Yuri Nosenko defects in Geneva. Mary Meyer murdered in Washington, D. Robert Johnson con- fesses. James Mintkenbaugh arrested. Florentino Azpillaga defects in Vienna with his girlfriend.
Full text of "/tg/ References Folder"
Dovie Beams meets Ferdinand Marcos. Nikolai Ogorodnikov and his wife granted political asylum in Vienna. Karl and Hana Koecher granted American citizenship. Ann-Christine Bowen marries Rainer Rupp. Philip Agee meets Janet Strickland. John Symonds re- cruited by the KGB.
John Stonehouse fakes his own death in Florida. Gabriele Albin recruited in Bonn. Arrest of Jeremy Thorpe. Anthony Blunt exposed publicly as a Soviet spy. Rhona Ritchie con- victed of passing secrets to Rafaat El-Ansary. Geoffrey Prime arrested on pedophile charges. The Koechers are arrested in New York. Margarete Hoke arrested in Bonn. Richard Miller convicted of passing secrets to Svetlana Ogorodnikova. Boris Yuzhin arrested in Moscow. Mordechai Vanunu abducted in Rome. Earl Pitts arrested in New York. Mar- garete Hoeke convicted of spying for the KGB. Felix Bloch dis- missed from the State Department.
Magarethe Lubig arrested. Robert Hanssen aban- dons Priscilla Galey. Natalia Ljuskova arrested in Finland. Rainer and Ann-Christine Rupp ar- rested. Ana Montes arrested. Amir Laty withdrawn from Australia. Ariel Weinmann ar- rested in Dallas. Introduction The motives that drive individuals to engage in espionage are many, and very often those involved are reluctant to admit precisely what it was that propelled them into it.
Ideology is frequently cited as a reason for someone having betrayed his or her country, often on the basis that a po- litical commitment is easier to acknowledge than sheer greed or some monetary consideration. Counterintelligence analysts, of course, are al- ways anxious to learn more about motives, partly so they can attempt to develop a profile that will assist them in detecting a betrayal before se- rious damage is incurred, but also to enable them to recognize the traits in an adversary who perhaps might usefully be exploited.
During the Cold War there was a concentrated effort by all the pro- tagonists to persuade intelligence professionals to defect, and many did so. The lure of wealth is well understood as a powerful incentive for some to sell classified material, and it may well be that the person con- cerned has fallen into debt or considers that his talents have not been sufficiently rewarded, and his privileged access to a highly saleable commodity looks like an attractive alternative to penury or disgrace.
Others may have quite straightforward economic reasons for switching sides, but it is a common characteristic that whatever the underlying in- fluences, they invariably justified their actions by claiming to have been politically inspired, apparently in the belief that an ideological conver- sion is a nobler motive. Anatoli Golitsyn had been involved in a career-threatening row with his rezident in Helsinki shortly before he presented himself to the local CIA station chief in December Similarly, Vladimir Kuzichkin feared being disciplined for having mislaid some sensitive documents, and Viktor Gundarev was anxious to start a new life with his mistress.
It is a fact, as will be demonstrated in the pages that follow, that love and sex are often cited as factors in the transfor- mation of an otherwise conscientious public servant into a traitor. In a surprising number of espionage cases, sex has played a significant role, perhaps only in the background, possibly as a reason why a particular individual has lived beyond his means and in desperate need of cash. Looking behind the obvious finan- cial motive, one can sometimes find traces of sexspionage. Although Ames conceded his financial predicament, he did not attempt to shift the blame to Rosario, perhaps another manifestation of his commitment to her.
Similarly, Bob Hanssen cited his poor pay as an FBI special agent in New York as a reason for his first sale of secrets to one of his GRU sur- veillance targets, but it is now known that he was indebted beyond the familiar burdens of a mortgage and six children to educate. His bizarre relationship with a stripper and his need to shower her with expensive gifts, including a car, jewelry, and a vacation in Hong Kong, suggest that here too sex played some part in the events that eventually would culminate in his arrest in February In the realm of human behavior, sex can be the catalyst for risky or reckless conduct, and this applies to both genders.
Just the prospect of a few brief moments of gratification can prompt perilous self-indul- gence that can have a wholly disproportionate, lasting impact. In the context of classified information, it is sexspionage, and adds an extra dimension to the scandal. The fact that she was also seeing the Soviet assistant naval attache turned a resignation issue into a national trauma.
Sexspionage is not a new phenomenon, nor was it restricted to the era of the Cold War. More recently, the Prussian spymaster Wilhelm Stieber sponsored a bordello to acquire information from French officers, and during the American Civil War both sides employed female agents to in- filtrate enemy positions, conduct clandestine reconnaissance missions, act as couriers, and seduce vulnerable personnel with a knowledge of fu- ture plans.
Arguably the most famous spy of all time, Mata Hari, is credited with having used her considerable womanly wiles to extract vital informa- tion from French officers during World War I. Typically, the Nazis almost institutionalized sexspionage by establishing the noto- rious Salon Kitty in Berlin, a brothel where the clients were black- mailed when they were most disadvantaged.
Apart from his relationship with Madame Szymanska, Canaris had no other direct contact with the Allies, despite speculation to the con- trary, and plenty of opportunity to do so. The exercise of influence, of course, can also be a facet of espionage, and during the war some in Washington were uneasy about the extent to which prominent Ameri- cans had fallen under a nefarious spell cast by the British. Even General Dwight D. Although there was no evidence of a sexual conspiracy to entrap unwary Americans and perhaps influence official policy, there were those who put a more sinister interpretation on such illicit liaisons.
In the postwar era, sexspionage was adopted by the Soviets as a method of penetrating diplomatic missions in Moscow. Even before World War II, the NKVD had compromised two American embassy ci- pher clerks, Tyler Kent and Henry Antheil, by procuring for them beau- tiful mistresses whose affections were dependent on their acquisition of codes and copies of secret telegrams.
As a method of penetrating West- ern premises, the use of entrapment techniques proved highly effective; Norwegian, Swedish, British, American, French, and Canadian diplo- mats reported attempts to compromise their staff. At least three ambas- sadors succumbed to the temptation, and numerous other attaches and more junior envoys were caught in honeytraps and blackmailed. Thus Sir Geoffrey Harrison began an affair with Galyna, his beguilingly at- tractive housekeeper; John Vassall was photographed in bed with his athletic homosexual lover; and Maurice Dejean was seduced by his beautiful Russian mistress.
As the UpDK maintained sources inside al- most every Western mission, it was easy for the SCD to develop pro- files of susceptible personalities, prey on the weaknesses of isolated bachelors or lovelorn secretaries, and mount sophisticated schemes to coerce the unwary. In such circumstances, the wretched victims often went to considerable lengths to protect the very architects of their misfortune. At the height of the Cold War, the hazards of conducting business in Moscow or of working there as a diplomat became so great that the British Security Service, MI5, produced Their Trade Is Treachery, a document outlining the perils of apparently casual encounters with lo- cal women in hotel bars, and the consequences of inviting late-night visitors back to a hotel room that probably was wired for sound and cine.
After numerous incidents, MI5 concluded that the best way of alerting travelers to the pitfalls inherent in Eastern bloc countries was a limited distribution of a series of case histories describing the experi- ences of the unwary. A definition of sexspionage should include not just the tendency to exploit sexual weakness but also the willingness of spies to engage in espionage to please their partners. In fact, by an analysis of such statistics as exist, gender would seem to play a rela- tively significant role in collaborative espionage where a husband-and- wife team operates overseas, especially when the KGB sent illegals on missions into the West.
Behavioral scientists relish the opportunity to study aberrant conduct, and counterespionage specialists are particularly attracted to patterns that offer potential clues to breaches of security. Accordingly, this study takes the broadest interpretation of sexspionage to include the impact the fairer sex has made on the arcane arts. In the pages that follow, we examine some of the cases of sexspi- onage that have occurred throughout history, look at the organizations responsible for exploiting human frailty, and assess the impact of rela- tionships conducted in an adversarial environment.
We also widen the area of scrutiny to cover the role gender plays in counterintelligence, and there is some fascinating evidence concerning the performance of women operating under cover, their involvement in relationships where espionage is a major part of their life, and their historical contribution to clandestine operations.
What is Kobo Super Points?
What emerges is a complex picture that ranges at one extreme from the cynical manipulation of the weak, to the other end of the spectrum where loyalty to an individual outweighed pa- triotism. In between are the often-tragic case histories of people in po- sitions of trust who either betrayed their responsibilities or were them- selves hideously betrayed.
However, Agee was turned away by a Soviet security officer who did not believe such a scruffy individual could really be an authentic CIA officer. While preparing his book in Paris in July , Agee met a wealthy American, good-looking, blonde heiress calling herself Leslie Donegan, who offered to finance his research and supplied him with a portable typewriter that contained an electronic beacon concealed in the lid.
At the time, Agee never suspected that his ap- parently generous sponsor was actually Janet Strickland, a CIA agent whom he encountered four years later when she was employed by the International Labor Organization in Geneva. Donegan claimed to be a graduate of Boston University, the daugh- ter of a Venezuelan who had married her American father in Caracas, and said she had studied French at Geneva University before reaching Paris, where she had been introduced to Agee in an English pub, the Mayflower.
Over dinner a few nights later, she offered to finance his book venture and accepted a copy of the work he had completed. When she returned, she began an affair with Salvatore Ferrera, a freelance American journalist who had befriended Agee and had often expressed an interest in learning his address.
He also came to suspect that Salvatore Ferrera, too, had been a CIA agent, part of a large operation to monitor his activities. The son of a wealthy businessman from Tampa, Florida, Philip Agee studied business administration and then philosophy at Notre Dame University but left law school before graduating.
In , he was drafted into the U. Army and while undergoing his military training he wrote and volunteered for service with the CIA. His ap- plication was accepted in In , he was sent on his first over- seas assignment, under diplomatic cover to Ecuador and then Uruguay, during which he married and had two sons. In , he re- turned to Washington, D. In Mexico, Agee began an affair with an American divorcee with strong leftist political sympathies.
Under her influence, he resigned from the CIA in the autumn of but remained in Mexico, work- ing for a local company manufacturing mirrors. From his new home in Cornwall, Agee encouraged journalists to research embassy lists to spot the biographical entries of CIA personnel working under diplomatic cover. Soon afterward, he was expelled from France and excluded from West Germany and Holland. In , Agee launched a new periodical, the Covert Action Information Bulletin, at a press conference in Cuba, together with a group of supporters that included two disaffected former CIA employees, Jim and Elsie Wilcott.
None of these publi- cations were the subject of criminal prosecution in the United States because, as the U. Justice Department confirmed, the CIA could not undergo the usual discovery proceedings associated with a trial. He died in Havana in February The Greek mistress of the chief of the Italian Ser- vicio di Informazione Militar SIM in Athens, Anna Agiraki was sent on an espionage mission in August by boat to Syria be- cause her lover felt she was attracting too much attention from the Italian secret police.
She was accompanied by George Liossis and a radio operator but was arrested by the Royal Navy off the Syrian coast. Liossis, a Greek Air Force officer and son of General Liossis, revealed that he had been in contact with the British Secret Intelli- gence Service before the war and volunteered to work for the British as a double agent. Agiraki also agreed to become a double agent and, codenamed GALA, she notionally became a prostitute plying her trade to indiscreet Allied officers who supposedly confided secret plans to her.
The other four sources were entirely notional, and Agiraki remained an active source until October , even though she spent the entire time in prison in Palestine. Of her two companions, only Liossis retained his freedom and would return to Greece with a promotion. A German employed as a clerk by the U. In , while on a visit to Moscow, the well- known journalist Kenneth Alsop was photographed in bed with a young man and then approached by the KGB.
Alsop declared the in- cident to the American ambassador, who advised him to tell the Cen- tral Intelligence Agency, and the matter was reported to the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Apparently aware that Alsop had reported the matter, the KGB made no further attempt to contact him. Alsop later pursued a successful career as a BBC television journalist, host- ing the early evening news show Tonight. He died in Indiana in De- cember , aged In January , year-old Dr.
Carlos M. The result was a series of unpublicized arrests in Moscow, secret trials, and a dozen executions. Nevertheless, he had participated in some significant cases, including those of the Foreign Ministry spy Aleksandr Ogorodnik, and two members of the United Nations, Arkadi Shevchenko and Sergei Fe- dorenko. He had also participated in a double-agent operation against an East German physicist, Alfred Zehe, then living in Mexico City, who would be arrested in Boston in December and convicted of espionage in July Heav- ily in debt following his divorce in August from a fellow CIA officer, Nancy Segebarth, Ames convinced himself that his talents had gone unrecognized.
He had married Segebarth in May , af- ter they had trained together and were posted to the same station in Turkey. They separated after 12 years of a childless marriage in when Ames went to Mexico and his wife remained in New York. Within nine days of obtaining a divorce, Ames married one of his agents, Rosario. As a direct consequence of the tip from Ames, Oleg Gordie vsky was unexpectedly recalled to Moscow on 17 May , supposedly for urgent top-level consultations three days later, but actually for a lengthy, hostile interrogation that included the use of drugs.
Other agents working for the CIA suf- fered a rather dissimilar experience. Major Sergei M. Motorin and Colonel Valeri F. Although Ames never acknowledged precisely whom he fin- gered in his first letter, it is highly likely that he included the names of Motorin, Martynov, and Gordievsky, the KGB trio in the best po- sition to warn the CIA of the existence of a well-placed traitor within its own ranks. As a matter of self-preservation, Ames would have been bound to warn the rezident that some of his colleagues were re- ally working for the West. In his list of 13 June, he mentioned Adolf Tolkachev, who had just been arrested and was to be executed, and a group of other Soviet intelligence officers who had been recruited while under diplomatic cover in the United States: Leonid Poleschuk, recruited in Katmandu in the s; a GRU officer, Gennadi Smetanin, and his wife, Svetlana, who had been recruited in ; and Gennadi Varenik, the son of a senior KGB officer under TASS cover when he was recruited in March in Bonn, who was ar- rested in November and shot in February The scale of the catastrophe was not lost on Burton Gerber or his deputy, Mil- ton Bearden, who instituted a major review of each case so as to es- tablish whether operational blunders were to blame or if there was something altogether more sinister afoot.
Gus Hathaway, who had re- turned from Bonn in January to run the Counterintelligence Staff, estimated that up to 45 separate cases had been placed in jeop- ardy. As the losses mounted from May , Hathaway became in- creasingly convinced that SE had been penetrated at a high level. As Stein reviewed each case, the DO suffered more in- explicable losses. On 1 July, Vladimir V. Soon afterward Colonel Vladimir M. This was an especially mysterious and sinister loss because Piguzov had not been in contact with the CIA since when he had returned to Moscow, and had proved himself to be an exceptionally useful source by identifying David H.
Al- most simultaneously Colonel Vladimir M. Army sergeant Clyde L. Conrad had been ac- tive in West Germany, was also caught. Sandor Kercsik and his younger brother Imre, and roll up a large Hungarian military intelligence network headed by a retired warrant officer, Zoltan Szabo. Originally a refugee from Hun- gary in the exodus, Szabo had joined the U.
Army and had been decorated for gallantry in Vietnam. According to his confession, he had been recruited by the Hungarians in when he took his German wife and children on holiday to Lake Balaton. Conrad was allowed his liberty until August and was sentenced to life imprisonment in June , but Szabo escaped to Budapest.
The damage caused by Ames was long lasting and, in terms of So- viet operations, was easily the worst case of penetration experienced by the CIA, which failed to notice the change in his circumstances following his divorce. Maria del Rosario Casas Dupuy came from a politically prominent family in Bogota where her father had been a government minister and her mother an academic.
In October , when she was intro- duced to her future husband, she was aged 30 and serving as the cul- tural attache at the Colombian embassy in Mexico City. She spoke fluent French and Greek, was well traveled, but was somewhat naive and inexperienced when she was recruited by a Central Intelligence Agency CIA officer, David Samson, so he could use her apartment as a safe house in which to meet sources.
He passed her on to Rick Ames, then attempting to divorce his wife Nan, and they began an il- licit relationship that culminated when he invited her to join him in Washington, D. They were married in August and she successfully gave birth to a son, Paul, in November after a miscarriage. In a letter in October addressed to his KGB contacts recovered from the ribbon of his home printer , he revealed that his wife had adjusted to his news and was very understanding of his covert work for them.
Within three hours, she had begun to confess. Although initially the molehunters were suspicious of con- tacts she was known to have had with KGB agent Sergei Shurygin in Mexico City in , they eventually concluded that she had not been recruited by him. Satisfied with the comprehensive nature of her confession, the charges against her were dropped as part of a plea bargain negotiated with her husband to obtain his cooperation so a full damage assessment could be completed by his former colleagues.
Arrested in Marseilles in by the Amer- icans as long-term German agents and members of a stay-behind net- work, Helene Andersen and her year-old, London-born husband Svend were transferred to Camp for interrogation. She eventu- ally admitted that although her brother was a Royal Air Force pilot, she and Svend had been recruited to spy on their fellow countrymen in May Initially reluctant to confess, they were both persuaded to do so and were returned to France for trial.
Their relationship lasted for 12 years, and he persuaded her to stay in Germany and ob- tain a job at a U. When Anderson died in July , the Federal Bureau of Investigation attempted to recover his private papers on the grounds that they might compromise na- tional security. Killed on 15 June when his Estonian air- liner was attacked by Soviet fighters while flying from Tallin to Helsinki, Henry Antheil was a cipher clerk at the U.
However, when his apartment was cleared by a State Department colleague, dozens of secret telegrams were found, including letters that suggested that An- theil had acquired a girlfriend in Moscow whom he had wanted to bring to Finland. Also recovered were details of codes, notes of com- bination locks, and other sensitive documents. Other material showed that Antheil had been in correspondence with a Soviet official, Alexander Fomin, an alias adopted by Aleksandr S. Feklisov, a well- known NKVD handler. The suspicions concerning Antheil led to an undercover review of security at the U.
The mistress of a former American consul in Eng- land named Fellner, in Natasha Anton acquired another admirer, Luis Calvo, who was an Abwehr spy working as press attache at the Spanish embassy in London. Although Fellner often boasted of his skills as a counterintelligence expert, he was unaware that his mistress was also seeing a Nazi spy until he received a discreet warning from MI5. In June , Captain Nikolai Arta- monov, the commander of a Soviet destroyer in the Baltic, abandoned his wife and family and defected to Sweden in a small boat from Gdansk with his Polish girlfriend, Ewa.
In Stockholm, he applied for political asylum in the United States and, having been resettled with the new name Nikolai Shadrin, eventually worked for the Defense In- telligence Agency as a naval analyst while Ewa practiced as a dentist. In , Artamonov was asked by the Federal Bureau of Investi- gation FBI to act as a double agent if approached by the KGB , and he agreed to do so, traveling twice to Austria to make contact with members of the local rezidentura in Vienna.
However, in December he was abducted, drugged, and driven to the Czech border, where it was discovered that he had succumbed to an accidental over- dose. Unaware that her husband had agreed to participate in a high-risk double-agent operation for the principal purpose of enhancing the status of a KGB officer recruited by the FBI, Ewa conducted a lengthy legal campaign to establish the truth about his fate.
Eventu- ally information from the defector Vitali Yurchenko in August confirmed that Artamonov had been killed by accident, an account subsequently verified by a KGB retiree, General Oleg Kalugin. A devastatingly beautiful Danish blonde, Inga Arvad entered the United States as a student of journalism at Columbia University and worked as a columnist on the Washington Times- Herald. Kennedy, for an interview subsequently pub- lished in the newspaper. Although Arvad was four years older than the U.
Navy ensign, then working in the Office of Naval Intelli- gence, they began an affair that resulted in an espionage investiga- tion conducted by the Federal Bureau of Investigation FBI , who suspected Arvad of being a German spy. According to her FBI file, Arvad had interviewed numerous senior Nazis in Germany in while covering the Olympic Games, including Adolf Hitler, and her apparently easy access to them had led to speculation that she had engaged in espionage.
Fejos engaged in sexual intercourse on a number of occasions while she was occupy- ing room at the Fort Sumter Hotel. Ultimately, the FBI was unable to prove she had ever been a spy. In May , he was arrested for a second time and he received a further prison sentence for having aided the enemy. Baillie-Stewart had been one of a small band of renegades who had supported the Nazis and either had contributed to anti-British propaganda or had persuaded British detainees to join the Legion of St.
George, the Britische Freikorps branch of the Schutzstaffel. In , Josephine Baker, then a Broadway star who had made her reputation at the Cotton Club in Harlem, moved to Paris where she was an instant success as a singer, and in she took French citizenship. Bom into a black family in St. Louis in , she used her celebrity on the diplomatic circuit to cul- tivate unwitting sources in the Italian and Japanese embassies and passed her reports to Jacques Abrey of the Deuxieme Bureau. When the Nazis occupied Paris, Baker moved to Vichy, and in No- vember was accompanied by Abrey, posing as her dance tutor, to Lisbon, where they delivered information to the British embassy concealed in her sheet music.
In subsequent months, she was in contact with political leaders and military officers in Marrakech, Agadir, Tunis, and Fez, collecting information that she passed back to Abrey in Lisbon. In early , she fell ill in Casablanca, but when she had recovered she was sent on a mission to Beirut, where she played a role in the arrest of two Nazi spies, Paula Kock and Aglaya Neubacher. Bancroft was fluent in German and French, and her husband was often absent on business he was living in Bern when she was recruited by Dulles in December She died in In , two employees of the East German Ministry of Industry, Elli Barczatis aged 37 and Karl Laurenz aged 44 became lovers; her career prospered, and she was promoted to be secretary to the prime minister, Otto Grotewohl, but Laurenz was ex- pelled from the Communist Party for political unreliability.
This was enough to justify the arrest of Barczatis, who was taken from her apartment in Kopenick and interrogated at Hohenschonhausen prison. She and her lover confessed, and in October they were beheaded in Frankfurt am Oder. Aged 38 when she was introduced to Ferdinand Marcos in Manila in , she claimed to be a year-old Holly- wood actress; the president of the Philippines fell for the starlet from Nashville and began an affair that lasted two years. Many of their trysts took place in the presidential mansion in the seaside resort of Baguio. Marcos was one of the financial backers of a biopic starring the tall, leggy, busty blonde, who had recently appeared in the X-rated biker movie Wild Wheels, but he was unaware that some of their more passionate encounters had been recorded on tape by her.
When he ended their relationship and declined to back the movie any further, Beams responded on 11 November by calling a press conference to play a selection of the tapes in which stunned journal- ists listened to Marcos singing her tuneless love songs and begging for oral sex. The incident attracted the attention of the local Central Intelligence Agency station and the MI5 security liaison officer, and Beams was placed in protective custody until she could be escorted to Los Angeles.
Marcos responded to the embarrassing disclosures by releasing some candid photos of Beams, apparently taken with her consent dur- ing their affair, but although his intention had been to discredit his blackmailer, the effect was to undermine his reputation. By then, she had vis- ited Europe three times, studied at the University of Florence on a scholarship, and taken a summer course at the University of Perugia. Golos had dispatched his wife Celia, a fellow student at Columbia, and their son Milton to Moscow in the mids, and since had lived with his mistress, Caroline Klein, in New York.
In August Bentley made a tentative approach to the Federal Bureau of In- vestigation FBI in New Haven, and two months later submitted to a lengthy interrogation and made a statement dated 39 November , naming dozens of her contacts. Bentley was prompted to switch sides for a variety of motives, not all of which she subsequently set out in her memoirs, Out of Bondage, an account of her love for Golos, her enchantment with the CPUS A, and finally her disaffection.
Her critics suggested that when Louis Budenz, formerly the editor of the Daily Worker, publicly re- nounced Communism and left the CPUSA, she would have known that it would have been only a matter of time before the FBI called on her, so she took the initiative. Budenz had been close to Golos and had acted as an intermediary between Bentley and an OSS source, Communist novelist Louis Adamic, who acted as an adviser regard- ing his native Yugoslavia.
After Golos died, she had been supervised by Joseph Katz, and he had introduced her in early November to Anatoli Gorsky, the rezident at the Soviet embassy in Washington, D. Whatever her motives, she quickly followed Budenz to the FBI, making her initial tentative approach in New Haven in August , and her value to the bureau was to act as a human encyclope- dia, putting names and faces to members of the network. Her disaf- fection was complete by the time she approached the FBI in New York in October, which initially suggested she try and rejoin the or- ganization by reestablishing contact with Gorsky.
The first interview at which the topic of Soviet espionage was raised took place with Special Agent Edward J. Buckley on 7 November , but she sus- pected that the FBI had been present when she had last met Gorsky, on 17 October. Eventually she provided the FBI with enough in- formation to fill nearly half a million pages in volumes, and iden- tified more than 80 Soviet espionage suspects, including 27 in the administration. Bentley died an alcoholic in , unaware that much of her in- formation had been verified by references contained in VENONA de- crypts.
He was known to prowl Moscow in his limousine, grabbing young women off the streets and raping them at his home on Vspolny Pereulok, but his energetic efficiency ensured his immunity from any consequences of his debauchery. The woman asked if she might call her friend to ask for his advice. When Vlasov inquired who the friend was, she told him it was Beria. Vlasov hastily explained that there had been a misunderstanding and took his leave of her. She had been set up in an apartment in Tverskaya-Yamskaya where he had called on her regularly, even after she had married.
Upon his conviction, on 23 December, he was shot by an execution squad led by his chief guard, General Batissky, but the public an- nouncement made no mention of his role as a rapist and murderer but only of his plotting to spy for the British. Born George Behar in Holland, Blake received the longest prison sentence ever handed out by a British criminal court, a total of 42 years. However, he served less than six years be- fore making a dramatic escape to the Soviet Union in October In , Blake returned to Holland to complete his education but war intervened and he was interned by the Nazis because of his British citizenship.
After a month of detention, Blake was released and he became active in the anti-Nazi resistance, working as a courier delivering messages and helping distribute underground newspapers. After the death of his grandmother in , Blake decided to escape to England to join his mother and sisters, who had already fled, and he made contact with the organizers of a route that guided passeurs from Paris to Lyons in the unoccupied zone, and then on to Spain.
He crossed the frontier late in and, after being arrested by the Span- ish police, was interned at the notorious Miranda del Ebro camp. He was released two months later, in January , after the intervention of the British embassy in Madrid, and he then completed his journey to England via Gibraltar and a sea voyage aboard the Empress of Aus- tralia. He underwent the routine four-day screening process at the Royal Victoria Patriotic School at Wandsworth and, once cleared by the security authorities, found his family, who had found a house in the London suburb of Northwood and went to work for the Dutch government-in-exile.
After five months of unremittingly dull clerical work in the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, Blake anglicized his name by deed poll, together with his mother and two sisters, and in October joined the Royal Navy. There were among them daughters of Tory MPs and ministers, of bishops, of a Viceroy of India, of court dignitaries and some were even related to the Royal Family.
They were mostly pretty, some very beautiful, but inclined to be vague and incompetent in varying degrees, though to this there could be exceptions. They were pleasant to work with and helped create a cheerful, friendly atmosphere in the office. I was a beneficiary of this as I spent most of my time there. Blake quickly became infatuated with Iris Peake, and was embittered when her fa- ther told him one evening after dinner at their mansion in Yorkshire that there was no chance of his ever marrying his daughter.
This in- cident would have a lasting impact on the younger man. Eighteen months later, as the North Koreans unexpectedly invaded, the remaining employees of the British consulate-general, including Blake, were taken into cus- tody, and for the next three years he was a prisoner. What was remark- able about him was that he was completely bald, so that he looked very much like the film actor Erich von Stroheim. His contact was to be Nikolai B. Korovin, the KGB rezident who had been op- erating under diplomatic cover in London since Korovin was to stay in London until , but returned from Moscow in In January , he made a hasty departure following the arrest of Harry Houghton.
There was too much of the iron fist in the velvet glove about him for that, but I had a great admiration for his skill. Even though he was known to MI5 to be the KGB rezident in Great Britain and constantly followed by a highly experienced surveil- lance team, equipped with fast cars and modem radio communications, he always managed to get rid of his tail and meet me, punctually at the appointed time and appointed place. He once told me how it was done. The op- eration involved several people and cars and a few safehouses. It was difficult and time-consuming, but it worked every time.
Blake revealed to Korovin in October that he had resumed working for SIS the previous month, and joined a section in which Gillian Allan, whom he would marry in October , worked as a junior secretary. Early in January Blake was transferred from what was es- sentially an eavesdropping post to the SIS station in Berlin.
Here the KGB assigned him a new case officer, a man he knew only as Dick. Blake remained in Germany until he was posted back to London in the summer of when he resumed contact with Korovin, and another KGB officer whom he knew only as Yassili. There he was confronted by a panel of four SIS officers who conducted a series of interviews that lasted until Thursday evening. Together, the four men took Blake through his career and con- fronted him with the mounting evidence that he had compromised virtually every operation he had been given access to. According to Blake, he withstood the mounting pressure until Thursday afternoon when he was accused of having sold out to the KGB for money and of then having been the victim of blackmail.
Blake says he was outraged at this suggestion and momentarily lost control, indignantly protesting that his collaboration with the Soviets had been ideologically motivated. The other version is that Blake successfully resisted the growing weight of evidence against him un- til Thursday lunchtime when, as usual, the participants broke for a midday meal.
On the previous two days, Blake had been allowed to wander unaccompanied through the West End and eat alone in a restaurant. However, on this occasion he lost his nerve and decided to seek advice from his Soviet contact. Upon his return to Carlton Gardens, he had been informed that his every move had been watched, and his interrogators demanded to know whom he had been thinking of telephoning. Not realizing that he had been under sur- veillance, Blake panicked and confessed he had contemplated asking the Soviets to rescue him.
Blake spent the weekend with his colleagues at a country cottage while a decision was reached about what action should be taken, and on Monday, 10 April, he was arrested by two Special Branch detec- tives. Dozhdalev, a first secretary. The third turned out to be Sergei A. Kondrashev, first secretary at the So- viet embassy since In October Blake escaped from Wormwood Scrubs prison with the help of a group of political activists and was smuggled to East Berlin, where he was reunited with Vassili Dozhdalev and es- corted to Moscow, where he now lives.
In her confession, Blits claimed that she had been recruited as a German spy under pressure because she was Jew- ish but had attempted suicide by gassing herself. According to her version, she had also tried to kill von Poppel by taking him to bed and leaving the bathroom gas tap on, but they had both awakened two days later, feeling very ill but suffering no lasting ill effects. Blits was known as a member of the criminal underworld, report- edly had an illegitimate child in Lyons, and had a police record for extortion. Blits cooperated with her captors and identified several members of the Paris Abwehr, and in due course was returned to cus- tody in France.
On 22 June , Bloch, formerly the deputy chief of mission at the U.
Soon afterward, in May, he was identified in Paris by the French Di- rection de la Surveillance du Territoire as the person to whom Bloch twice handed over a briefcase. When Bloch returned to his home in Washington, D. Neither the prostitute nor his wife Lucille had any idea that he had been engaged in espi- onage, and Bloch claimed that he hardly knew Gikman, who had in- troduced himself as a French stamp collector named Pierre Bart. Ac- cording to Jirousek and Bloch, they had never engaged in sexual intercourse, and for the duration of the relationship she depended upon Bloch exclusively for her income.
Bloch subsequently was interrogated at length but he made no further admissions. The son of Jewish parents in Vienna, Bloch had been taken to New York in at the age of four and, having graduated from the Uni- versity of Pennsylvania, had met his American wife, Lucille Stephen- son, while they were both studying in Bologna, Italy.
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They married in , after Bloch had joined the State Department, and they had been posted to Dusseldorf. In , he was sent to the embassy in Singapore and then, in , to Vienna where he was to remain until when he was recalled to Washington, D. Between and , Bloch was the senior diplomat at the American Embassy in Vienna and had access to the very highest clas- sifications of State Department telegrams.
In December , after 30 years in the Foreign Service, Bloch was fired and denied a pension. He later moved to Chapel Hill, North Carolina, where he was twice convicted of shoplifting, was divorced by his wife, finally found work as a bus driver, and remarried. His ap- plication to regain Austrian citizenship was turned down. Indeed, they became con- vinced that Bloch had been the victim of some elaborate CIA opera- tion masterminded by George Weisz, the CIA chief of base in West Berlin in who subsequently committed suicide.
Although Bloch was dismissed from the State Department and de- prived of his federal pension, the case was to have wide ramifica- tions, not least because it convinced the FBI and the CIA that there had been a high-level leak that had compromised the investigation at a very early stage. In those circum- stances, Bloch had been able to recover his composure and maintain his silence. Recruited by the NKVD at the end of on the recommendation of Guy Burgess and while still working as a tu- tor at Trinity College, Anthony Blunt did not have any direct access to classified information until he was commissioned into the Intelli- gence Corps in During his five years inside MI5 , Blunt proved adept at running men and women as agents, among them his boyfriend Jack Hewit, whom he deployed against a homosexual Roman Catholic priest, Father Clement Russell, formerly a member of the British Union of Fascists and a suspected by MI5 of being a subversive.
He also deployed another homosexual friend, Peter Pol- lock, against suspect Hungarians, and recommended Brian Howard as an MI5 officer. Wylie had sup- plied Blunt with material useful to his Russian contacts but had prob- ably been unaware that his lover was passing it on. This assertion, combined with the threat to confront him with Straight, persuaded Blunt to confess in return for an immunity from prosecution offered by the attorney general. Exposed in a Parliamentary statement made by Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher in November , Blunt was stripped of his knighthood and died in March The beneficiary of his will, his long-term boyfriend John Gaskin, committed suicide in Dundee in July by throwing himself in front of a train.
Bobarev appeared to fall for the woman and for three months conducted an illicit affair with her. Big, an important Soviet spy. When Bond and the defector begin an affair, they are filmed in his hotel bedroom by a hidden camera, a classic honeytrap technique prevalent during the Cold War when the book was written and the movie was made. In The Spy Who Loved Me, encounters a student working as a motel manager terrorized by thugs, and in Diamonds Are Forever a glamorous smuggler has become involved with a ruthless criminal gang. In fact, the only stories in which there is not a girl for Bond are A Quantum of Solace, a tale of marital infi- delity in Bermuda, and Octopussy, where the plot centers on a cor- rupt former British intelligence officer.
As a former wartime naval intelligence of- ficer and well-connected journalist, he filled the pages with informa- tion that was not always fiction, and certainly contained considerable sexual material, some of which was considered controversial at the time of publication. He also took the opportunity to dis- cuss homosexuality in From Russia with Love, and refers to various contemporary cases of sexual blackmail, making oblique references to John Vassall and George Blake. He was commissioned and developed an exper- tise in radar, taking up a teaching post at the Air Service College on the Hamble in Confronted in the Ivanhoe Hotel in Fondon in March with evidence of his lunchtime espionage, photographing documents he had removed temporarily from his office in the Ministry of Civil Avi- ation, Bossard confessed that he had found himself in financial diffi- culties while in Germany as an intelligence officer interviewing East- ern bloc refugees for the Joint Intelligence Bureau.
He had been given a large entertainment allowance to assist his work but he had spent much of it on prostitutes. Married to a woman half his age, Bossard had fallen into debt; when he was approached by the Soviets in Fondon, after he had been transferred to the Ministry of Civil Avi- ation in , he began selling classified information. According to his confession, Bossard would listen to Radio Moscow for coded in- structions on which of three dead drops in rural Surrey to fill, and would be paid for each delivery.
His hobby, as a collector of rare coins, provided a cover for his illicit income, but his espionage was brought to a halt by the FBI source codenamed NICNAC, and he died in prison in The author was traced by placing a sup- posedly indiscreet military officer in the premises and waiting for in- formation he had mentioned to various residents to appear in the let- ters. This led to the identification of a Swedish visitor, Eva de Bournonville. Jonathan Haslam. The Kennedys Amidst the Gathering Storm. Will Swift. Richard Aldrich. Thomas B. Boris Volodarsky. John Frayn Turner. The Great Game.
Frederick P. The Forsaken. Tim Tzouliadis. Dead Drop. Jeremy Duns. Wilderness of Mirrors. David Martin. Useful Enemies. Richard Rashke. The Lost Spy. Andrew Meier. Jon E. Mass Killers. Bill Wallace. Chapman Pincher. Moscow Rules. Douglas Boyd. Age of Assassins. Michael Newton. Paul Dowswell. Lyme Disease and the SS Elbrus. Rachel Verdon. Antonio Mendez. The Triple Agent. Joby Warrick. Vin Arthey. Richard Bennett. See No Evil. Robert Baer. Debriefing the President. John Nixon. Inside Canadian Intelligence.
Dwight Hamilton. Richard Davenport-Hines. The Very Best Men. Evan Thomas. True Spy Stories. Kristen Laurence. Johann van Loggerenberg. The Open-Source Everything Manifesto. Robert David Steele. Strangers on a Bridge. James B. The Venona Secrets. Herbert Romerstein. The Other Side of Silence. Ted Allbeury. Gordon Corera. The Death of Rudolf Hess. Peter Day. Calder Walton. Spy and Counterspy. Ian Dear. The Spy Who Couldn't Spell. Yudhijit Bhattacharjee. Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America. A Brief History of the Spy. Paul Simpson.
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Frank Walker. Spying on Democracy. Heidi Boghosian. Burn Before Reading. Turner Stansfield. Company Man. John Rizzo. Twentieth-Century Spies. Neil Root. Executing the Rosenbergs. Lori Clune. Intelligence Power in Peace and War. Michael Herman. Summary Station. Allen Weinstein. Eyewitnesses From Belsen and Auschwitz. Robert Grey Reynolds Jr. The Family File. Mark Aarons.