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As a boy, Yellowman, who was born on a mesa in the northern part of the Navajo Nation reservation, often traveled with brothers and cousins to Cedar Mesa, a plateau near the base of the buttes, to chop and gather firewood. He recalled driving past a uranium-ore processing mill one year that a Texas-based company had built on land leased from the Navajo Nation. It left him unsettled, especially as family members who worked in the mill began to fall ill and die. Today, toxic debris from the mill, which closed in the late s, still litters the land.

On a recent afternoon, Yellowman walked along the acre of land where he lives on the reservation. He headed to a massive woodpile and cradled several pieces of cedar before walking up the stairs of his single-level home. A spokesman for Energy Fuels said the company played only a small role in the downsizing of the monument and had no plans to mine or explore the land within the original boundaries of the monument. The group, which Yellowman works with, contributed to more than , public comments submitted to the Bureau of Land Management, asking it to halt planning of the newly designed Bears Ears until the lawsuits can be heard.

Locally, the political fallout has been swift. Harrison Rock, 29, a clerk at the lone gas station in Mexican Hat, Utah, a town named after a nearby boulder that resembles a sombrero, said the monument reduction was an attack on Native Americans. A patron at the counter waiting to pay for gas nodded in support.

On a recent afternoon, Yellowman walked through Cedar Mesa in search of juniper branches. He needed to make a coal poker — honeeshgish in Navajo — for a ceremony he was set to oversee the next day. The others were tracked down and shot dead. Those still in chains, including Sanpitch could only watch events unfold. The next day a woman and a little boy who were supposed to have aided the escapees were shot down outside Moroni, Utah. The remaining inmates decided to attempt an escape and got word to Black Hawk that they were going to attempt a second jail break.

Women were still permitted visit and again smuggled knives and a file into the jail. The Utes managed to open their chains and hide it from the guards for several days. Kanosh asked for Sanpitch's release, but was refused. Black made a raid on Salina hoping to draw forces out of Manti, but Warren Snow believed the real attack would be in Sanpete Valley, so he doubled the guard on the courthouse in told his people to be prepared for a fight.

Desperate to get away Sanpitch and the others made their escape the next night, April One of the women managed to open the latched door, and the Utes slipped out of their shackles and into the night. The alarm was raised within minutes. Sanpitch was wounded by a random shot into the dark, but escaped.

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Manti was thrown into a panic as families barricaded themselves in their homes. Frightened men and boys hunted through the town looking for Utes, believing that Black Hawk himself might ride into town any minute. The Utes who were recaptured were shot down or had their throats cut. Sanpitch and four others managed to elude the searchers from Manti.

They broke into a cabin and took food and blankets and headed into the foothills southwest of Fountain Green near Cedar Cliffs now called Birch Creek , where they were spotted. On the second day the search party found Sanpitch, who had been unable to move faster because of his wound.

He was killed on the spot by a local posse and buried at the base of a large rock. They tracked and shot or cut the throat of the other three escaped Utes. The mountain where Sanpitch was killed now bears his name. By , Mormon and Indian confrontations were heated.

Black Hawk War (1865–1872)

Church officials ordered to have the Paiutes disarmed. Black Hawk and his band had killed many during the year before while defending their rights to their land. However, the Mormons felt that they were in danger every moment, as some of the Natives were so aggressive that the Saints believed danger was imminent. On April 21, , an express from Fort Sanford reached Circleville, Utah telling of a Paiute who pretended to be friendly had shot and killed a white man belonging to the militia stationed at the nearby fort. The people of Circleville were told to protect themselves against the Indians who were camped in their valley.

Upon receipt of this information, the people of Circleville called a town meeting.

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After much discussion, it was decided that they should arrest all the Paiutes that were camped nearby and bring them to Circleville for confinement. Every able-bodied man in the town set out to take custody of the Indian camp, and they surrounded the camp at night. James T. They told the Indians that they had received a letter and they wanted to have it read to them. All of the Indians agreed willingly to go to Circleville with the men, except one young Indian warrior who refused to go and began to shoot at the posse.

The posse returned fire, killing the young man. The rest of the Indians were then taken at gunpoint to Circleville and the letter was read to them. The Indians were told that they were to be retained as prisoners. The Indians were taken into custody and placed in the meeting house that night under guard. The captured Indians, 26 in all, displayed much unrest.

On the evening of the following day, some of the Indians were able to cut themselves loose from their bindings to escape. Guards shot and killed two Indians who were attempting an escape. The remaining imprisoned Indians were moved to an underground cellar. In a subsequent town meeting, the settlers decided to kill the remaining imprisoned Indians. The Indians were led out of the cellar, totaling 24 people, including men, women, and children. They were struck on the back of the head to stun them and then their throats were slit, leaving them to bleed to death.

Two young boys and girl prisoner managed to escape before execution. The following day, the three children were found in a nearby cave and taken by James Allred to Marysvale. Allred intended to sell or make a trade for the children. The little girl was killed by a violent bludgeoning. While the fate of one of the boys is unknown, the other Allred took to Spring City. There, Allred spoke with Peter Monson to offer the boy for sale.

A deal was struck for a horse and bushel of wheat in exchange for the boy. The boy lived in a tool shed and was welcomed because he befriended Peter Monson's daughter who had been disfigured by burns to her face. Peter and Bertha Monson then adopted the boy and named him David Monson.

He couldn't read or write other than being taught to sign his name. Most pronunciations of the name Monson came out as "Munson" or "Munsen". David Married Laura Jensen and together they had 8 children. He left his family and went to Wyoming looking for work as a sheep shearer and cutting railroad ties. He was known there locally as Indian Dave Monson and died while cutting railroad ties in and estimated as about 60 to 65 years old. He is buried at Saratoga, WY.

Davids' oldest son also named David Leonial Monson had two sons. The oldest also being named David Peter was, until his death in at age 90, the oldest living member of the Koosharem Band of the Paiute Indian Tribe. Indian Dave Monsons second oldest son Arthur LeRoy was erroneously named Munsen on his headstone after being killed in a coal mining accident.

By June the threat against the Sanpete and Sevier settlements had grown with the telling. Black Hawk had threatened to bring enough men to destroy Manti and Warren Snow that year. Black Hawk shifted his focus to Scipio upon being told of the show of strength in Sanpete Valley. Scipio illustrates the sometime personal nature of the attacks during the war.

It was the home of the James Russell Ivie family. Another son, James Alexander Ivie, was blamed for starting the Walker War when he hit a Ute over the head with his gun and participating in the Tintic war which resulted in the death of Black Hawk's friend Squash Head and the wounding of Chief Tintic.

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A band of Utes and allies began herding together head of cattle from pastures near Scipio. They killed a year-old herd boy and shot the elderly James Russell Ivie full of arrows and stripped him of everything except his boots. Gathering up 75 horses the Utes and their allies moved the herd through Scipio Gap into Sevier Valley. Scipio's men charged out after the herd, but were forced back when the Black Hawk's rear guard moved to attack the town which had been left virtually undefended.

Two Black Bears: Chief of Navajos

The Utes withdrew moving toward Salina Canyon with the largest single capture of livestock in the conflict. The Scipio settlers sent runners to Gunnison and Fillmore to get help. William Pace of the Nauvoo Legion gathered up 20 men hoping to catch Black Hawk before he could make his escape.

They left Gunnison and marched through the night to reach Salina before the herd could be driven away. He could see the herd head for Gravelly ford on the Sevier River and rode there to stop the Utes from stealing the cattle and horses. Upon approaching the ford he found about 60 Utes guarding the ford. He sent for help from Richfield and tried to delay the fording of the herd with a prolonged gun fight. Realizing he could not sustain the attack, he ordered his men to pull back out of range.

Several Utes tried to force them farther back from the ford by charging the nearly defenseless militia. Black Hawk himself and his chief lieutenant, Tamaritz, were two of these men. Black Hawk's horse was shot from under him and then he was hit in the stomach.

Tamaritz, too, had been wounded. Minutes later the Gunnison militia, out of ammunition took to their heels. The Utes drove the herd across the river toward Salina Canyon just as the Richfield militia arrived on horseback to see the herd nearing the mouth of Salina Canyon and the Gunnison militia riding for home. The attack on Scipio had two immediate consequences.

Mormons who had since the beginning of the conflict been ordered to 'fort up' had resisted the order since the fighting was most often confined to Sanpete and Sevier Valleys. Scipio's failure to fort up was used as a bad example by LDS church leaders in their renewed call for forts to be built in larger towns and smaller outlying towns were to be abandoned until hostilities came to a halt.

These temporary forts were often haphazardly built, but they would do against the lightly armed Utes and allies who were attacking white settlements. The second involved the Ivie family again. James Ivie, the son of the elder Ivie murdered at Scipio, was crazy for revenge against the Utes. An old Pahavnt Ute medicine man by the name of Panikary made the mistake of visiting Scipio begging for food. He was known as a 'good Indian' with a peaceful disposition. Bishop Thomas Callister of Fillmore who happened to be in Scipio, advised Panikary to leave town because the Ivie's blood was up and there might be trouble.

Panikary took the presents of food offered and headed toward Fillmore. Upon returning from the futile pursuit of Black Hawk, the younger James Ivie, hearing that a Ute had been in Scipio just hours before raced after Panikary and murdered him on the spot. The bishop of Scipio had ridden hard to stop Ivie but failed to prevent the killing.

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Callister was disgusted by the murder and rode directly to Chief Kanosh's camp to inform him of the incident. Up to that point the Pahavant Ute had not been openly involved in the fighting. Kanosh thanked Callister for being honest, but the war chief, Moshoquop and 27 warriors followed Callister to his home in Fillmore angrily demanding justice. Callister convinced the Utes that Brigham Young would be a fairer judge.

The Utes agreed and rode away. Later Ivie was arrested and tried for murder by an all-Mormon judge and jury and was acquitted when it was suggested that Panikary was really a spy for Black Hawk. Bishop Callister was so upset by the outcome that he excommunicated Ivie from the church. June brought the Uintah Utes into the conflict. The call for an additional men from Salt Lake and Davis Counties to strengthen Mormon settlements angered Tabby and his fighters.

They found a Nauvoo Legion detachment at what is now Indianola and attacked. The pinned the militia down for most of the day, but a second detachment under John L. Ivie arrived late and kept the first detachment from being overwhelmed. The soldiers were convinced that Chief Tabby had led the attack. Fearing another Salina Canyon disaster, the troops moved cautiously but on arriving at Soldier Summit Pass found that the Utes had split up and gone in different directions. He turned his men around and marched them back to Sanpete Valley. Mountain had led his men to Spanish Fork to exact vengeance on William Berry who years before had beaten Black Hawk with an old bucket for a supposed theft.

They killed Berry and drove off about forty cattle and horses and fled into the Wasatch Mountains through Maple Canyon. The militia, who were already on alert, gave chase. They intercepted the Utes at Diamond Fork River but were outnumbered and pinned down by desultory rifle shots and arrows.

A second force of eight men rushed the Utes and three were shot dead. The others put the Utes in a crossfire. The Utes quietly withdrew leaving the livestock and camp to be plundered by the militia. Among the gear they found US issued items, which showed the Utes had been accepting food and supplies at the Uintah Reservation. Leaders of the militia swore affidavits that white men had been seen directing the Utes.

It was feared that the US Indian officials were aiding and abetting the Utes in their war against the Mormons. These incidents were a turning point in the war. Mormons had begun to be vigilant as Brigham Young had repeatedly encouraged them to do. Fort building and evacuations of small settlements, combining livestock herds under guard, and the hundreds of additional soldiers patrolling commonly used canyon trails stymied the ability of Utes to drive off the numbers of cattle and horses of the first two years in the war.

Tabby used his influence after the defeat of the reservation Utes to keep most of his people out of the conflict. It would not be until in the final days of the war that reservation Utes caused any more trouble. The 'defeat' of the reservation Utes encouraged Mormons to continue to prevent attacks whenever possible. In the spring of hundreds of Nauvoo Legion militia from northern Utah flooded into central Utah determined to maintain the strict vigilance on settlements and their livestock, and patrol routes known to be used by Utes and their allies.

There were several isolated attacks, one of which was planned to capture and kill Warren Snow, which was narrowly averted. Dozens of ranches and settlements were closed and more and more settlers moved to towns with forts for protection. With such a military presence in central Utah, Black Hawk moved his forces south and planned a raid on Parowan in Iron County, which until that time had not suffered anything but anxiety.

By July 21, a large herd of cattle and horses that had been gathered and placed under guard seemed to be the main target, but other raiders began to round up scattered livestock near Paragonah when they were seen by guards and the alarm was raised. The Utes were chased into a canyon where the Utes were eventually forced to leave their horses behind in order to escape in the steep terrain.

Black Hawk retreated recognizing that it would be impossible to get any stolen livestock over the high plateaus above Cedar City and Parowan. Black Hawk had never fully recovered from his wound at Gravelly Ford the previous year. He also had tuberculosis and his health was failing. Gabe Gobin , an Indian logger, in front of his home. Tulalip Reservation, Washington. Photographed by Lee Muck, Little Big Mouth , a medicine man, seated in front of his lodge near Fort Sill, Oklahoma, with medicine bag visible from behind the tent.

Blackfoot Indians chasing buffalo , Three Buttes, Montana. Artwork by John M. Stanley, Eskimos harpooning a whale , Point Barrow, Alaska. An Uainuint Paiute aiming a rifle , southwestern Utah. Big Soldier Wahktageli , a Dakota chief; full-length, standing. Artwork by Karl Bodmer, May Black Beaver , a Delaware born in Illinois in ; half-length. Captain Jack Kintpuash , a Modoc subchief, executed October 3, ; bust-length, full-face. Photographed by Louis Heller, Crow King , a Hunkpapa Sioux; half-length, wearing part of a major's uniform.

Manuelito's legacy

Photographed by David F. Barry at Fort Buford, North Dakota, ca. Curley Bear Car-io-scuse , a Blackfoot Siksika chief; half-length, dressed in ermines. Photographed by DeLancey Gill, Halftone of photograph. Photographed by Bennett Thayer, Four Bears Mato-Tope , a Mandan chief; full- length, standing, holding lance and wearing a painted and quilled shirt. Gall Pizi, Gaul , a Hunkpapa Sioux; three-quarter- length, seated.

Barry, Geronimo Goyathlay , a Chiricahua Apache; full-length, kneeling with rifle. Photographed by Ben Wittick, Joseph Hinmaton-Yalatkit , Nez Perce'chief; full- length, standing. Jackson, before Kicking Bird Tene'-angp6te , a Kiowa chief and grandson of a Crow captive;three-quarter-length, seated. Lone Wolfe Guipago , a Kiowa chief; half-length, seated. Looking Glass , a Nez Perce' chief, on horseback in front of a tepee. Photograph, Manuelito , a Navajo chief; full-length, seated. Artwork by E. Miner, Cpl. George , a Winnebago from Tomah, Wisconsin; standing, with rifle, on guard duty, Niederahren, Germany.

Photographed by Lt. Nathaniel L. Dewell, U. Army Signal Corps, January 2, Nana Nanay , a Chiricahua Apache subchief; full- length, seated. Oseola As-se-he-ho-lor, Black Drink , a Seminole; bust-length. Artwork by George Catlin, ca. Ouray the Arrow , a Southern Ute chief; bust-length. Pacer Peso, Essa-queta , a Kiowa-Apache chief; half-length, seated, wearing earrings.

Paliwahtiwa , Governor of Zuni; full-length, seated. Poison , a Cheyenne woman almost years old; full-length, seated, Quanah Parker , a Kwahadi Comanche chief; full-length, standing in front of tent. Photographed by Lanney. Rain-in-the-Face , a Hunkpapa Sioux; bust-length, full-face, wearing feathered headdress.

Red Tomahawk , a Yanktonai Sioux policeman at Standing Rock Reservation who may have fired the shot that killed Sitting Bull; bust-length, wearing hat. Photograph taken at Fort Yates, North Dakota, Rocky Boy Stone Child , a Chippewa chief; three-quarter length, standing, dressed in ornate costume. Scar-faced Charley Chikchikam Lupatkue-latko , a Modoc; bust-length. Army captain's bars, Sitting Bear Satank, Set-angya , a Kiowa chief; half-length, seated.

Barry, ca. Umapine Wakonkonwelasonmi , a Cayuse chief; full-length, standing, wearing a feathered headdress. Halftone of photograph by Joseph K. Dixon, September Washakie Shoots-the-Buffalo-Running , a Shoshoni chief; half-length, seated, holding pipe. White Bear Sa-tan-ta , a Kiowa chief; full-length, seated, holding bow and arrows.

Trager, January 17, Chief Powder Face of the Arapaho ; standing full-length, wearing war costume. Pehriska-Ruhpa ; full-length, standing, in the costume of the Dog Band of the Hidatsa. Hopi man having hair dressed by his squaw. Two Mohave braves dressed in loincloths ; full- length, standing, western Arizona.

Photographed by Timothy O'Sullivan, Chief of the Little Osages ; bust-length, profile showing hair style. Artwork by Charles B. Two braves with faces painted. Left to right: Massica, a Sauk, and Wakusasse, a Fox. Group of six Zuni men wearing coats and leather boots ; full-length, standing and seated.

Calender of 37 months, , kept on a skin by Anko, a Kiowa man, ca. Tipi depicitng battles between Kiowas and U. Animal skin with pictorial history of Shoshoni chief Wahakie's combats. Prehistoric pictographs on sand rocks , Adamana, Arizona. Griffiths, August Pottery in the interior of an Acoma dwelling , New Mexico. Nampeyo, Hopi potterymaker , seated, with examples of her work. Corey, Apache prisoners at Fort Bowie, Arizona.

Baker and Johnson photograph, ca. Chiricahua Apache prisoners , including Geronimo first row, third from right , seated on an embankment outside their railroad car, Arizona. Photographed by J. McDonald, Eight Crow prisoners under guard at Crow agency , Montana. Photographed Photographed by Henry Kyllingstad, April 18, Photographed by Alexander, Sioux boys as they were dressed on arrival at the Carlisle Indian School , Pennsylvania.

Choate, October 5, Choate, ca. Boys and girls conducting physics experiments , Carlisle Indian School, Pennsylvania, ca. Photographed by Gustave Hensel, Students in cadet uniforms in front of the buildings , Indian training school, Forest Grove, Oreg. Photographed by Davidson, Class in blacksmithing , Forest Grove School, Oregon.

Football team on the field , Haskell Institute, Lawrence, Kans. Girls' shorthand class , Haskell Institute, Lawrence, Kans.