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Fra i rettili: la biscia dal collare, il ramarro, la lucertola campestre. Vivono qui inoltre diverse testuggini palustri. Tra le 67 sepolture inumazioni e cremazioni , spiccano il grande sarcofago marmoreo di Ulpia Pusinnica e due recinti funerari con tombe segnalate da cippi iscritti. Dopo la devoluzione di Ferrara divenne sede dei legati papali. Il territorio s'estende attualmente per oltre Nasce nel da un'idea di Stefano Bottoni, divenuta progetto realizzato insieme all'Associazione Ferrara Buskers Festival.

Nel i visitatori sono stati oltre Il palco dei concerti ha. Confina a nord con la provincia di Ravenna, a est con il mar Adriatico, a sud-est con la provincia di Rimini, a sud-ovest con la Toscana provincia di Arezzo e provincia di Firenze. Lo storico Sigismondo Marchesi, comunque, retrodata la fondazione al a. Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera. In questa zona sorgeva fin dal IV secolo-V secolo la chiesa dedicata prima a Santo Stefano poi al culto del santo forlivese, San Mercuriale. Dove un tempo vi era quella scuola, sorge la chiesa del Miracolo della Madonna del Fuoco.

Venne costruito da un architetto il cui nome rimase sconosciuto. Si estende su di un portico ad arco tutto sesto, profilato da una ghiera in cotto. Le finestre a bifora sono ornate in sasso d'Istria. Lo spazio pubblico ha forma trapezoidale; al suo centro troneggia la statua di Aurelio Saffi. Interventi ulteriori tra la fine dell'Ottocento e l'inizio del Novecento hanno cercato di conferire al monumento uno stile medioevale. L'innalzamento dei pavimenti, i quattro pilastri a T e le coperture delle due navate laterali hanno alterato il disegno originario d'insieme.

Qui Mussolini nacque il 29 luglio , in una stanza del primo piano; al piano terreno il padre Alessandro svolgeva il mestiere di fabbro. Nel giro di alcuni anni, questo edificio rurale venne trasformato in una sorta di museo delle origini popolari del "duce" con l'allestimento di alcuni ambienti tipici della tradizione romagnola.

Fra il e il ai piedi della collinetta sulla quale sorgeva la "casa natale" venne edificata, su progetto di Florestano di Fausto, il mercato viveri. Si trattava di un anfiteatro con porticato d'archi che nel punto di confluenza dei due emicicli inquadrava esattamente la facciata dell'edificio situato a poca distanza in cima ad una piccola scarpata. La produzione casearia di maggior pregio proviene dalle colline del cesenate.

L'opera dell'Artusi attinge in gran parte alle tradizioni della cucina romagnola. Il campanile fu eretto tra il e il Il 19 settembre , Poste Italiane ha emesso un francobollo dedicato alla biblioteca, sulla serie tematica "Il patrimonio artistico e culturale italiano. La sua costruzione risale al Al risale la torre campanaria. Pare che il luogo di edificazione fosse stato scelto in seguito ad una serie di miracoli, verificatisi nel punto preciso in cui San Pier Damiani si raccoglieva in preghiera. Nel ebbe luogo la pavimentazione della piazza con ciottoli di fiume. Durante la seconda guerra mondiale fu distrutta la parte centrale del ponte, subito ricostruita.

Nel fu inaugurata la struttura oggi dedicata ad Alessandro Bonci, famoso tenore di Cesena. I prodotti tipici della cucina modenese sono tutti essenzialmente a base di suino, inoltre la cucina modenese viene considerata insieme a quella bolognese la cucina per eccellenza in Emilia. Modena carbonara e patriota! Quest'ultimo aveva organizzato un'insurrezione, secondo parte della storiografia con l'appoggio del Duca di Modena Francesco IV che, nei progetti dei carbonari, sarebbe dovuto diventare il primo sovrano di un'Italia unita, indipendente e liberale.

La casa dove Menotti fu catturato, in Corso Canalgrande, a pochi passi dal Palazzo Ducale, riporta ora una lapide commemorativa e la scultura di Menotti campeggia in piazza Roma, proprio di fronte all'antica residenza estense. Dedicato a S. Geminiano, Vescovo e patrono di Modena morto nel Il sepolcro del Santo vi fu trasferito nel da una precedente cattedrale.

La consacrazione avvenne nel Le pareti della chiesa sono interamente coperte da affreschi che raccontano le Storie del Nuovo e del Vecchio Testamento dipinte da illustri pittori della scuola senese del XIV secolo. Si tratta di un ciclo pittorico di grande potenza evocativa e di splendore iconografico, chiaramente ispirato ai canoni di Simone Martini. La statua, alta cm. Custodisce gli oggetti personali dal poeta Alessandro Tassoni e da Giuseppe Ceri. Si potranno soprattutto ammirare gli abiti di scena a lui tanto cari, le foto e i video che LA PredA RINGADORA - In dialetto preda ringadora, presso la Piazza Grande, hanno scandito la sua grande parabola artistica, gli innumerevoli premi e i dove si esponevano i cadaveri non identificati.

Grazie a questa vocazione sono fioriti nomi aperta; un edificio futuristico per raccontare al mondo la passione che di altissimo pregio come Raina Kabainvanska, Mirella Freni e Luciano Pavarotti, "il Maestro". In quella stessa area Pavarotti ha fondo librario si deve a Lionello d'Este, colto ed appassionato umanista ed coltivato la sua grande passione per i cavalli, costruendo scuderie ed aprendo intellettuale, il cui fervore fu sostenuto anche dai successori. Attualmente, la.

Biblioteca possiede una raccolta di oltre Sono presenti, oltre ad una collezione tematica di veicoli e "pezzi unici" prodotti e modificati dai primi del ', numerosi attrezzi utilizzati per la realizzazione e la messa a punto delle auto. Il grande complesso con i lunghi corridoi e le infilate di colonne trasmette una sensazione di solenne ordine. Tra gli incunaboli si trova anche un esemplare unico al mondo del Morgante di Luigi Pulci Proprio sulla piazzetta si affaccia la casa presso cui al tempo, nel , vi era la chiesa di San Giovanni Evangelista venne battezzato Orazio Vecchi, grande musicista modenese autore di celebri madrigali.

I getti d'acqua sono orientati ognuno verso il rispettivo alveo. Il progetto, studiato fra il e il , ha dato vita. Milita nel calico in serie A. E lo sa. Poi si continua… per amore. Un fascino particolare hanno lasciato grandi personaggi del passato avvalorando la sua innata veste di centro culturale.

La bellezza di Maria Luigia. L'armonia di Correggio. Un luogo dove il fascino del passato e del presente si uniscono in un percorso unico. Sorge in piazza Duomo, accanto al Battistero e al Palazzo Vescovile. Alcune delle cappelle laterali sono state successivamente affrescate in stile gotico. Nel giugno papa Gregorio XVI l'ha elevata al rango di basilica minore.

Bettoli, il teatro ha facciata neoclassica, costituita con porticato a doppio ordine di finestre. Le decorazioni rappresentano la Fama e la Lira. Dall'atrio neoclassico si accede alla platea ellittica, decorata da G. Magnani nel , circondata da quattro ordini di palchi e dal loggione. Di notevole interesse la visita alla struttura interna tra attrezzature, scenografie, sale, soffitti e il bellissimo sipario. Dopo i recenti lavori di sistemazione sono venuti alla luce reperti del periodo romano, tuttora visibili all'interno dell'edificio. La mattina dopo ebbe la sorpresa di trovare le scarpe vecchie lasciate da Ilario trasformate in scarpe d'oro.

Ricordando il miracolo in occasione della festa si consuma il dolcetto detto scarpetta di Sant'Ilario fatto in foggia di calzatura. Quella di Verdi era una famiglia di piccoli proprietari e ancor oggi la vista delle stanze disadorne e prive di arredi non manca di commuovere i visitatori. PARCO DUCALE - Il Giardino Ducale, che si presenta ora in aspetto settecentesco, fu ideato da Ottavio Farnese duca di Parma e Piacenza verso il , che ne fece il parco di una villa a sua volta ottenuta da un'antica pusterla, con siepi di rosmarino e mirto, querce, platani e abeti alpini, alberi da frutta e ortaggi, oltre a moltissimi agrumi in vaso, ricoverati d'inverno in capanni riscaldati, peschiere e boschetti.

La chiesa, di retaggio classico, ha un impianto originario romanico, pianta a croce latina, e tre navate sulle quali si aprono sei cappelle. L'attuale facciata neoclassica risale al Nulla rimane degli antichi arredi medievali, mentre restano quelli rinascimentali, pale affrescate o scolpite, affreschi, capitelli e altari.

Una preziosa meridiana venne posta nel sulla stessa facciata, grazie al sole segna lo scorrere delle ore accompagnata dalla statua di J. Boudard raffigurante la madonna con il bambino. Grace and Company. La pasta preferita degli italiani. I percorsi interni si snodano per tre chilometri. L'inaugurazione avvenne nel in occasione del matrimonio tra Margherita de' Medici e il Duca Odoardo Farnese. Opera di Giuliano Mozzani, solo nel venne collocata nell'attuale posizione, assecondando il gusto scenografico dei parchi alla francese. La scultura rappresenta i fiumi Parma e Taro, personificati ai lati della conchiglia centrale.

Il suo nome deriva dalla fontana eseguita dal Mansart per i giardini del Trianon di Versailles, cui quella del Mozzani si ispira. La sistemazione del lato settentrionale in stile neoclassico aumenta poi il carattere disomogeneo dello spazio. Situato all'interno del centro storico di Parma, si estende su una superficie di La sua facciata, disegnata nel dall'architetto di corte Ennemond Petitot, si leva sul lato occidentale della piazza. L'industria meccanica parmense vanta il primato nazionale nella produzione di impianti per la trasformazione industriale delle derrate agricole: apparecchiature per l'industria delle conserve, impianti di trasformazione del latte, impianti per la macellazione.

Le tecniche di produzione non sono cambiate nei secoli. Il siero e il caglio sono aggiunti al latte parzialmente. Nelle sue zone d'origine il parmigiano viene spesso accompagnato alle pere o alle noci, da provare anche con la mostarda. Le ventose colline di Langhirano, a sud di Parma, sono il luogo ideale per la stagionatura del prosciutto che dura anche fino a dieci mesi.

Seguono il settore commerciale, la produzione di servizi alle imprese e il settore delle costruzioni. Punti di eccellenza sono presenti nella robotica e nell'automazione industriale. Il Po offre talvolta grossi storioni. Colonia Romana, poi importante centro medievale, fu da sempre una sosta ideale nel passaggio di principi e pellegrini, crociati e templari, commercianti e artisti che qui lasciarono il segno. Piacenza val bene una sosta, dunque, e i motivi sono tanti. Piacenza, situata sulla sponda del Po, risale all'epoca romana, quando era una colonia fortificata per difendere la pianura emiliana dalle invasioni di Annibale e dei Celti.

Il centro ricalca ancora l'impianto romano. Poco conosciuta dai turisti, racchiude nel centro storico pregevoli edifici medievali e rinascimentali. Nella centrale piazza dei Cavalli si trovano due statue equestri in bronzo, opera dello scultore seicentesco Francesco Mochi, allievo di Giambologna. Definite capolavori della scultura barocca, le statue rappresentano Alessandro Farnese, soldato di ventura, e suo figlio Ranuccio, signori della Piacenza cinquecentesca.

Giustina, fu terminato nel I tre ingressi sono sormontati da piccoli portici a due colonne. La torre e la cupola sono del Trecento. Contiene anche l'armeria e una sezione archeologica con il famoso Fegato di Piacenza, un modello bronzeo del II secolo a. Era usato dagli aruspici. Gli architetti che seguirono i lavori furono i piacentini Pietro da Cagnano, Negro de Negri, Gherardo.

CA'ZORCI, Giacomo 1898-1960

Queste modifiche furono poi eliminati in restauri avvenuti tra la fine dell'Ottocento e i primi del novecento. Le spoglie del Santo sono conservate nella cripta. Il progetto prevedeva l'abbattimento della trecentesca Cittadella, voluta da Galeazzo Visconti, di cui rimane la parte ovest con la porta, i merli e due torri. Interessante la decorazione della facciata il calendario perpetuo con meridiana opera di Gian Francesco Barattieri. Percorrendo via XXI Aprile, si nota un lungo tratto delle mura, insieme al vallo circostante dove attualmente si svolgono manifestazioni sportive ed eventi musicali.

Il monumento in marmo bianco, alto 16 metri, presenta evidenti richiami Liberty e vi sono rappresentati allegoricamente i fiumi Isonzo e Piave e le imprese dei Pontieri in azione. La Dea Romana domina sul gruppo marmoreo con in mano la Vittoria Alata. Nelle due sopra l'arco maggiore detto della Spessa sono presenti due statue, che raffigurano san Colombano e la Madonna dell'Aiuto. The showroom itself would be openly stretched on one side, using hangers and Steelwood shelves to show the fabrics in a simple way. A large Clouds motorized wall opens and closes with a touch of a switch.

When necessary, it splits the space between the showroom and the office area, while softening the general acoustics when stored along a side wall. At first sight, only appear geometric abstract shapes of fabric and wood. Palacio; Milan, Bibl. Trivulziana; Piacenza, Bibl. Comunale Passerini Landi; Pisa, Bibl. Municipale Antonio Panizzi. Apostolica Vaticana, Ross. An attempt to identify the printer and to date the edition was made by ServeUo, and is reported in her article "Ancora un Orlando Furioso": she dates the edition between and Both the attribution and the dating remain at this point only probable, but upon further research I hope to publish conclusive findings.

On Giolito see, for example. These included paratexts that were more recent than those in their octavo, but the editions themselves presented the same typographical appearance; evidently, they were not successful, for the press, though ac- tive until , never printed the Furioso again; on these editions, see Richardson 97 and 18; Javitch Annali delle edizioni ariostee.

Bologna: Zanidielli, Fernanda, and Marco Menato. Firenze: Olschki, Balsamo, Luigi, and Alberto Tinto. MUano:IlPolifilo, Beer, Marina. Romanzi di cavalleria: Il 'Furioso' e il romanzo italiano del primo Cinquecento. Roma: Bulzoni, Si gran volume Binni, Waller. Storia della critica ariostesca.

Lucca: Lucenlia, London: Bingley, Marco Santoro. Brunei, Jacques-Charles. Manuel du libraire et de l'amateur de livres. Pans: Firmin-Didot, Carter, Harry. A View of Early Typography up to about Oxford: Oxford UP, Casadei, Alberto. La fine degli incanti: vicende del poema epico-cavalleresco nel Rinascimento. Milano: FrancoAngeli, Culolo, Alessandro.

Milano: Hoepli. Di Filippo Bareggi. An Introduction to the History of Printing Types. Florence: Olschki, Fahy, Conor. Milano: Vita e Pensiero, Patini, Giuseppe. Bibliografia della critica ariostea. Firenze: Le Monnier. Lucien, and Henri-Jean Martin. David Gerard. London: Verso, L'Apparition du Livre. Pans: Albin Michel, Fumagalli, Giuseppina. Ferrara: Zuffi, Goldschmidt, E. Illustra- tion. Amsterdam: van Heuden, Graesse, Jean G. Dresde: Kuntze, Grendler, Paul. Annali delle edizioni e delle versioni dell' Orlando Furioso e d'altri lavori al poema relativi.

Bologna: Tipografia in via Poggiale, Modena: Panini, Hempfer, Klaus W. Stutt- gart: Steiner.

Simone Savogin a Italia's Got Talent

Hirsch, Rudolf. Printing, Selling, and Reading. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, Johnson, A. Type Designs: Their History and Development. London: Grafton, Gaetano, and Paolo Antonio Tosi. Bibliografia dei romanzi e poemi cavallereschi italiani. Seconda edizione corretta ed accresciuta. Milano: Tosi, Bibliografia dei romanzi di cavalleria in versi e in prosa italiani.

Milano: Daelli, 1 Moiis, Ade. Milano: Editrice Biblio- grafica, Muraro, Michelangelo, and David Rosand, eds. Tiziano e la silografia veneziana del Cinquecento. Vicenza: Neri Pozza, Pre Imprints. London: ManseU, Pace, Enrica. Parker, Deborah. Commentary and Ideology: Dante in the Renaissance. Durham and London: Duke UP, Pesenti, Tiziana. Petrucci, Atmando. Quondam, Amedeo.

Un repertorio, per una bibliografia. Roma: Salerno, Alberto Asor Rosa. Amicando Petrucci. Bari: Laterza, Ramat, Raffaello. La critica ariostesca dal secolo XVI ad oggi. Firenze: La Nuova Itaha, Walter Binni. Firenze: La Nuova Italia, Richardson, Brian. Cambndge: Cambndge UP, Sander, Max.

Essai de sa bibliographie et de son histoire. Nendebi, Liechtenstein: Kraus, Santoro, Marco. Milano: Bibliografica, ServeUo, Rosaria Maria. Terpening, Ronnie H. Lodovico Dolce, Renaissance Man of Letters. Con ogni diligenza corretto: La stampa e le revisioni editoriali dei testi letterari italiani, Bologna: U Mulmo, Turolla, Enzo. Vittore Branca. Torino: UTET, Updike, D.

New York: Dover, Weinberg, Bernard. Chicago: U of Chicago P. Zappella, Giuseppina. Le marche dei tipografi e degli editori italiani del Cinquecento. Repertorio di figure, simboli e soggetti e dei relativi motti. Milano: Bibhografica, When the first version of the poem over which Tasso had some editorial control appeared in , however, the Discorsi had been replaced by a brief treatise: the "Allegoria del Poema," which he had written as he was completing the poem, probably in late and early Pri- mary among them is Tasso 's own confession that when he began his poem he had no thought of allegory, since it seemed to him a "soverchia e vana fatica," and that he only began to consider an allegorical reading midway in his writing due to "la strettezza de' tempi" Lettere, Taking Tasso at his word, then, critics have often viewed the "Allegoria" as a late and unfortunate impo- sition on an Aristotelian epic, which was motivated by his fear of Counter- Reformation censorship.

And even with more recent attempts to take the "Allegoria" seriously, critics often contrast Tasso 's Aristotelianism, as re- vealed in the early Discorsi, with his later allegorical understanding of the poem; thus. Tasso 's move toward allegory represents a radical shift towards a discourse alien to the original conception of the epic. Autunno V. Stanley Benfell dominant influence on these early discourses, a statement that proves at best half true.


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Stephen Halliwell has observed that sixteenth-century Italy did not turn "the Poetics easily or automatically into an unquestioned source of doctri- nal orthodoxy," despite the fact that it was often quoted as an authority "The Poetics and its Interpreters," As Guido Baldassarri has argued, it was difficult for Tasso or any other sixteenth-century literary theorist to look to Aristotle as an unquestioned authority on epic simply because The Poetics ac- tually contains very little discussion of epic poetry. What it does contain is located primarily in two chapters 23 and 24 near the end of the treatise.

And as many scholars have noted, Aristotle's definition and treatment of epic de- rives largely from his consideration of tragedy, the genre he preferred.

Ca'Zorci, Giacomo 1898-1960

Many of the prominent critics in the cinquecento were also practicing poets who wrote theoretical works to justify their own poems, and in many ways Tasso's own critical writings illustrate this impulse toward self-authorization. I wish to argue here that his critical writings reveal a rhetorical conception of literature; Tasso designs his theory and his poem to create a moral response in his readers, and thus his treatment of characterization and unity of plot aims to move the read- ers appropriately to create a rhetorically effective poem," In the first discourse, for example.

Tasso discusses the choice of an epic subject matter, a choice of primary importance, since the subject will deter- mine the way in which readers respond to the poem. The appeal to history in opposition to Aristotle's distinction between history and poetry in chapter 9 of The Poetics similarly derives not from a concern for historical truth, but from consideration for the reader's response to the subject.

To produce a believable narrative, therefore, the poet must look to history. We should see no contradiction in Tasso's insistence on both a historically true subject and the poet's freedom to embellish that subject; the issue here is not truth but author- ity and believability. Once a subject has been accepted as true by the reader, the poet can feel free to embroider it, because the perception of truth will survive the poet's "corrections" of history. The unhistorical subject must be rejected not because it is false, but because it will not produce the desired response in the readers, who will dismiss it as so much fiction.

The poet's aim, according to Tasso, is to deceive C'ingannare" his readers into beUeving that they witness the truth. This concern with reader response remains Tasso 's preeminent con- cern throughout the discourses; like a good rhetorician, he gauges the effects each word will have on his intended audience. Tasso does not address the question of why the verisimilitude in this rhe- torical sense of the subject is so crucial beyond stating that "presupongo questo, come principio notissimo.

In one of his divergences from Aristotle, Tasso holds that tragic and epic actions are dissimilar. The reason for their dissimilarity is telling: they have different effects on their readers. Tragedy produces, as Aristotle also noted, pity and fear "l'orrore e la compassione" , emotions derived from witnessing the actions of characters of moderate virtue "d'una condizion di mezzo".

The characters of heroic poetry, however, represent the greatest ex- tremes of virtue and vice: V. The great heroes of Homer and Virgil are epic because each exemplifies the archetype of a certain virtue or vice. Tasso further insists on the exemplary nature of epic characters in his later discourses, the greatly expanded Discorsi del poema eroico. Epic poets must ultimately serve as guides to the paths of virtue, and they will accomplish this, it seems, by prais- ing the virtue and blaming the vice of exemplary heroes. Tasso goes on to criticize Homer for his portrayal of Achilles, who fails the test of exemplary decorum because, while he is a great warrior, he is also avaricious and cruel in his failure to restore Hector's body to the Trojans for the proper burial rites.

Tasso makes explicit his ear- lier concern with exemplary epic heroes; his criticisms of heroes such as Achil- les are leveled for moral reasons, while he praises Aeneas as an exemplar of virtue and decorum and hence worthy to be the protagonist in an epic poem. And while Tasso 's earlier discourses are not as explicit in their advocacy of a rhetorical function for his heroes, his insistence on their exemplary nature and his linking of that exemplary nature to the effect of the poem on the reader implicitly call for such a reading. We should also recall here that Tasso 's insist- ence on a poetry of praise and blame was a critical commonplace in his day and was often specifically applied to epic poetry.

Tasso contin- ues to reveal his underlying preoccupation with the effect of the poem on its readers. While in the first discourse he argued for the necessity of a subject taken from history, in this second discourse he emphasizes the poet's freedom of invention which allows him both to demonstrate his mastery of the poetic art and to make his historical subject more fit for epic.

Tasso begins his discourse by repeating Aristotle's observation in chapter 9 of The Poetics that poetry Tasso' s Domestication of Allegory differs from history in that it considers things "non come sono state, ma in quella guisa che dovrebbono essere slate. The poet should nevertheless take care not to alter the essential truth of his histori- cal subject, as this will deprive poetry of the authority that comes from history.

The poet's task is not to change history simply for his own pleasure; he must, rather, change it so as to raise the limited particulars of history to a universal level. Historical reality is characterized by "accidenti"; the poet alters his sub- ject so as to eliminate the accidental and make all events in the poem causally related. Tasso is not only interested in poetic structure for its own sake, but, given the rhetorical context established by the first discourse, his conception of causality and probability is also infused with moral significance.

By remaking certain events of his historical subject. Tasso argues that he is able to free it from the particular limitations of history and create amoral causality in his plot that renders it universal. Tasso was not alone in arguing that the historical subject required correction before it was fit for poetry. Giraldi Cinzio, for example, expresses a similar view in his Discorso intorno al comporre dei romanzi.

For both Tasso and Giraldi Cinzio, then, verisimilitude and necessity require the crea- tion of plot that is not only well constructed and logical in its development, but one that also reveals a moral causality brought about by the poet's correction of the accidents of history.

Later in the second discourse. Tasso argues for the necessity of unity in the epic plot, attempts to demonstrate that romance does not constitute a genre in itself, and asserts that Ariosto 's Orlando Furioso cannot, therefore, be classi- fied as a romance since the genre does not exist and must be considered a failed epic.

Through all of his discussion of epic unity. Tasso continuously leads the discussion back to a consideration of the reader's experience. The reader's experience of the poem is again the standard by which the epic poet judges his subject; he or she must grasp the causal relation of the poem's events, or the effect of the poem will be lost. The plot of the poem must be "complete," must have a beginning, middle, and end, because only then will the poem be understandable, only then will the moral causality of the poem's events become clear. Tasso talks of searching for "perfection" in the plot "Tutta o intiera deve essere la favola perch' in lei la perfezione si ricerca" [1.

Andrew Fichter, for example, writes the following: "What is real is also necessarily an integral part of the unity that characterizes divine creation; what the poet would make truthful he must also make whole" But Neo- Platonism is only part of what is at issue here for Tasso. Unity becomes neces- sary because of rhetorical concerns; the lack of a determinate ending, for exam- ple, would be problematic as it would Umit the reader's ability to understand the poem. Unity of meaning is not only true to Tasso 's conception of the struc- ture of the universe, but it is also necessary if he is to ensure that his epic will have the proper effects on its readers.

Tasso' s Domestication of Allegory Tasso's early Discorsi dell'arte poetica, therefore, have a problematic rela- tionship to The Poetics. While he appeals to Aristotle's treatise frequently and at various points extrapolates from Aristotle's discussion of epic, at other mo- ments Tasso contradicts the treatise or bends it to serve his own purposes. Even in the second discourse, where structural issues seem paramount. Tasso con- tinuously justifies his theory by appealing to the experience of the reader. Tasso's early " Aristotelianism" is compromised, as he works toward a moralis- tic theory of poetry.

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The relationship of the early Discorsi to Aristotelianism is analogous to the relationship of the later "Allegoria del Poema" to the allegori- cal tradition; both contradict and at times compromise their authoritative sources, and both do so in the interests of a rhetorically effective poetry. Ulti- mately, the views of the poetry presented in the two treatises prove similar. One of the most intriguing aspects of the "Allegoria del Poema" is Tasso's strong emphasis at the beginning of the treatise on the importance of imitation in poetry.

These appeals differed from the "Allegoria," however, in that they often characterized the literal sense of fiction as apparently frivo- lous or even immoral; the immoral husk needed to be stripped away to reveal the kernel of moral truth within. Tasso departs from the allegorical tradition of discarding the literal sense, however, by em- phasizing the importance of the imitative aspect of poetry.

Stanley Benf ell His description of the literal, mimetic aspect of the poem differs strikingly from what we might expect in a treatise claiming allegorical meaning: "l'imita- zione riguarda l'azioni dell'uomo, che sono a i sensi esteriori sottoposte; ed intomo ad esse principalmente affaticandosi, cerca di rappresentarle con parole efficaci ed espressive, ed atte a por chiaramente dinanzi a gli occhi corporali le cose rappresentate" Tasso's imitations are not beautiful lies, written to be discarded. Instead, he asserts the importance of poetry's mimetic powers, its ability to represent physical reality vividly before ''corporeal eyes".

He makes no suggestion that the poem's narrative needs to be rejected in order to understand the allegory. He continues to affirm, in other words, the centrality of the literal sense even in this allegorical reading; for, according to Tasso, allegory becomes thoroughly intertwined in the hteral, verisimilar narrative. In his "Exposition of the Content of Virgil according to Moral Philosophy," for example, Fulgentius explains book one of The Aeneid with its narrative of shipwreck "as an allegory of the dangers of birth, which include both the pangs of the mother in giving birth and the hazards of the child in its need to be bom" In book four, Aeneas, the exemplary maturing man, comes to embody "the spirit of adolescence, on holiday from patemal control, [who] goes off hunting, is inflamed by passion and, driven by storm and cloud, that is, by confusion of mind, commits adultery" In the commentary of Virgil by the Renaissance Neo-Platonist Landino, the joumeys of the Virgilian hero are made to correspond to his moral development in a way that similarly disregards the poem's literal narrative.

Troy signifies, for Landino, "the innocent sensual- ity of childhood"; after leaming to abandon his sensual values, Aeneas then confronts the perils of civic life in Carthage; his arrival in Italy signifies the attaining of the contemplative life Murrin As Murrin remarks, "Such an exegesis The difference between this kind of extended allegorical reading and the allegorical account that Tasso provides in the "Allegoria," proves to be pro- found, therefore, despite the ostensible similarities.


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For unlike Fulgentius and Landino, Tasso consistently ties his allegorical reading to the poem's literal narrative. A closer analysis of two examples will help to illustrate how closely he attempts to unite these two senses. Tasso' s Domestication of Allegory In canto 7 of the Gerusalemme, Goffredo decides to hazard his life in a duel with Argante.

While Raimondo 's reference to Goffredo as the "capo" recalls Tasso 's allegorical identification of him as the intellect, Goffredo as the head of the army also makes sense within the literal narrative of the poem. The Christian army finds itself unable to function when it fails to unite itself under his leadership; therefore, Raimondo 's warning concerns itself with the fate of the army, not with the ideal man. Thus Tasso continuously works to tie the literal and allegorical together in the "Allegoria," as he often equates the literal events of the poem and the allegorical meaning that he seeks to derive from them.

Tasso works to make the two senses seem virtually inseparable. If the reader comes to the treatise after having read the poem, however, he or she immediately senses the super- fluity of the analysis; Tasso's allegorical gloss is hardly needed to point out that Ismeno attempts to deceive the intellects of the Christian army while Armida tempts their carnal appetites.

Nevertheless, a consideration of the difference between Ismeno and the character of Errour from Spenser's Faerie Queene demonstrates tJiat Tasso does not create characters so transparently allegorical that they verge on personification.

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When Redcrosse attacks, she retreats from the light, for, we are told "light she hated" while preferring in "desert darknesse to remaine. Stanley Benfell These details derive from the allegorical nature of the character; they exist to define the character in abstract terms, not to individualize the monster in any way.

Many of the details are simply not "verisimilar" in Tasso's sense. When we compare this description to the introduction of Ismeno at the opening of the second canto of Tasso 's poem, we sense a profound difference. Here we learn that Ismeno has magical powers, including the abiUty to make a corpse breathe and feel. We also learn that "or Macone adora, e fu cristiano" 2. While Ismeno is certainly not one of the more individualized characters in the poem, all of the details do help to individualize him.

In addition, they are all verisimilar details; a Christian reader can accept that a pagan magician had the power to raise bodies from the dead. It is difficult, however, to imagine any reader accepting Errour as any- thing but an allegorical construct. Tasso 's characters, that is, are simply not sufficiently abstract to embody the kind of personification typical of the tradition of poetic allegory.

This is not to say, however, that the kind of moral allegorization that Tasso provides in his treatise would have been unknown to his readers. In some sixteenth century Italian editions of the Orlando Furioso, for example, editors prefaced each canto with allegorie that interpreted the actions of the character within the canto in a moral sense, similar to the kinds of interpretations that Tasso pro- vides of his own characters.

Thus, Armida may exemplify the temp- tations of the flesh while not becoming so abstract as to disappear entirely into her allegorical identification. When viewed in this way, as a narrative of exem- plary figures. Tasso 's allegory accords well with his earlier insistence, in the Discorsi dell'arte poetica, that epic actions and characters be defined in exem- plary, universal terms. As noted earlier. Tasso suggested in his early discourses that a character could be considered an epic character in so much as he or she exemplified some virtue or vice, a theory of character that resembles the way in which, in the "Allegoria," Tasso assigns a faculty of the mind or a limb of the body to each character.

There exists, in other words, an underlying consistency in Tasso 's conception of his epic and its moral meaning from his early dis- courses through the "Allegoria. The Discorsi and the "Allegoria" represent not a shift of fundamental conception but of emphasis. For rather than abandoning Aristotehan mimesis in favor of personification allegory. Tasso propenses a moral allegory that concentrates on the exemplary status of his characters, which is used in the service of a poem based on an "Aristotelianism" that insists on an epic's rhetorical effectiveness, is partially achieved through the creation of exemplary characters.

In both trea- Tasso' s Domestication of Allegory lises, that is. Tasso describes the same kind of poem: an epic where mimesis serves morals. During the composition of Gerusalemme Liberata, Tasso wrote to Scipione Gonzaga that he objected to allegory because it gave readers a license to inter- pret according to their own capricious inclinations, a practice that leads to an unacceptable multiplicity of readings. Allegory frequently provided a way of reading that proliferated and multiplied meanings, even when wielded by authoritarian and orthodox interpreters, a fact evident from St.

Augustine's De Doctrina Christiana and medieval texts such as St. Bernard's sermons on the Song of Songs. The same is true for allegorical poetic texts; for example, the clearly allegorical narrative of Spenser's Faerie Queene seems to multiply meanings much as Errour vomits books. Similarly, in a passage that Harrington will translate unacknowledged into the preface of his translation of the Orlando Furioso, Leone Ebreo, as part of a defense of poetry's seriousness and veracity in the second of his Dialoghi di amore, inter- prets the myth of Perseus on several levels; he distinguishes between the myth's "senso historiale" and how it "significa [ Tasso's objections to allegory's proliferation of meanings become clearer in the hght of this tradition, as is his decision to write an allegory that works to eliminate that multiplicity, that eliminates all but a particular kind of moral allegory, which he could tie closely to the actions of his characters and thus to the literal sense of the poem.

Tasso, that is, "domesticates" allegory, strictly delimiting allegorical meaning to a single moral reading in order to undercut the multiplicity of interpretations - the uncontrollable, capricious "wildness" - that allegory invariably encourages. In both treatises, then. Tasso works to eliminate multiplicity through an ex- ercise of authorial control.

In his second discourse, he objected to the multiple, digressive plots of romance that produce "distrazione nell'animo e impedi- mento nell'operare" 1. Tasso attempts to spell out the univocal meaning he envisaged in the Discorsi as proper to epic. The "Allegoria" does not contradict Tasso's theory of an effective epic that he delineates in his Discorsi; rather, it leads wandering readers back to the single end he had envisioned, under his own banners, moving them towards a political and religious felicity.

Tasso expected to preface the poem with the prose "Allegoria"; on that day he wrote to Scipione Gonzaga, informing him that he intended "di far stampare l'allegoria in fronte del poema" Kates and Rhu "Tasso's First Discourse". He also notes that the defenders of romance also appealed to Aristotle and attempted to extend his poetic theory so as to nclude romance. See "Introduzione". See Minnis ans Scott Rhu's comment in The Genesis: "Veracity is not verisimilitude; but once the value of truth Tasso ' s Domestication of Allegory yields to the needs of rhetoncal efficacy, this distinction can easily get lost" I would argue that Tasso wants his readers to miss the distinction; verisimilitude is essential precisely beacause a reader will accept verisimilar events as true.

While m the second discourse he elaborates on Anstotle's distinction between poetry and history, he ignores it in the first discourse m order to claim the histoncal subject for epic. Rhu's sense of this discourse: "contmuity and unity of plot are the real issues. I would argue, however, that the issues of plot structure are inseparable from rhetoncal considerations for Tasso. Unity of plot is crucial precisely because of Its impact on meaning and moral interpretation. Dante's emphasis on the fictional nature of the literal narrative and the necessity of stripping away this "beautiful be" in order to arrive at the "hidden truth" is echoed by Boccaccio's discussion of poetic truth in his Genealogia deorum gentilium, where he de- clares that poetry "veils truth m a fair and fitting gaiment of fiction.

If then, sense is revealed from under the veil of fiction, the composition of fiction is not idle nonsense" 39, In both the Dante of the Convivio and Boccaccio, the "truth" of poetry bes beneath the surface, and it is necessary to discard the bteral sense to get at it. Valvassori in Proclaiming a Classic One of the most interestmg aspects of the poem is precisely where such unity and univocality break down.

For the argument, how- ever, that "the Gerusalemme belongs to the order marked by Homer, Virgil, and Milton, where aUegory plays no important role" and that the "only kind of aUegory that operates to any degree is obbque and problematic moral exemplification," see Kennedy.

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In his recent book on epic and empire. Quint has argued that there are definite ideological, rebgious, and moral underpin- nings to the unity and teleology of epic narrative ; he explores the relationship of Tasso's poem to Counter-Reformation pobtical and rebgious ideology at Piero Cudini. Milano: Garzanti, Baldassari, Guido. Stanley Benfell Boccaccio. Charles C. Brans, Gerald. Derla, Luigi. De Sanctis, Francesco. Storia della letteratura italiana. Benedetto Croce. Ebreo, Leone. Dialoghi di amore. Venice: Aldus, Fichter, Andrew. Poets Historical: Dynastic Epic in the Renaissance. New Haven: Yale UP, Fulgentius, Fabius Planciades.

Leslie George Whitbread. Columbus: Ohio State UP, Giraldi Cinzio, Giovan Battista. Scritti Critici. Camillo Guerrieri Crocetti. Milan: Marzorati, HaUiwell, Stephen. The Poetics of Aristotle: Translation and Commentary. Hallyn, Femand. Javitch, Damel. Gianni Venturi. Florence: Olschki, forthcoming. Kates, Judith. Lewisburg: Bucknell UP, William J. Minnis, Alastair J. Brian Scott, with the assistance of David Wallace, eds. Medieval Liter- ary Theory and Criticism c. Oxford: Qarendon Press, Montgomery, Robert L. Murrin, Michael. The Allegorical Epic. Chicago: U of Chicago P, Quint, David.

Rhu, Lawrence F. Detroit: Wayne State UP, Roche, Thomas P. Eari Miner.

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Savoia, Francesca. Luisa Del Giudice. Spenser, Edmund. The Faerie Queene. Thomas P. Roche, Jr. Patrick O'DonneU, Jr. Harmonds worth: Penguin, Tasso, Torquato. Cesare Guasti. Florence: Le Monnier, Gerusalemme Liberata. Predi Chiappelli. Milan: Rusconi, Tasso' s Domestication of Allegory Le Lettere di Torquato Tasso. Horence: Le Mounier. Scritti suW arte poetica. Ettore Mazzali. Teskey, Gordon. Allegory and Violence. Ithaca and London: Cornell UP, Treip, Mindele Anne. Lexmgton: UP of Kentucky, Vickers, Brian. Zatti, Sergio. L'uniforme cristiano e il multiforme pagano: Saggio sulla Gerusalemme Liberata.

Milano: Il Saggiatore,