In the climate of Church Reform in which Alessi was working, it would no longer have been seen as appropriate for pilgrims to enter into the chapels and touch, kiss or even lift up, the painted polychrome sculptures inside. This kind of behaviour could have been interpreted as idolatrous and therefore could no longer be tolerated by the Catholic Church.
Instead the pilgrims were to view the scenes at a safe distance behind a screen.
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Both types of barriers had small windows cut into them which could be viewed from a kneeling position, as illustrated by Alessi in c. As Figure 10 shows, through a viewing hole in the right side of the screen, the spectator is met by the figure of a mother who is pointing at the scene, directing her small son to look at the figures of Christ struggling under the weight of the cross and Veronica with her veil. By virtue of the location of the viewing hole the spectator is brought down to the level of the child and is therefore also directed by the mother to look at the figures of Christ and Veronica.
Instead, the viewing holes instructed the pilgrim as to what they should be focusing on in the absence of a guide. The idea was that by doing this the thou- ghts of the congregation would be directed towards the religious rites being conducted at the high altar. Similarly at the Sacro Monte the viewing points served to direct the faithful to contemplate the most important moments in the narrative of the Life of Christ and his role as the saviour of mankind.
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In this way, the screens also acted to prompt viewers to adopt a respectful position that was appropriate for a religious site, from which stance pilgrims might naturally be moved to pray. The function of these screens therefore seems to have been to direct the pilgrims to act in an appropria- te manner, to inspire devotion and to instruct them as to how they should behave and what they should focus on. The addition of the new chapels dedicated to Adam and Eve, the Holy Spirit, Last Judgement, Limbo, Purgatory and Hell, and the introduction of screens inside the chapels were two of the biggest changes introduced to the Sacro Monte di Varallo by Alessi.
This fundamental change alte- red the meaning of this pilgrimage site forever.
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The addition of the screens inside the chapels did carry on after Alessi, but only in the form of flat screens that divide the chapels across their width. The centrally-planned vitrines were abandoned, perhaps due to restrictions of space within the chapels. As has been argued here, both of these changes made to the Sacro Monte di Varallo by Alessi reflect the period in which he was working, that is, the pe- riod immediately following the closure of the Council of Trent in All translations have been done by the author unless otherwise stated.
Sup B. Stefani Perrone , pp. See, Stefani Perrone ed. The letter was written from Morone to the poet Lancino Curzio. Cited in Stefani Perrone , p. Nova , pp.
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In the citizens of Varallo had petitioned Pope Julius III to intervene in the matter of who should collect and administrate the donations left in the alms boxes at the Sacro Monte. See also, Stoppa , pp. Ragusa trans. Related Papers. By Geoffrey Symcox. By Carla Benzan.
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Adriano Olivetti era nato nel a Ivrea. La biblioteca ci permette di tracciare una rete di rapporti tra le letture e il pensiero di Adriano Olivetti, tra la sua organica azione politica e imprenditoriale, e il materiale che gli serviva da ispirazione e da con- fronto. Ristuccia, Costruire le istituzioni della democrazia, Venezia, Marsilio, , p. Essendo impossibile ricostruire la dispo- sizione che Adriano Olivetti aveva dato ai libri nelle diverse librerie, e per facilitare la consultazione, la Fondazione decise di disporli in ordi- ne alfabetico nelle eleganti teche che ancora oggi li ospitano3.
Nel corso della ricerca, sfogliando le pagine dei libri per trovare segni che indicassero come Olivetti li aves- se letti, ho trovato documenti di origine e interesse diversi. Ma non vere e proprie tracce di lettura: La lettura di Olivetti era quella di un imprenditore estrema- 2 G. Berta, Le idee al potere, cit. Un talloncino incollato sul volume testimonia che fu acquistato a Ginevra, presso J. In Pouvoir et travail ho rinvenuto una scheda di lettura redatta a macchina, con un inchiostro blu e del tutto simile alle numerose lettere scritte da Aldo Garosci a Olivetti. Questo fatto ci conferma che Olivetti non era affatto un bibliofilo e che i libri avevano per lui un valore strettamente funzionale: I libri di Adriano Olivetti sono soprattutto in italiano, francese e ingle- se, anche se ne troviamo alcuni in tedesco.
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Luckily, Conan turned to call, making Tsugawa hide. Location: Beika Library Elevator. The victim was put on top of the elevator box, adding unseen weight. Location: Beika Library unknown specific location. Tsugawa killed Tamada because Tamada found the narcotics hidden in the mysterious books.
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