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What measures is the Commission currently taking to support children with special needs and persons with disabilities? What will it do to improve this interaction and achieve a better allocation of tasks and responsibilities, as recommended by Parliament? Does any reliable evidence exist that errors have occurred in respect of the fiscal multipliers during the implementation of the MoUs? If so, how and to what extent have these errors affected the euro area programme countries?

Who bears responsibility for these errors, and how can the damage they have caused be repaired? Can it envisage a revision of the MoUs? If so, under what conditions and circumstances can or, indeed, must this occur? What impact could the implementation of the above proposal by Parliament have on the Union and those of its Member States under adjustment programmes?

If the Troika is indeed insufficiently accountable, what needs to be done to remedy the situation? Does it consider that the alternative forms of debt restructuring proposed by Parliament bond swapping, extending bond maturities and reducing coupons could help Cyprus and Greece to tackle their problems? Were the abovementioned alternative forms of debt restructuring taken into account in decisions regarding Cyprus? What further adjustments, as requested by Parliament, could be made, taking into account the economic recovery in the euro area? To what extent could the fight against tax evasion and tax fraud help solve the fiscal problem in the programme countries?

Does it have available the above information concerning the Cyprus adjustment programme? If so, can it forward it? Does it intend in future to publish the above information referred to by Parliament? Is it satisfied with the funding provided for in the Memorandum and the way in which these funds are being used, given the task of streamlining and relaunching the Cypriot economy? Has it made any targeted efforts, in collaboration with Member States, to identify existing shortcomings in the health systems resulting from horizontal cuts in the health budgets of the countries subject to the Memoranda?

Has it found that the enforcement of participation in medical costs could lead patients to delay seeking medical care, thereby transferring the financial burden to households? Has it found that wage reductions for professionals in the health sector are having a negative impact on patient safety and have caused these professionals to emigrate? How will it, alone or in cooperation with the Council, address all these knock-on effects of the crisis in the health sector? Member States under an economic adjustment programme have signed with the Troika a Memorandum of understanding which identifies health system reforms that both sides agree are necessary to enhance the cost-effectiveness of care and keep public expenditures under control, while guaranteeing access to high quality care.

The communication further presents an EU agenda to support Member States in making their health systems more accessible, effective and resilient. Consequently, Member States usually apply systems of exemptions to participation in medical costs, so as to ensure access for all to medical care. Nevertheless, this is not true for all Member States as there is variation between countries.


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The Commission has no evidence that lower wages have had an impact on patient safety. The Court did not find the delayed signing to be relevant for this specific case. The following questions aim to find out what follow-up action was taken by the Commission and whether there is a systematic problem. Has this case led to actions or investigations by the European Anti-Fraud Office, the Investigation and Disciplinary Office of the Commission or other Commission bodies? If so, what was the outcome of these actions in relation to:.

Contrary to what is stated in the question, the matter was not merely dismissed as irrelevant. The applicant in that case expressly raised the question of a possible infringement of the Financial Regulation and the General Court held that it had no bearing on the reality of the work done by the lawyer, or the Commission's right to recover the costs which was precisely the right which the applicant contested with this argument.

The Commission would refer in particular to grounds of the order. It should also be pointed out that the applicant's appeal against this order was dismissed by the Court of Justice as inadmissible. At the request of the applicant in the abovementioned case, OLAF did indeed look at this matter and closed the file with no further action. The Commission strives to ensure utmost respect for the provisions mentioned in the question. Nonetheless, it may occasionally happen that all the formalities needed for signature of a contract are not yet fully accomplished at the time where the Commission asks the lawyer, in the interest of the defence of the Union's legal interests, to start working on the file; in most cases this is due to short court deadlines imposed on the Commission.

The state aid was approved. Can the Commission establish that Sweden followed the applicable rules on state aid? What measures can the Commission undertake to remedy failures by Member States to follow the applicable rules on state aid? When the Commission becomes aware of aid that is granted illegally, it may investigate the case and if it concludes that this aid violates substantive state aid rules, it will normally order the Member State concerned to recover the illegal and incompatible aid together with interest from the beneficiaries.

Die Genossenschaftsbanken haben die Krise nicht verursacht und halten keine faulen Wertpapiere. Le BCC non hanno causato la crisi e non detengono titoli tossici. Negli ultimi cinque anni, mentre le banche S. Le BCC complessivamente presentano un patrimonio di oltre 20 miliardi di euro, con un capitale di base di classe 1 medio superiore al 14 per cento, ben oltre i requisiti di Basilea 3.

Su quale base sostiene che la loro struttura societaria impedisca aumenti di capitale, ove necessari? Queste caratteristiche di governo societario possono impedire ai singoli azionisti di esercitare un controllo efficace e alle banche in questione di reperire nuovi capitali sul mercato. Di conseguenza, queste banche dipendono maggiormente dal capitale interno o dal sostegno dei loro soci. The associative network of credit unions in fact makes it possible to overcome the limitations imposed by the size of individual local banks and to prevent and resolve critical situations self-help , without resorting to any form of public support.

The credit unions did not cause the financial crisis and do not hold toxic assets. Can the Commission clarify why credit unions are considered incapable of transferring funds to the economy? What are the grounds for claims that their corporate structure prevents increases in capital, where necessary? These corporate governance features may render it difficult for individual shareholders to exert effective control and for the banks in question to raise new capital on the market. Consequently, these banks are more dependent on internal capital generation or support by their members.

The European financial and economic crisis has become a social and human rights crisis as well. Social services are crucial to ensuring that people with disabilities can enjoy the right to an independent life and the opportunity to participate in public life. What action will the Commission take in carrying out its macroeconomic policies in order to achieve progress in the implementation of the UN Convention? What measures will the Commission implement in order to promote support for employment and to strengthen social security systems?

Are there any plans to develop a specific strategy for the employment of people with disabilities, social inclusion and poverty reduction laying down clear-cut objectives? In the context of the European Semester, the Commission puts emphasis on inclusion of those disadvantaged groups farthest away from the labour market and examines the measures that Member States take to improve the situation of persons with disabilities. The Social Investment Package aims at raising people's capacity to participate in society and the economy and their capability to cope with risks.

Daartoe heeft de bank een team samengesteld om de betalingen van ING-klanten te analyseren. De ING gaat dit jaar van start met een proef met een bestand van enkele duizenden klanten. De bank geeft aan dat aan ING-klanten van tevoren toestemming zal worden gevraagd alvorens van hun persoonsgegevens gebruik wordt gemaakt. Dus ook van klanten die daarvoor geen toestemming hebben gegeven. Het analyseren en doorverkopen aan bedrijven van betalingsgegevens van bankklanten staat gelijk aan gegevensverwerking.

Deze regels zijn ook van toepassing op de verwerking van betalingsgegevens. Wanneer banken de gegevens van hun klanten doorverkopen, is het moeilijk om de impact hiervan op het EU-beleid en het algemene vertrouwen in de markt in te schatten. Op het scorebord van de consumentenmarkten voor waren bancaire diensten echter nog steeds de cluster met de laagste score, in het bijzonder wat betreft het vertrouwen in dienstaanbieders en algemene klantentevredeheid.

Onverminderd de bevoegdheden van de Commissie als hoedster van de Verdragen, zijn het de nationale gegevensbeschermingsautoriteiten en de rechtbanken die op dit gebied verantwoordelijk zijn.

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ING intends to launch a trial this year, using a database of a few thousand customers. Does the Commission agree that, in order to supply payment data, ING will analyse the data not only of the customers who have consented but of all customers, including therefore those who have not consented? The fact that ultimately only the data of customers who have consented will be sold is irrelevant from this point of view. Does the Commission agree that such disregard for the purpose of data-gathering breaches the European Parliament directive for the protection of natural persons in connection with the processing of personal data, or with the current directive?

Analysing and selling information on payments made by bank customers to businesses constitute processing of personal data.

Aplicaciones de la PNL al desarrollo personal y profesional por Gustavo Bertolotto PARTE 1

These rules also apply to the processing of payments data. It is difficult to assess the impact of banks' marketing of customer data on EU policies and public confidence in the market. However, according to the Consumer Markets Scoreboard, banking services remain the lowest performing market cluster, notably with regard to trust in providers and overall consumer satisfaction. Without prejudice to the powers of the Commission as guardian of the Treaties, it is the responsibility national data protection authorities and the courts to monitor compliance and ensure confidence in the correct handling of personal data by these private companies.

New legal provisions introduced in all EU Member States have strengthened the rights of EU residents when making purchases on the Internet or in shops. Under the new rules, customers have two weeks to return goods if they change their minds for any reason after making a purchase over the Internet. Will consumers have the right to withdraw from purchases of digital content, such asmusic files or videos? Will the right to rescind a contract be applicable to urgent repairs and conservation work? One of the main EU consumer rights in distance and off-premises contracts is the right of withdrawal.

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The right of withdrawal under the CRD will also apply to contracts for the supply of digital content, such as music files or videos, concluded at distance or off-premises. Where digital content is supplied by downloading or streaming on the Internet i. If, on the occasion of such visit, the trader provides services in addition to those specifically requested by the consumer or goods other than replacement parts necessarily used in carrying out the maintenance or in making the repairs, the right of withdrawal applies to those additional services or goods.

Moscow has ordered two such ships and has the option of purchasing another two. One of the first ships is to form part of the Black Sea Fleet. What is more, arms deliveries to the Russian Army are mainly flowing from France, and this is going on with the approval of Germany and Italy, both of which are profiting from their cooperation in this area. Does the Commission feel that the aforementioned instances of arms being supplied toRussia are in accordance with current EU policy towards Russia? Does the Commission plan to take steps against countries engaging in militarycooperation with Russia with a view to limiting or halting such cooperation?

Has the Commission passed on — or does it intend to pass on — any concerns that it mighthave on this matter to the Council? The European Council has warned that any further steps by the Russian Federation to destabilise the situation in Ukraine would lead to additional and far reaching consequences for relations with Russia in a broad range of economic areas. The European Council has asked the Commission and the Member States to prepare possible targeted measures.

At this stage, there is no restrictive measures at EU level on arms trade with Russia, but several Member States have suspended or reviewed their export licences for arms exports to Russia. Under the Common position, EU Member States have to assess arms exports against the criteria set out in the Common Position, which inter alia addresses the security of allies and friendly countries, the risk of regional instability and the behaviour of the recipient country with regard to international law. The final export decisions made after such risk assessment however remain at national discretion according to the Common Position.

For nearly three years, too many innocent people in Syria have suffered — above all the children of Syria. It is estimated that one million children are still under siege. Does the Commission share the concern that another year of conflict could mean the loss of a whole generation in Syria and the region? How has the Commission helped with humanitarian assistance to combat this human tragedy?

How does the Commission intend to engage in future efforts for reconciliation and tolerance in the region? The Commission is deeply concerned by the terrible suffering of the children inside Syria as well as refugees in neighbouring countries. The EU is aware of the importance of supporting education for children, particularly in crisis situations, in order to avoid the loss of a whole generation in Syria and the region. The EU is committed to continue support in the field of education in Syria and in the countries which are currently hosting large numbers of Syrian refugees.

In 1 cases the mother was in her twenties. There were babies registered as born to mothers aged under 19 and having unknown fathers. There is considerable research evidence that children in lone-parent families are at increased risk of poverty. What strategies are being adopted by the Commission to safeguard the future of these children? The Commission does not dispose of EU-wide figures on the numbers of babies born to unknown fathers.

Member States should not only make sure that work for lone parents pays but also that there is enough affordable childcare. Adequate income support needs to be provided through in particular tax relief or credits, family and child benefits, housing benefits and minimum income schemes. Children, and in particular the most disadvantaged, need also access to quality services such as early childhood education and care services ECEC , which can play an essential role in reducing inequality from the start.

Child participation in after-school activities is also important to break the cycle of disadvantage while children need to be involved early on in legal decisions that affect them. Female genital mutilation FGM , a specific form of violence, is outlawed in all Member States, yet none of them has seen any convictions for this offence. A central approach will do more to eliminate this. How will the Commission follow up on these recommendations? However, these estimates are not necessarily comparable because they are based on different methods and different sources.

On the basis of this individual assessment, a whole range of special measures will be put in place to protect and support vulnerable victims of crime. Currently, the Commission is assisting Member States with correct and timely transposition by issuing a guidance document, organising workshops and expert meetings. The Commission will also launch a call for proposals to implement a Pilot Project, as requested by the European Parliament, to develop e-learning modules that aim at increasing the knowledge of professionals working with persons affected by FGM.

Le banche italiane inoltre applicano spesso una serie di commissioni che, se aggiunte al calcolo per la determinazione del tasso soglia, darebbero luogo al reato di usura. La legislazione dell'UE non disciplina il livello dei tassi debitori offerti ai consumatori. Tali norme consentono ai consumatori di fare una scelta informata e decidere se sottoscrivere o meno un determinato contratto di credito.

Tuttavia, impedisce agli operatori commerciali di agire in contrasto con gli obblighi di diligenza professionale e di provocare distorsioni nel comportamento dei consumatori. The cost of money in the Eurozone is 0. However, both households and small and medium-sized businesses, who face the daily struggle of producing, providing employment and contributing to GDP, know perfectly well how unrealistic it would be to ask the Italian banking system for a loan at a rate significantly lower than the limit laid down by law for the purposes of defining usury.

Italian banks often also charge a range of commissions which, if added to the calculation to determine the threshold rate, would give rise to usury. This is against the law and in fact, according to the Supreme Court, in order to avoid usury Italian banks should include, in the calculation for checking whether the usury threshold rate has been exceeded, both the rate for arrears and overdraft fees.


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  • The difference between the limit and the average rate cannot be more than eight percentage points. Can the Commission also make the relevant enquiries to ascertain whether cartel agreements between Italian banks, repeatedly denounced even by the Antitrust Authority, but ignored by the Bank of Italy, constitute a breach of unfair competition legislation by actually preventing European banks from accessing the Italian market? The level of borrowing rates offered to consumers is not regulated by Union law. Such rules allow consumers to make an informed decision whether to enter in a given credit contract or not.

    In the area of financial services, Member States are allowed to adopt more prescriptive rules with a view, for instance, to prohibit in all circumstances usurious credit. The Commission does not consider there is a direct comparability between the short-term policy rate and the effective lending rates, due to different maturity, collateralization and risks. The Commission is aware of the various decisions taken by the Italian competition authority. Em Portugal, pela Lei n. Face ao disposto no artigo That being the case, does the Commission consider that the above law and the obligations and conditions applying under it to the recognition of private ownership satisfy, and are compatible with, this fundamental right?

    Thus, the Portuguese Law can only be viewed as a breach of the right to property as guaranteed by the Charter if it implemented European Union law. At the same time, it might be in the interest of the property owners concerned to seek redress from the Portuguese administrative or judicial authorities. La Agenda Digital Europea marca una serie de objetivos concretos y ambiciosos en materia de banda ancha. Acabado , el objetivo sigue sin cumplirse. While it is true that a lot of progress has been made in terms of coverage, the fact is that this goal was set to be ambitious and it has not been reached.

    What measures are being adopted to solve this problem, bearing in mind the delay that has occurred? The EU has achieved its target of broadband for all, because since October last year every EU household can have a basic broadband connection, thanks to pan-EU availability of satellite broadband. This concerns in particular isolated and rural areas without a fixed or mobile Internet connection, where a broadband rollout is more cumbersome and expensive. Modern bi-directional KA-band broadband satellites can provide download speeds up to 20 Megabits per second.

    Providers exist now in every EU Member State, offering services at ever lower consumer costs. Moreover, ICT and broadband will be one of the four main thematic objectives on which Member States will have to concentrate the use of European Regional Development Fund in the next programming period It would also adopt additional measures to stimulate the use of digital technologies and electronic trade. What are these specific steps to support Internet entrepreneurs? What progress has been made? The overall goal is to support tech entrepreneurs to start, grow and stay in Europe.

    It contains 22 recommendations on action needed at EU level in order to further stimulate the growth of the Internet economy. De conformidad con lo dispuesto en dicho Reglamento, los Estados miembros han llevado a cabo evaluaciones de riesgo obligatorias, basadas en las cuales se han elaborado planes de medidas preventivas y de emergencia. Asimismo, han adoptado una serie de medidas de apoyo, entre ellas la mejora de las infraestructuras. Although on that occasion the interruption of the supply was due to a trade dispute between Naftogaz and Gazprom, the political conflict that has recently arisen in Ukraine might lead to a similar situation.

    This all suggests that the price of energy is going to increase in the very short term. What financial impact on the incipient recuperation of the European economy does the Commission envisage in the short term? As required by this regulation, Member States have carried out mandatory Risk Assessments based on which Preventive Action Plans and Emergency Plans have been developed. They have also adopted a series of supporting measures, including improvements in infrastructure.

    The Commission will present a report on the implementation of this regulation by the end of the year. A new Union-wide list, potentially adding new PCIs, will be adopted in Regarding binding objectives for interconnection capacity, the Commission is examining those in line with the request from the European Council of March this year. In particular it calls for mainstreaming of industrial competitiveness concerns across all areas of European policy and identifies actions to generate a more business friendly environment, ease access to production inputs, maximise the potential of the internal market, foster internationalization of firms and facilitate labour mobility.

    However the main objective of this goal is to reinforce the message of putting competitiveness at the core of European policies. Asunto: Cambio de bandera en embarcaciones europeas. Si bien regula aspectos ambientales y de seguridad, esta Directiva del mercado interior no se refiere al uso de embarcaciones de recreo. More and more skippers are choosing to register their boats under the flags of Member States other than that of the country of origin. The main reason for this is to avoid strict national regulations and take advantage of others that are more lenient.

    If progress is not made towards harmonisation or common legislation, there is a danger that States may make their laws more flexible. In other words, countries may be tempted to relax their requirements in order to attract European skippers and thus increase their revenue from registering vessels under their flags.

    The fact is that some relaxation may be needed in certain cases, but, if taken too far, this may lead to a reduction in safety at sea. The main attractions of countries with more lenient laws are less strict time periods for safety checks, less strict requirements for on-board safety equipment and even a lack of any obligation to hold navigation qualifications. Given that failing to maintain certain minimum obligatory standards in these areas would entail a clear risk, does the Commission not believe that steps should be taken at an EU-wide level? The directive covers design and construction characteristics of a craft as well as specific requirements on noise and exhaust emissions.

    This legislation has largely facilitated competition, consumer and environment protection, and international trade in the sector. While regulating safety and environmental aspects, this internal market Directive does not cover the use of recreational craft. The issues mentioned above are not altered by the revision. The Commission therefore proposed to assess the need for EU action on provisions for nautical tourism safety equipment as well as on qualification requirements for professional yacht skippers and recreational boating.

    Could the Commission inform us about the presence of such advisors in external delegations of the EU? Is the existence of sections or units of cooperation in science and technology common in the delegations? Do such units exist in delegations to countries with which cooperation in science and technology is crucial, such as the United States, the BRIC countries and the scientific and technological power-houses of Asia?

    In addition, in the Delegations in Australia, Egypt, Israel and South Korea, we have full time local staff dedicated to research and innovation. This list almost perfectly matches the list of the 10 strategic partners of the Union. However, science diplomacy is not limited to these countries. So, to answer the concern of the Honourable Member of the Parliament, the United States, the BRIC countries and the main scientific and technological power-houses are covered.

    While Additional Protocol II to the Geneva Conventions of offers protections to civilians facing non-international armed conflicts, it still lacks a clear definition of non-state armed actors and fails to include criteria for applying the concept of individual criminal responsibility. The EU and its Member States are convinced that national implementation and enforcement of existing international humanitarian law and other relevant existing legal instruments which have an impact on international humanitarian law are a continuous matter of priority.

    The EU recognises the importance of the need to protect women from violence in armed conflicts, as can be seen from the numerous laws and policies it has enacted and from the resolutions adopted by Parliament on this subject, alongside those of the UN Security Council. The EU has been very active in adopting the G8 Declaration on preventing sexual violence in conflict and is implementing concrete projects and initiatives on the topic.

    Local and regionally managed Instrument for Stability calls for proposals for civil society actions focus on the development of mechanisms to better respond to gender-based violence in situations of crisis and conflict and to mainstream gender and violence against women and girls prevention as cross-cutting aspects of peace building issues. The EU has also given its willing support to UN Security Council Resolution , adopted in , which proposed that an international monitoring and reporting mechanism be set up with the aim of protecting children involved in armed conflicts.

    However, it is important note that the annexes fail to list several countries in which child soldiers continue to be recruited and used. Moreover, a large number of the parties mentioned in the annexes are non-state armed groups. In addition, in several instances non-state armed groups have disrupted educational activities in the societies in which they operate. The most urgent needs of children affected by armed conflict are covered by the EU's humanitarian aid. For example, the EU's Children for Peace initiative has reached out to approximately children in a range of conflict-affected.

    The longer-term impact of conflict on children is addressed through projects funded by the EU's various development instruments, and the EU's intention is to include support to children affected by armed conflict in the assistance programming documents for Concrete examples include EU financial support to a project, implemented by the Swiss Foundation for Mine Action and Geneva Call, to provide training in international humanitarian law and related humanitarian norms to armed non-state actors.

    The EU also funded a project by the Finnish Red Cross on increasing awareness of international humanitarian law and humanitarian principles among European humanitarian organisations and their implementing partners working in conflict-prone or post-conflict countries. Aleksandr Pavlov, former head of security of Mukhtar Ablyazov, is a Kazakh dissident and the main opposition figure to the current President, Nursultan Nazarbayev.

    The decision was taken without informing him or his lawyer. Such secrecy may be considered an attempt to render impossible the immediate appeal to the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg. The Spanish National High Court Audiencia Nacional has issued a temporary injunction, pending the final decision in the asylum appeal procedure. If these reports are verified, they will call into question the impartiality of the decision and the independence of the judiciary, clearly indicating the political nature of the case.

    If extradited to Kazakhstan, Pavlov would risk facing ill treatment or even death. As a number of international reports have demonstrated, he could not expect a fair and impartial trial. Regarding the questions pertaining to extradition, this is under the competence of Member States and is done in accordance with national law and international treaties.

    Traffico strade e gomme , musica, frastuono e ronzii costanti assediano i cittadini con suoni esagerati, causando stress, cardiopatie, danni dell'udito e cadute. Potrebbe chiedere agli Stati membri di vietare la musica ad alto volume nei rifugi e nelle stazioni in alta montagna, in riva al mare e comunque nei luoghi nei quali la gente intende riposare ed essere a contatto con la natura?

    Ha proposte in cantiere per la riduzione del rumore derivante dal manto stradale e dagli pneumatici degli autoveicoli, oltre che dai motori? La Commissione segue da vicino l'attuazione della direttiva sul rumore ambientale e intende assicurarne il rispetto con tutti gli strumenti legali a sua disposizione. Per quanto riguarda il manto stradale, le informazioni trasmesse dagli Stati membri nella mappatura acustica delle strade prevista dalla direttiva sul rumore ambientale potrebbero costituire la base di un futuro lavoro di ricerca sulla classificazione delle superfici stradali. According to a long article published in The Lancet by a group of experts in various medical disciplines belonging to the International Commission on the Biological Effects of Noise ICBEN , we live our lives surrounded by a barrage of noise, without realising the damage that this causes not only to our hearing, but also to the cardiovascular and nervous systems.

    This damage is linked to a long list of disorders and diseases, which in turn generate extremely high healthcare costs. For example, the article reveals that noise has impaired the hearing of some 1. People are being assaulted by noise from traffic roads and tyres , music and the constant din of everyday life, leading to stress, heart disease, hearing problems and falls. Can the Commission say which Member States complied with the directive by the time limit laid down? Will the Commission urge Member States to ban the playing of loud music in mountain huts and resorts, in seaside areas or indeed any places where people go to rest and be in contact with nature?

    Will the Commission consider organising ad hoc courses for public officials, whose awareness of the issue of noise pollution is so low? Does the Commission have plans to reduce the noise generated by road surfaces and vehicle tyres, as well as by engines? While most Member States have not fully implemented all provisions of the directive, Lithuania has currently complied with all its requirements.

    The Commission closely monitors the implementation of the Environmental Noise Directive and will ensure its respect, using the available legal instruments. Noise from domestic activities and noise created by neighbours — such as playing loud music — is excluded from the scope of the Environmental Noise Directive. It however considers the organisation of ad hoc courses for public officials — if considered necessary by Member States — as a task for the national, regional or local competent authorities. Regarding road surfaces, the information presented by Member States in the noise road maps provided for by the Environmental Noise Directive could form the basis of future research work on road surface classification.

    Due to the exclusive nature of the preparations, it has become a classist caste system which is unreachable not only to professionals and anyone on low income, but also to older people, despite the fact that they are more deserving, better qualified and have greater professional experience; the Spanish judiciary itself has brazenly admitted to blatant indirect age discrimination. Temporary recruitment is thus being abused to prop up a system which is extremely lucrative for the upper echelons of the Spanish judiciary, who are systematically discriminating against interim judges.

    Spanish law does not contain any measures to prevent the abuse of substitute judges and replacement magistrates through the use fixed-term contracts, nor can these contracts be made permanent — despite the existence of specific provisions to that effect in private sector employment law. Should private sector regulations governing the upgrading of successive fixed-term contracts to permanent ones also apply to the interim judiciary?

    It must be pointed out that there are two types of professional judge in Spain: permanent judges, with a contract for an undetermined period, and substitute judges, with a fixed-term contract Art. Both types of judge exercise the same jurisdictional powers, with the same restrictions and limitations on holding multiple posts Arts. It should be highlighted that amongst the body of permanent judges there are also judges appointed regionally, whose job is to serve as substitutions, replacements and support in the same way as substitute judges.

    However, whereas permanent judges are paid monthly and make continuous payments towards Social Security, including these regional judges and as expected by their role, substitute judges receive a salary and pay into Social Security only on days on which they are called up, despite carrying out the same jurisdictional work and serving as substitutions, replacements and support.

    If they are not called up, they do not receive a salary or make any Social Security payments, they are not afforded healthcare cover and they are not permitted to hold any other job or profession — except for lecturing — due to the restrictions placed on them that require their constant availability and dedication. The Commission has asked the Spanish authorities for clarifications and will complete its analysis on the basis of their reply and the information provided by the complainants.

    It does not, for instance, regulate the methods and procedures applied for the recruitment of fixed-term staff. As a consequence, it is not for the Commission to query the recruitment procedure which the Honourable Members outline. Are weaning infants at risk of iodine deficiency even in countries with established iodized salt programs? Nestle Nutr Inst Workshop Ser. Guidelines of the American Thyroid Association for the diagnosis and management of thyroid disease during pregnancy and postpartum. The Swiss iodized salt program provides adequate iodine for school children and pregnant women, but weaning infants not receiving iodine-containing complementary foods as well as their mothers are iodine deficient.

    J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Direct iodine supplementation of infants versus supplementation of their breastfeeding mothers: a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. Mild iodine deficiency during pregnancy is associated with reduced educational outcomes in the offspring: 9-year follow-up of the gestational iodine cohort.

    Cobra C, Muhilal, Rusmil K, et al. Infant survival is improved by oral iodine supplementation. Effect on infant mortality of iodination of irrigation water in a severely iodine-deficient area of China. Hetzel BS. Iodine and neuropsychological development. Deliberations and evaluations of the approaches, endpoints and paradigms for selenium and iodine dietary recommendations. Bleichrodt N, Born, M. A meta-analysis of research on iodine and its relationship to cognitive development. In: Stanbury JB, ed. The damaged brain of iodine deficiency: cognitive, behavioral, neuromotor, educative aspects.

    New York: Cognizant Communication Corporation; The effects of iodine on intelligence in children: a meta-analysis of studies conducted in China. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. Iodine and mental development of children 5 years old and under: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Iodine: it's important in patients that require parenteral nutrition. Lazarus JH. Iodine status in europe in Eur Thyroid J. Iodine status of the U. Iodine status in pregnant women in the National Children's Study and in U.

    Use of supplements with and without iodine in women of childbearing age in the United States. Perchlorate and iodide in dairy and breast milk. Environ Sci Technol. Breast milk iodine and perchlorate concentrations in lactating Boston-area women. Iodine nutrition status in lactating mothers residing in countries with mandatory and voluntary iodine fortification programs: an updated systematic review.

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    Horm Metab Res. PDR for Nutritional Supplements. Montvale: Thomson Reuters; Iodine deficiency, pollutant chemicals, and the thyroid: new information on an old problem. AAP recommendations on iodine nutrition during pregnancy and lactation. Cancer consequences of the Chernobyl accident: 20 years on. The impact of common micronutrient deficiencies on iodine and thyroid metabolism: the evidence from human studies.

    Targeted disruption of the type 1 selenodeiodinase gene Dio1 results in marked changes in thyroid hormone economy in mice. Schomburg L. Selenium, selenoproteins and the thyroid gland: interactions in health and disease. Nat Rev Endocrinol. The influence of selenium supplementation on postpartum thyroid status in pregnant women with thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies. Effect of low-dose selenium on thyroid autoimmunity and thyroid function in UK pregnant women with mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency. Eur J Nutr. Effect of selenium supplementation on thyroid hormone metabolism in an iodine and selenium deficient population.

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    Interactions of vitamin A and iodine deficiencies: effects on the pituitary-thyroid axis. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. Vitamin A supplementation in iodine-deficient African children decreases thyrotropin stimulation of the thyroid and reduces the goiter rate. Knudsen N, Brix TH. Genetic and non-iodine-related factors in the aetiology of nodular goitre. Prevalence of simple nodular goiter and Hashimoto's thyroiditis in current, previous, and never smokers in a geographical area with mild iodine deficiency.

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    Kessler JH. The effect of supraphysiologic levels of iodine on patients with cyclic mastalgia. Breast J. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. Assessment of Japanese iodine intake based on seaweed consumption in Japan: A literature-based analysis. Thyroid Res. History of U. Composition of core foods of the U. Copper, manganese, selenium, iodine. J Food Comp Anal. Potential risks of excess iodine ingestion and exposure: statement by the american thyroid association public health committee. Iodized salt sales in the United States. Iodine nutrition: iodine content of iodized salt in the United States.

    Iodine content in bread and salt in Denmark after iodization and the influence on iodine intake. Int J Food Sci Nutr. Improvement in iodine status of pregnant Australian women 3 years after introduction of a mandatory iodine fortification programme. Prev Med. The impact of iodine supplementation and bread fortification on urinary iodine concentrations in a mildly iodine deficient population of pregnant women in South Australia.

    Nutr J. Mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt modestly improves iodine status in schoolchildren. Br J Nutr.