He trained as a pilot and graduated in joining a fighter squadron. Chkalov married Olga Orekhova, a schoolteacher from Leningrad, in In the early s he became a test pilot. Achievements Chkalov achieved several milestones in Aviation. In and , he participated in several ultra long flights, including a hour flight from Moscow, Soviet Union to Vancouver, Washington, United States via the North Pole in a Tupolev ANT airplane June 18 20, , a non-stop distance of 8, kilometres 5, mi.
The flight pioneered the polar air route from Europe to the American Pacific Coast. Death Chkalov meets with Joseph Stalin Chkalov died on 15 December while piloting a prototype of the Polikarpov I fighter, which crashed during her maiden test flight. The series of events leading up to the crash is not entirely clear. Neither the aircraft's two chief designers, Nikolai Nikolaevich Polikarpov and Dmitri Lyudvigovich Tomashevich, approved the flight, and no one had signed a form releasing the prototype from the factory.
In any event, Chkalov took off and made a low altitude circuit around the airfield. For the second circuit, Chkalov flew farther away, climbing to over 2, m 6, ft even though the flight plan specifically forbade exceeding m 1, ft. Chkalov apparently miscalculated his landing approach and came in short of the airfield, but when he attempted to correct his approach the engine cut out. Chkalov was able to avoid several buildings, but struck an overhead powerline. He was thrown from the cockpit, sustaining severe injuries, and died two hours later. His ashes are interred in the Kremlin Wall.
The official government investigation concluded that the engine cut out because it became too cold in the absence of the cowl flaps. Others hypothesised that Chkalov had advanced the throttle too fast and thus flooded the engine. As a result of the crash, Tomashevich and several other officials, including Arms Industry Department director S.
Belyakin, who urged the first flight, were immediately arrested. Years later, fellow test pilot Mikhail Gromov blamed the designers for flawed engine cooling and Chkalov himself for deviating from the flight plan. Chkalov's son claimed that a plan to assassinate his father had been in the works in the months preceding his death, but the circumstances of the crash make foul play unlikely. Despite the opinion of some, after Chkalov's death Polikarpov's reputation with Stalin was left intact, and Polikarpov continued to design aircraft.
The city of Orenburg bore the name Chkalov from to Nizhny Novgorod also has a staircase down to the Volga named after him with a statue of him at the top of it. In , at Vancouver Washington, a monument to Chkalov's polar flight was dedicated at Pearson Field and a street was named Chkalov Drive. Yekaterinburg Metro opened one in as well. Issaak Abramowitsch Mendelewitsch russisch?????
November greg. September ebenda war ein russischer Bildhauer. Published by Frankfurt M. About this Item: Frankfurt M. Condition: Sehr gut. Published by New York: About this Item: New York:, Published by Berlin, About this Item: Berlin, Hauptschriftleiter: Rudolf Sparing. Im "befreiten" Italien - Bandenkrieg der Rivalen. Hugo Ahlfeld: Industriepflanzen. Europas Kampf um die Steigerung seines Bodenertrages - Was ist kriegswichtig?
Neuware - Moscow, the Cold War, Stalin has been dead for eight years. With the launch of Sputnik, the Soviet Union's international prestige is at an all-time high. Former CIA agent Francis 'Frank' Weeks, the most notorious of the defectors to the Soviet Union, is about to publish his memoirs, and what he reveals is reportedly going to send shock waves through the West.
Weeks' defection in the early s shook Washington to its core - his betrayal rippled through the State Department, prompting frantic searches for moles and forcing the resignation of Simon, Frank's brother and best friend. So when a Soviet agency approaches Simon, now a publisher in New York City, with a controversial proposition to publish his brother's memoirs, he finds the offer irresistible since it will finally give him the chance to learn why his brother chose to betray his country.
But what he discovers in Moscow is far more than he ever imagined. About this Item: Gutes Exemplar. Sprache: Deutsch Gewicht in Gramm: Von Marina N. Lopato, Elena B. Anisimova u. Katalog, Eremitage Amsterdam Text engl. Guter Zustand. Neuware - 'Brisk and thoughtful, this book could hardly be more timely' Dominic Sandbrook, BBC History Magazine, Books of the Year An astonishingly wide-ranging history of Russian nationalism chronicling Russia's yearning for Empire and how it has affected its politics for centuries In , Russia annexed Crimea and attempted to seize a portion of Ukraine.
While the world watched in outrage, this violation of national sovereignty was in fact only the latest iteration of a centuries-long effort to expand Russian boundaries and create a pan-Russian nation. In Lost Kingdom, award-winning historian Serhii Plokhy argues that we can only understand the merging of imperialism and nationalism in Russia today by delving into its history.
Spanning over two thousand years, from the end of the Mongol rule to the present day, Plokhy shows how leaders from Ivan the Terrible to Joseph Stalin to Vladimir Putin have exploited existing forms of identity, warfare and territorial expansion to achieve imperial supremacy. A strikingly ambitious book, Lost Kingdom chronicles the long and belligerent history of Russia's empire and nation-building quest. Published by Engels UI.
Chalturina, d. About this Item: Engels UI. Bibliotheksexemplar mit Signaturschild und Stempeln. Es lebe der erste Kollektivist! Published by Worcester and New York About this Item: Worcester and New York, Thin paper cover, 20x13 cm, pages. Paper darkened with age, has some stains, in places paper a little bent by dampness, name on the cover. Internationan Conciliation. December , No. Engish language. In englischer Sprache. Seller Inventory X Published by Ventil Mrz About this Item: Ventil Mrz , Eben eine Radical Jewish Culture.
Dabei sollen die Strategien gegen Mechanismen der Ausgrenzung und des Antisemitismus aufgezeigt werden, die sich in solchen Motiven spiegeln. Published by Wien: Ueberreuter. About this Item: Wien: Ueberreuter. Hardcoverband mit illustriertem Schutzumschlag in sehr gutem, sauberem Zustand, Exlibris in Innendeckel. Published by London : M. Joseph, About this Item: London : M. About this Item: Condition: Gut. Seller Inventory B Published by Berlin: BWV, Ein gutes und sauberes Exemplar. Das sowjetische? N -- Sheila Fitzpatrick, Stalin und sein Team. Bernhard, Einband leicht berieben.
Mit einer Nachbemerkung des Herausgebers -- N. Er ist in irgendeinen Nebenraum verschwunden, auf die Rufe - Maestro! Dali ist verschwunden. Goebbels schrieb: Die bedrohliche Lage an den Fronten lasse ihn am Sieg zweifeln, er empfehle deshalb, sogleich mit Stalin ird Friedensverhandlungen einzutreten. This research will include details of Stalin's everyday life and his vacations on the Black Sea, the 'Great Terror,' World War II, and the terrifying decades of his supreme power. It will also go into detail about the suicide of Stalin's wife, Nadya, and how it affected him for the rest of his life, what kind of man he was as a father, as well as the lives of the members of his inner circle and their fall from grace.
From a historical context Joseph Stalin comes off as being psychotic, merciless, killer, and a brutal dictator. This research will attempt to reveal that this dictator of a nuclear capable world super-power, merges as being, although a bit paranoid, surprisingly normal and quite human. Item added to your basket View basket. Proceed to Basket. As in Vol. For valuable contributions to the new edition of this present volume, I wish to express my heartiest thanks to the distinguished Professor now Bishop of Rottenburg P.
Baiimker of Zurich, and Dr. Joseph Graen at Hildesheim. LuDWiG Pastor. Survey of Plastic Art in the Middle Ages. Luther on the abolition of images — Destruction of images by Lutheran rulers — Preachers on the destruction of churches, Luther's attitude towards Christian art, Art in the Service of Sectarian Polemics Polemics introduced into the illustrated editions of the Bible and the explanations of the Apocalypse, Whole collections of caricatures and libellous pictures — Polemical pictures even in the churches — Polemical manifestations on the part of the Catholics, Other causes of the corruption of German art, Inner relationship of the degenerate Grseco-Roman art and the ' antique-Italian manner ' imported into Germany, Towards the understanding of the Italian Renaissance — Michael Angelo and Rajihael — The cult of the nude and the desecra- tion of religious art, Art sinks into being a servant of the great people and the courts — The outAvard position of artists changes — Diirer's impressions in Venice, Difference between the Itahan and the German Renaissance — The latter destitute of any national foundation, only an after- birth of the Italian — The most fundamental cause of the degeneracy of the new.
Section II. Section III. Ecclesiastical architecture in Catholic Germany — Protestant church buildings, The secular architectui'e the plainest index of the existing condi- tions of culture — That whereon most art and outward splendour were lavished — The Pellerhaus at Nuremberg — The fine buildings of the princes devour the substance of the people — Buildings erected by Cardinal Albert of Brandenburg — The ' Otto-Henry building ' at Heidelberg — Buildings in Saxony — The Plassenburg — Buildings in Stuttgart — In Tyrol —The ' New Residence ' at Munich, Sculpture — Only a few striking specimens — Mannerism and un- naturalness — Innumerable show-sepulchres — Italian artists in Germany — ' Soul -stirring conceptions ' — The cemetery at Halle, Large pretentious fountains, chiefly affected in taste — Statues as mere ornaments — Nude pagan figures in private apartments, Section IV.
Decay of glass-painting — Distinguished cabinet glass-painters in Switzerland — Influence of the ' antique-Italian learning ' — Complaints of faulty work, Court painters to the Emperor Rudolf II. A characteristic letter of instructions for a Brunswick court painter — Portrait painting — What remuneration the painters received for their work, Section V. Section VI. Section VII.
XL Naturalism in Religious Art and in the Representation from the Life of the People — Absurdity and Vulgarity Religious subjects and sacred persons also treated in a mundane fashion — Contemporary men and women figure as sacred characters — Corruption of religious art — Christian and mytho- logical pictures side by side — Coats of arms in churches, Nudities in religious pictures — Scenes from the Old Testament used for shameless representations, notably by the so-called ' Kleinmeisters ' — Moral deterioration in the ornamentation of books, Character of art in the treatment of secular matters — Repre- sentation of outbreaks of grossest sensuahty — Bad women a favourite theme — Things ' wonderful and terrible in heaven and earth ' — The pictures of John Herold and John George Schenck of Grafenberg — Abortions — The horrible and the gruesome — Pictures of witches — Representation of tortures and executions, Indecency in art — Nudities and love scenes in profusion — Utterances of contemporaries, The deterioration of art goes hand-in-hand with, the demoralised hves of many of the artists — Examples, notably from the ' Schilderbuch ' of Karl van Mander, Composers of the second rank, Attempt at a ' rebirtli ' of ancient music — German pupils of the Venetians — Hans Leo Hasler, Contemporaries on the decline and deterioration of Church song, Protestant composers : John Eccard, John Walther, Nicholas Selnekker and other composers of sacred songs — Hymns of the Anabaptists and the Bohemian-Moravian Brothers, Old Cathohc hymns used by the Protestants, Protestant hymns in Catholic hymnals — Objects aimed at by the hymnals — Cathohc poets of new hymns — Catholic writers of new hyrans — Different examples — Caspar Ulenberg against Protestant hymn-books, Polemical hymns and sacred songs by Protestant writers — Opposed by Catholic hymns — Polemical Catholic hymns — The chief polemical hymnologists among the Protestants, Songs for occasions of joy or sorrow — ' Professional court poetry ' — Special representatives of this poetry — The ' Lustgart neuer deutscher Poeterei ' Pleasure garden of new German poetry by Matthew Holzwart, Decadence of his poetry, Satires and Lampoons — Pictures of the Time and its Morals — John Fischart and his Defence of the Per- secution OF Witches General remarks — Thomas Murner and his satires — ' Narren- beschworung ' and ' Schelmenzunft ' — He foresees the religious, political, and social revolution — Lashes clerical abuses — His utterances on the position of the peasants — Robber knights and the Bundschuh, Murner against the religious-social revolution — His poem ' Von dem grossen lutherischen Narren ' the great Lutheran fool , The vindication of Murner by later Protestant historians of literature, , note.
Ulricli von Hutten's firebrand writings — His summons to a war of religion — The ' Neuer Karsthans,' John Fischart and his satirical poems — How he exploited the popular love of wonders for vilification of the papacy — His utterances on the causes of general schism — Holy Scripture still only a ' conjuror's bag ' — His ' Geschichtklitterung ' depicts the whole demoraUsed condition of the period — His defence of the most brutal persecution of witches in a work destined for the whole nation, Hippolytus Guarinoni, Transition to dramatic Uterature, Index of Places Index of Persons During the course of a century it had undergone an almost entire change, both in inward character and outward aspect, in every part of its existence ; and the reason of this lay in its separation from its own past, in the violent breach which had taken place ' The references for the quotations follow later on, where that which is only briefly indicated here is given in fuller detail.
Not only- had a vast preponderating majority of the German people lost all genuine and loyal-hearted trust in the ancient faith of their forefathers, but this faith had actually come to be denounced as idolatry and blasphemy. The fiercest fire oi religious hatred blazed abroad, and Germany became gradually filled with a spirit of theologising savage- ness and barbarity which had the effect of under- mining all strongholds of faith among the people, of obscuring the moral judgment of the nation, and of bringing learning and art into contempt and ruin.
Reason was pronounced by the leading theologian of the day to be ' a whore of the devil' While nominally seeking to throw ofi the ' foreign Roman yoke ' in matters of religion, Germany fell more and more under the tyranny of the foreign Byzantine rule for slaves, under the bondage of foreign art, foreign morality, foreign customs and culture. What Sebastian Brant had foretold towards. Such gruesome happenings occur, '. As though the world were doomed to ruin ; On stilts the Roman Empire strides And German honour overrides.
In consequence of the general ' hurly-burly ' the Roman Empire of the German nation had already, before the beginning of the Thirty Years' War, lost its world-prestige, and was scarcely to be reckoned as one of the great European Powers. During the reign of Charles V. Under the succeeding Emperors the three great frontier strongholds in the North-East fell to the Russians ; Spaniards and Hollanders set themselves up as ' Lords on the Rhine,' the Hollanders indeed as ' principal rulers in the Empire,' while the Emperors stood powerless and helpless before the princes, and had become tributaries to the Turks, who pressed on ever further and further.
Those of the princes who had attached them- selves to the ' new evangel ' had known how to make the latter subservient to their own special ends. In the character of ' chief bishops with supreme and unlimited authority ' they displayed an immeasurable degree of arbitrariness in all ecclesiastical matters. They assumed the same ' complete control over the faith and consciences of their people as over bridges, roads and footpaths. Dire were the effects of this Csesaro-papacy on the people. Seizure and squandering of Church property followed in its train, and worked most injuriously against the welfare of the people and the economy of the nation.
Over against the numerous Protestant theologians and court preachers, who not only sanctioned this plunder of the Church but even helped on the princely raids, there were, however, a goodly number who openly denounced ' the robbers of churches and charities,' pointing them to the punishment threatened in the Scripture against robbery of God, and reminding them of ' the heavy curses ' frequently occurring in founda- tion charters ' against any who should divert and squander sacred endowments.
And the experience of the majority was in accordance with the dictum in the Pomeranian Church regulations : ' Stolen church goods do not prosper,' but ' they devour other goods with themselves. Other results, already manifest, of this practice of Church robbery were fearlessly discussed by the Brunswick court-preacher, Basilius Sattler. The clergy had been represented as a ' giant devouring the property ' of the nation ; now, however, for the first time this devouring process was carried on at the expense of the poor and the needy, to whom, formerly, help and maintenance had flowed from the Church funds.
The old-established conditions of landed property also suffered a shock to their stability, simultaneously with the breaking-up of Church property. To meet these continually increasing demands by fresh taxes and impositions of all sorts was the great problem of the financial skill of the day.
And in dealing with the problem the initial idea was that all the revenues of the State were first and foremost for the benefit of the ruling Prince, who formed the central point of the court ; for the erection of costly buildings ; for un- measured extravagance in clothing and adornment ; for gambling debts ; for ' princely banquets and drink- ing-bouts,' and endless court festivals and fireworks — in short, for every description of select and aristocratic pastimes, which sucked the blood of the people — not least among which was ' the holy art ' of gold-making.
Boundless extravagance and absolute financial chaos reigned in many departments of national life. Notice and consideration of very special character is required by the ' high princely department of the chase,' which deserves the chief blame for the decay of agriculture, and the impoverishment of the peasants.
There was justification for the question : which has the best of it, the long-cherished and quickly-baited game, or the forever-baited and never- cherished subject? The life and goings on at the princely courts became a model for the nobles to follow. In connection with the institution of the nobility come the organisations of war and of mercenary troops. The latter, even in times of peace, were ' a plague and a scourge of all the world ; ' for ' everybody gained bitter experience ' of what the men of war were, namely ' robbers of houses and freebooters, garrotters, torturers, executioners, hangmen, and the peasants' fiends.
The different princely domains became separated from each other by outrageous taxes, by export and import duties, affecting even the most indispensable necessities of food and clothing, and within each different territory all economic movement and industry became gradually chain-bound. Under the title of ' royalty ' the sovereigns usurped the control of the forests, of the mining and smelting works, and of numerous industrial and commercial undertakings.
Princes themselves — as for instance Julius of Brunswick — became the foremost merchants of their land ; others, like the Elector Augustus of Saxony, busied themselves actively with the exploita- tion of monopolies. Whereas formerly the German towns had led the great movement of world commerce, had held command both over inland trade and over the seas and ports of Europe in the North, now the supremacy in the international mart, with its world- uniting power, fell to England and to the Netherlands.
Through the Dutch revolution the chief fountain of gold in South Germany — trade with Antwerp — had been dried up. In place of Antwerp Amsterdam had come to the front, and German merchants themselves were actively influential in establishing the commercial strength of this town which undermined all German trade ; first the Netherlanders barred up the Rhine, then the Scheldt ; for Denmark the Sound was ' the principal ingress ; ' trade on the Belt was annihilated by Sweden ; Queen Elizabeth built up the commerce of England on the ruins of Hanseatic trade ; almost everywhere the once powerful Hanseatic League suffered humiliating destruction.
At the beginning of the century the towns had still been reckoned as ' the core of the Empire ; ' the year found them already at a very low ebb in their political and industrial importance, sundered from each other, and standing disconnectedly opposed to one another. It was from the inner conditions of the town constitutions that the seed of destruction had sprung. In many of the towns the old guild regulations had been broken through ; in most of them they had suffered ossification ; guild discipline had hardened into an oppressive monopoly for a small number of , ' master ' families, who, closely bound together, defied 10 HISTORY OF THE GERMAN PEOPLE the reiterated but powerless complaints of imperial recesses, and exploited the town market, often amassing to themselves enormous fortunes, while the journeymen- class, which was scarcely able to attain even to the right of mastership, fell into pauperism.
Hans Sachs had already complained on this score that ' handwork was becoming worthless because the labourers were debarred from their proper wages, and the avaricious employers were served by lazy and insolent workmen. Skilled artisans in the large towns were kept fully employed in supplying the wants of luxury, but " ordinary handwork " was lapsing visibly into decay. The yoke which they had endeavoured to throw off in the social revolution was transformed almost every- where into hard and gruesome bondage. There was no longer any talk of ' righteous statutes ' and ' pro- sperity of the peasants,' but only of the ' illimitable- ness of feudal obligations,' the disentail of farms, ' the rasing of villages and the slaughter of the peasants.
There were theo- logians also who had so completely lost all their former ideas of the dignity of agriculture and farm labour as to insist that this work ought to be carried on entirely by slaves, or by rough, uncivihsed men hired for the purpose. The new socio-political and economic principles which gradually displaced the mediaeval Christian German system of law and political economy, and the mediaeval social order, led to the oppression, and hence to the impoverishment, of the masses of the people.
But the causes of this ' impoverishment and exhaus- tion of the nation,' which forms a standing ground of complaint in all the transactions of provincial diets, in all chronicles and reports, and of which there is actual circumstantial evidence for all the different German lands, did not lie only in the political and economic but also in the religious and moral conditions of the time. Amongst the writers of those days no one has better summed up the situation in brief than the Brunswick inspector of mines, George Engelhart Lohneiss ; and the Tyrolese physician, Hippolytus Guarinoni, has furnished us with enormously rich materials for the study of this subject, as indeed for a general knowledge of the life of the times.
The ruin of economic life was followed on the heels by the moral corruption which was increasing in all grades of society.
John Slangen | Werkbeschrijvingen
Many other writings, amongst which are several from the pen of Aegidius Albertinus, court secretary to the Duke of Bavaria, afford the same disgraceful picture. One prolific cause of demoralisation among the people was, according to contemporary opinion, to be found in the sermons of that period preached against good works. The effect of this preaching on the people, said the Protes- tant Melchior von Ossa, in concert with many other Protestants, was to make them ' thoroughly coarse and light-minded, so that neither trustworthiness, honour nor faith were found any more in the common people, but immorality and vice everywhere.
The number of such ' preacher-witnesses ' who published their sermons in print is especially large among the Protestants. What a wealth of evidence, for instance, is supplied by the hundred sermons which Strigenicius, superintendent at Meissen, delivered on the Flood, in order to put before his age a mirror of its depravity!
The reader is pleasantly impressed by the frankness and fearlessness with which he, and not a few other preachers, told plain truths to ' tyrannical rulers,' to princes and lords, ' together with their court parasites, their grand retinues of nobles and their courtesans. Crimes against the security of property and person, against the power of the law and the public peace, robbery, murder, and assassination, rape and unnatural vices increased in an alarming manner, and specially noto- rious was the growth of crime amongst the young.
Whatever criminal statistics can be collected from the different German territories produce an impression of veritably tragic nature. The production of fresh instruments of tor- ture and execution was pursued as a fine art, ' which, for the good of the fatherland, it was as necessary to learn and practise, as any other art and skilled handi- craft. The full description of these conditions, which were the outgrowth of the shattering of the unity of faith and religious concert, of traditional Church authority and all ancient principles of right and judicial relations, is one of the saddest tasks of the writer of civil and political history.
But, however much that is melan- choly he may have to report from all classes of the nation, he will nevertheless, if he desires to be just and reasonable, guard himself from over-hasty con- clusions, as though forsooth the whole nation ' had been ruined from top to bottom. The author of a religious book of instruction, towards the close of the sixteenth century, referred to this fact in order to ' encourage his contemporaries, and warn them against faintheartedness and despair. One hears, say they, of nothing but sin, scandal, vice and corruption, and one sees nothing else, and when God's vengeance and punish- ment come we shall all be included in them ; why should I live any longer?
But it is the same now as it always has been at all times : ' the virtues prac- tised in the quiet of private life are not catalogued in ' archives, libraries, and chronicles,' and do not come to the knowledge of later generations. These two branches of intellectual creativeness, destined as they are for the nation in its entirety, give the plainest indications of the internal and external character of a particular epoch, of the forces at work and the results achieved. In accordance with the universal and dominant conviction of the day, that all things were subservient to, and must be judged by, their relation to the divine idea, and hence that all departments of life ought only to be reflections of the highest truth, and should strengthen our faith in the divine wisdom, it became also the great aim of art, as the noblest embodiment of the enthusiasm of the human soul, to express this same exalted conviction, to give it visible form in the con- crete language of painting, sculpture and architecture.
Art, it was felt, must be the teacher and educator of the nation, the builder up of the people — an agency which should lift them out of their everyday pursuits, ' See our remarks, vol. Art, in short, was to be the people's friend and companion in all the varied walks of life, in joy and mirth, in sorrow and trouble. Art, therefore, in those days, was not regarded as the possession of a privileged circle favoured by riches and position, or as an adjunct of splendour and fashion, but as the common property of all classes of society.
Like religion itself, whose handmaid it was, and from which it derived its purity and its power, it was the concern of the whole nation, and also the concern of each individual of the nation ; it was one of the most urgent necessities of life for the people, whose doing and thinking and being supplied its motives, forms and material. Art in those days was indeed popular in the best sense of the term : its masterpieces were not only noble monuments of life with God and of beauty, but they were also reflections and embodi- ments of the national mind, which was largely co- operative in the creative work of the artists of the period.
And just because art was thus rooted in the national mind, was the immediate outcome of the ruling convic- tions of the people, and ministered to the general needs of the country, it was exempt from all restless seeking after out-of-the-way tasks : objects and motives came spontaneously to hand in inexhaustible abundance. In eager rivalry the towns built their cathedrals, and their monastic and parochial churches ; even the villages and hamlets erected buildings of great artistic beauty. All these civic buildings, as well as the countless fortresses, the ruins of which look down from the mountain heights, called forth the inventive genius of the artists, and all in their special ways, in fitness and harmony of con- struction, received the stamp of artistic perfection.
Matthew Merian's ' Topographic ' affords eloquent testi- mony to the splendid wealth of towers in the German mediaeval towns. From count- less monuments that have been preserved to us there shines forth a spirit of this sort. Reichensperger's Matthias Merian und seine Topographie. Being the loftiest embodiment of the prevalent higher thought, it manifested, in spite of the strictest rules, such a degree of freedom that, wherever it gained a footing and became popular, it mirrored the peculiar character of the people, and even of individual masters. This last feature explains the widespread understanding and appreciation which it gained.
Thus art grew up, childUke and thoughtful. The influence of the guilds gave way to models or to great personahties. The profession of artist became well- nigh the most poverty-stricken, the most hazardous of all professions ; dragging on its existence in periods of history wliich were themselves disintegrating and difforming, art degenerated into affectation or vulgarity, flippancy or puerihty — in short, into a new species of barbarism.
Studien p. This style, moreover, has acquired and retained popularity in a degree which is scarcely equalled by any other form in art. Tradition kept the dominant art ideas awake in the consciousness of long periods of time, and was the true school which magnified the power of lesser talents, whilst later on even talent of a high order, working independently of tradition, was only able to produce a few works of lasting value. Possibly in the erection of large buildings the striving after lifelike variety and diversity of form may have carried the masters too far, but all the same velopment of the Romantic style which preceded it ; it is a bold depar- ture in an entirely new system ; it is, by its principles, an emancipation from the antique elements which always dominated the Romantic school, a new formation of language, as it were, in which what had gone before was naturally gathered up and incorporated.
The out- come of the Germanic genius see Reichensperger, Profanarchitekiur, p. Kunst, ii. Reichensperger, ii. Containing in itself a powerful creative force, and not dependent hke the antique on ready-made formations, but working from the basis of mathematical ground-forms, it might still have developed further varieties had not the Renaissance struck at its roots. Moreover, in art, as in all other fields, all side issues are ulti- mately resolved into the great leading question — either Christian idealism, or else infidel materiahsm, ending in anarchy.
Reber, Kunstgesch. Haenel Spiitgotik und Renaissance, a contribution to the history of German architecture [Stuttgart, ] would like to introduce a new distinguishing name for the late Gothic. Hence he lays great stress on the new features of style, especially the tendency to expand into breadth, to produce mde light spaces, in which the horizontal again asserts itself, and the ceihng ap- pears as something independent in juxtaposition to the walls.
The late Gothic is a spacious style, ' the Gothic building system, at the time of its highest development Uke unto bones and sinews, now again shows flesh and skin. A flaw in Haenel's argument has been pointed out by H. Wolfiin in the Literar.
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Centralhlatt Zarnckes, , p. Haenel, it is said, confines himself to ecclesiastical buildings, and does not deal at all with secular architecture. Against such one-sidedness, and in favoirr of the beauty of the late Gothic, B. Riehl had already expressed himself earher in his admirable pamphlet. Die Kunst an der Brennerstrasse Leipzig, The abundance of young life still germinating in it was quite overlooked.
Riehl, moreover, A. Reichensperger entered the hsts vigorously in defence of the beauty of late Gothic cf. Pastor, A. Reichensperger, i. As I now see, J.
Neuwirth also comes to a by no means favourable conclusion with regard to Haenel's pamphlet. Literahir- hlatt der Leogesellschaft, , No. The art of that period was as little inimical to nature as was the Church which it served. The Church, it is true, preaches constant warfare against the sinful inclinations of nature, and insists above all on living the inner life, on knowledge of the human heart; the Church directs and leads the longings, which this world cannot satisfy, up to an eternal existence, but it does not ' repudiate ' nature; on the contrary it rejoices in it, purifies and transmutes it in her teaching con- cerning the Redeemer, who took on Himself human nature, in her use of earthly substances for the holy Sacraments, in her doctrine of the sanctity of the body as a temple of the Holy Ghost, of its resurrection and destined transfiguration.
Kraus, Gesch. It is, nevertheless, an undoubted fact that German art at the close of the Middle Ages had its shady side. Schneider, in his Gotik und Kunst, Brief an einen Freund , has asserted this with great vigour in opposi- tion to Jansscn's views. Schneider insists, namely, that art in Germany at that period lapsed into mere bourgeois handicraft, that the life of the burgher class gave the standard for its aims.
Sculpture no less than architecture produced works of distinction and revelled in the trans- figuration of nature. The delight in intercourse with nature, so specially characteristic of the German people, re- ceived in the creations of the Flanders- German schools its purest expression : every blade of grass, every flower, every tiny insect, was worked up with the most loving assiduity, and the result was perfect life- likeness and reality clothed with ideal beauty.
These artists loved to surround their subjects with a setting of homely and familiar objects, and every form and figure on their canvas gave the impression of perfect truth and fideUty combined with deep religious feeling. A pious, childlike spirit informed these works of art, and gave them their chaste expression of innocent beauty and modest charm. An air of joyous hilarity, as though the divine redemption from all earthly complication were accomplished, impresses the gazer with a feeling that all discord is solved in harmony : ' See our remarks, vol. Studies of nature and exercises in sketching were not unknown as early as the thirteenth century.
At any rate it can never be asserted that the mediaeval epoch detested nature, and prohibited the study of it. Any idea of this sort is fully corrected by the songs of the Minnesingers, who give us such charming pictures of nature, and call up woods and meadoAvs vividly before our eyes ' Rahn, p. See Schnaase, Niederland. Briefe, pp. When afterwards I gave myself up to the contemplation of Rubens, finding in him also an element of sublimity, how much greater was the enjoyment which those older masters gave me! In por- trait-painting, also, Jan van Eyck especially excels nearly all later artists.
Of higher excellence still is the painting of the interior, and of all the accessory work, which is un- surpassed by any production of other epochs, not only in delicacy and finish of execution, but in the general disposition of hght and shade, and the tone of the colouring. In these last respects Jan van Eyck appears to have been unsurpassed by any later Dutchman down to Pieter do Hooghe.
Vorrech vii. Kraus, Gcsch. In order to save the so-called German Renaissance period from the reproach of being barren of any great works, certain later art-historians, enamoured of this said ' Renaissance,' have made it begin almost a century earlier than it really did. Thus Wolt- raann, in his Aus vier Jahrhunderten, p. Consequently these pictures made a profound impression on the whole nation, and for nearly a whole century they determined the character of all native German art.
It follows, moreover, that German folksong, with its exuberant delight in nature, and its close observation of the hfe of nature, must also be included in the ' Renaissance. And just as the Krailsheim altar work of Holbein the Elder, executed at the beginning of the sixteenth century, is decidedly Gotliic, so too in an out-and-out Gothic Sacrament-house of Adam Krafft, we find it impossible to detect any other than mediaeval art.
In short, before the sixteenth century there is no trace of a ' Renaissance ' in Germany, and even of the initiators of the movement it must be said that Hans Holbein the Younger is the only one whose ' beginnings,' so to say, belong to the new depar- ture ; those of a Peter Vischer and of Albert Diircr belong to mediaeval ground. The domains of art were the first to suffer. There was no longer time or inclination left for art. The religious revolution was in direct antagonism to it.
Whatever survived of art or the promotion of art was drawn into the vortex of sectarian controversy, there to perish. The Gothic style died out. A new, foreign kind of art, the ' Renaissance,' made its way into Germany. Raphael's honourable appreciation of Diirer is also well known. That multitudes of Itahan painters nourished themselves on the creations of German fantasy, falsifying them, and pubhshing them under their own names, in order to gain renown by them, we should easily discover by com- parison, even if Vasari had not, unwilhngly enough, let out the secret.
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Zwingli and his followers designated Christian art, within the churches at any rate, as a snare of the devil which the Roman Antichrist and his rabble had thrown over men's souls. They assumed a hostile attitude towards Chris- tian art in general. The divine word, Zwingli says, distinctly teaches that not only must we not worship images, but that we must not possess them, or fashion them ; Zwingli would not even tolerate the pictures of Christ.
The Helvetian confession of faith, drawn up by Bulhnger, rejected images of Christ as though they were pagan idols, because ' the Lord had com- manded to preach the Gospel, not to paint it. Theodore Beza directed his fury especially against pictures of the Crucifixion, which he ' abominated,' he wished that ' the Christian magistracy would reduce all pictures to powder. For this reason, and also on account of the divine commands, some men, and those, moreover, very learned and pious ones, insist that all the churches in which this idolatrous worship is carried on, especially those which are dedicated to saints, must be utterly destroyed ; they also say it is not becoming that Christians should hold their en- lightened services in such unclean places.
Janssen, Ein ztveites Wort an meine Kritiker. Zanchi, however, is inexorable as to the necessity of destroying everything which the piety and the artistic sense of the past devised for the adornment of Catholic churches. All altars, he says, all crucifixes, all paintings and sculpture, the priestly garments, the golden chalices, the incense burners, and other similar things — all these instruments of the old superstition must be utterly destroyed ; above all must the images be removed, the paintings be daubed over, the statues broken up or burnt.
Petrus Martyr Ver- migli, an apostate priest, and later on a Protestant professor, urged more particularly, ' Have a care that such things are not merely taken out of the churches, they must be utterly destroyed and not preserved anywhere, or they might later on be placed back again in the churches. Paulus, in the Katholik, , i. Instead of working themselves up into such fury against the veneration of saints, this merely supposed " idolatry " and superstition, these innovators would do far better to fight against the true superstition of the day — viz. But, very far from setting themselves against this enormity, they encourage their contemporaries in this respect.
In the preacher of Arfeld, in the county of Wittgenstein, asked Zanchi whether witches ought to be burned. Zanchi gave exactly the same answer to the physician, Thomas Erastus. Gall, Basle and other places. Gall, in , all the altars were destroyed, all images broken and smashed up with axes and hammers. Not a vestige was left over of the pictures and images, whether in the cloisters, or on the portals, or in the convents ; all the paintings were covered with whitewash, and every- thing that would burn was thrown on to the funeral pile, and the rest smashed to pieces ; neither gold-work nor artistic value could avail to save a single object.
Of the proceedings at Neuenburg the governor of the place wrote : ' They break the images in pieces, and mutilate the pictures by cutting out their noses and eyes : even those of the Mother of God are thus in- sulted. Isny, Augsburg, and elsewhere. Gospel preachers took the lead in the work of destruction, and often themselves lent a hand to ' throw down the accursed idols. Liibke appears to know notliing of all these atrocities.
Further, he did not think it was necessary to do away with all images : he held that Christians were free to have them or not to have them, and that it was even ' praiseworthy and estimable ' to possess ' mementoes and tokens,' but if they wanted to do away with them — a step which he sanctioned and had in no way hindered — it must be done ' without storming and fanaticism, and in a regular and authorised manner. As the people, after the example of the founders of the new reUgion, called the saints ' idols,' the places which served for the housing of the transported art treasures went by the name of ' idol chambers.
Falk, in the Katholik, , i. In the Prussian territory of the Teutonic Order there had been persistent destruction of crosses and images of saints since the year ; from the silver art- treasures of the Church, bowls and drinking-cups had been fashioned for the Duke ; ' when all the silver had been taken they laid hands on the bells also. In the town of Brunswick, where Luther's ' friend and father ' Collected Works, pp. In his exposition of the first com- mandment he said, in : ' The iconoclasts fall to and pull down the images.
This I am not so much concerned to oppose. But they go on to say that this must of necessity be done, and that it is well-pleasing to God. The utmost, however, that they accomplish in this way is to remove the images from the people's sight, and to fix them more firmly in their hearts,' while the populace falsely believes that ' it is giving God pleasure by tearing down the images ' vol. Iconoclastic riots took place at the same time in Hamburg. At Zerbst, in , the image. Kunstwissenscliaft, pp. Concerning the barbarous destruction of the stone statues of the Apostles Peter and Paul, which stood in front of the Kreuzkirclie at Hildesheim, by Hildes- heim burghers, the chronicler Oldecop pp.
Damasus groups of citizens were col- lected, some on the " Neuer Schaden " a tavern , some in front of the Holy Cross church gate, Kreiiztlwr, drinking beer. Amongst them was a rogue, Sander Bruns, from the Judenstrasse. He took a big piece of green wood from mine host's courtyard, and got up on the wall by the door of the church of the Holy Cross and struck the head off the stone statue of St.
Tlie head of the statue of St. Peter had been knocked off the night before. The following day information was given as to who was the miscreant. The desperate villain remained undaunted, and he took the heads of two corpses from the mortuary and stuck them up on the stumps of the statues. And at Vesper time there came a number of youths, more than forty, and each had his apron full of stones, and they threw them at the corpse heads, until they knocked them off from the statues of the Apostles.
And to some this was good reason for saying : Te Deum Laudamus. Then, in order that no complaint shovdd be made against the rascal Bruns, the council anticipated affairs, and they took twenty florins from the evildoer. And then he was referred to another judge ; for the chapter of Holy Cross left all revenging to the Apostles on whom the insult had been committed, and to Cod. Who is a righteous Judge, and rewards everyone according to his works. Within a few days, over four hundred churches, altars innumerable. Sacrament-houses, pictures and works of sculpture were desecrated and destroyed, and even monuments on graves were not spared.
The work must be done. Yea, if He cannot stir up men to do it. He will use His thunder and lightning. His sword sharp and sure. His fire still burns on, devours and licks up bishoprics and convents one after the other. Detailed information is given in Rathgeber's Annalen, pp. According to the title these sermons were to minister ' to the comfort and improvement of all true Clu'i.
Reinlioldt , Bl. The utter- ances of Luther which have been quoted, and others also of the same kind, in his Collected Works, pp. Lehfeldt, in Luther's VcrhiiUniss zu Kunst unci Kilnstleren Berlin, , shows that ' Luther could not lay claim to any understanding of the language of the plastic arts, or of the scope and nature of the service they could I'ender, for on this particular side he was wholly deficient in susceptibility.
Luther's multitudinous remarks on works of art all testify to this want of artistic sense ' p. Lehfeldt shows how ' Luther on his Roman journey was only to a certain extent interested in all that we to-day think worthy of contemplation. Fuller details at pp. Concerning the general development of art in the sixteenth century, Lehfeldt says, at p.
Concerning Protestantism and art, see also Nagl-Zeidler, p. Graus, p. This view of things, however, excited Luther's deepest indignation ; he declared it to be not only ' the greatest abuse ' but even ' idolatry. Combattre et aboUr le mystere de la Sainte-Eucharistie. Au fond de toute question se retrouve la question rehgieuse ou theologique ; personne ne s'en etonnera, puisque le principe de toutes choses se trouve en Dieu. How can you see into our hearts? How can you tell whether we have prayed to them or not?
To this answer they would remain dumb. Do you think, moreover, that princes, bishops, and other great magnates would have so many costly silver and gold images made for their churches and abbeys if they did not think it would be some gain to them with God? No, indeed, they would soon give it up.
In many places of Lutheran persuasion the images and works of art were not taken out of the churches, but new ones were seldom added. Where- ever the new doctrine of ' faith alone ' prevailed, it soon happened as Luther had predicted : ' People would not long go on founding churches, building altars, setting up images, when they no longer thought they were doing God a service thereby,' - Ecclesiastical architecture, which, as the outcome of the nation's piety and love of sacrifice, had formerly produced the grandest works, and had dominated the whole system of building, fell into the background in all the Protestant districts.
In Ulm, for instance, they ceased building on to the cathedral as early as , and the chapel of St. Valentine was turned into a grease-market ; they were obliged, however, to forbid the people to play ninepins in the churchyard, to throw 1 CoUected Works, pp. Silesia, Wiburg, and so forth, ten large churches, and more, were rased to the ground Pontoppidan, Annales, iii.
Andrew was stopped ' because they had gone over to Luther's teaching. They reproached Luther in the following doggerel : All church building and adorning he despises, Treats with scorning, He not wise is. But this was a complaint of the godless, concerning which Christ is appealed to for judgment : Bell-founders and organists. Strassburg, , Bl. Glass-painters, silk-workers, coppersmiths, Stone-masons, carpenters and joiners. Christ's verdict is then introduced ; the complainants, who His Word — namely Luther's teaching — With scorn -disdain From greed of gain, must cease to be ' careful concerning worldly goods, like unto the heathen, but must seek the kingdom of God with eagerness, and things temporal will be added unto them ; otherwise, hell-fire will be their reward.
Who gold has got wants nothing more. And art is valueless therefore. And we must perish from starvation, Be ruined with this foolish nation. From Germany, then, we will depart. Leave it senseless and bare of art. See his lament of the year , vol. Tliis, however, does not detract from the force of Janssen's evidence. Even though iconoclasm did not invade our territory, the minds of our people were not unaffected by the teachings 46 HIS"TORY OF THE GERMAN PEOPLE In Basle, as early as , the whole body of painters had represented to the council how badly they fared, as married men with wives and children, for want of employment ; now, too, they were further injured by shops which had taken to selling false beards and carnival masks ; they begged that the council would forbid this practice, as it was the exclusive right of the painters to supply these stage properties.
If there were no other evidence in proof of this statement — such, for instance, as the issue of the mandate against the Anabaptists in — its truth would be indubitably confirmed by the fact that among the quantities of fine images and statues of past epochs found in our churches, there is scarcely one belonging to the latter half of the sixteenth century. Peter, presumably as early as , and others on July 7, Hamhingcr Cleftch. NotewortJiy, also, as cor- roborating Janssen's opinion is a Strassburg Ratsprotucoll, February 3, : ' Painters and sculptors petition that, ivhereas through the Word of God their handicraft has died out, they may be provided with posts befere other claimants.
Strassburg, , Sometimes, however, it was purely pohtico-economic reasons which reduced artists to poverty. Con- cerning Flotner, Lange's emphatic assertion to this effect is quite right. Flotner, p. DECAY OF ART-LIFE 47 ance of wives and children, now that, in the painters' and in other art trades, there was little more to do and little traffic,' the restrictions in the towns against ' foreign competition ' became more severe than ever before, and the free exercise of art was greatly limited.
In Ratisbon, for instance, the foreign painter, George Boheim, was only allowed to paint the sepulchre of Sebastian Schilter, and was forbidden, on pain of punishment, to undertake any other work J The painter, Matthew Kager, who wanted to settle in Augsburg, was bound over only to work at frescoes, and never to paint in oils. He was, and continued to be, ' the poor Michael,' ' the disconsolate Michael.
Further evidence showing how greatly the freedom of art work had become restricted in Andresen, ii. H , In , true to the old Catholic conception and technique of art, and moved by strong inward feeling and pious veneration, he produced his incomparable ' Madonna of the Burgomaster James Meyer,' a representation of the Holy Virgin as the mother of mercy spreading her mantle over the figures kneeling before her.
In Basle, where Holbein lived, complete stagnation of all artistic activity was the result of the religious revolution. Want of employment drove him to England. In Holbein returned to Basle. During the carnival of the follow- 1 Fuller details in Schuegraf, pp. Specially noteworthy are the remarks concerning the preparation of his altar-work for the parish church, pp. See Gumpelzhaimer, ii. To a period earUer than this master- work cannot be put back ; cf. His in v. Zahn's Jahrbilcher, iii. Woltmann, Holbein, i. Several of Holbein's works were destroyed on that occasion. The announcement of the Basle Council in its new ' regulations ' concerning religious pictures and images, that ' God has cursed all those who make images,' gave this great artist little prospect of fresh orders ; the sole tasks left him were to finish the pictures for the town hall, and to revarnish the image of the ' Lalen- konig ' on the clockwork of the Rheinthor.
His higher capacities were in the main restricted to taking portraits. In addition to this his chief occupation consisted in making designs for practical art-work, table ornaments, beakers, clocks, dagger-sheaths, and so forth. At his death in he left a legacy of debts, and property to the amount of one horse and sundry other items. For his brother German artists it was no good example that he set in taking no further thought for his wife and children at Basle.
In his will there is no allusion to them, but only mention of two other children born in England out of wedlock. To these he left, out of the profits of his possessions, and after payment of his debts, a monthly sum of seven shilhngs and sixpence. Becker i. Zottmann, Hans Holbein der J linger e a memorial to the four hundredth anniversary of his birthday. See Rosenberg, p. Cranach's ' Siindenfall ' was pasted over with texts suitable to the sub- ject Schuchardt, iii. Cranach's ' lai'ge altar-pictures in the town churches of Wittenberg and Weimar are chiefly conspicuous for their lack of depth and originahty.
They preach dogmas of faith, but amongst his figures there is seldom seen one head which gives evidence of any depth of conception and vigorous spiritual life ' Leixner, p. Apart from all other causes which worked for its destruction, religious art was bound to go gradually to ruin on infiuence on art. At tlie period when the breaeh witli its prc-! Even the CathoUc counter-reformation possessed more creative power. Nothing but sectarian narrow- ness could deny that German, above all plastic art, stood higher before the Reformation than after it.
For nearly two centuries architecture, sculpture, and painting produced nothing more in Germany that could be compared with the creations of these different arts either immediately before or simultaneously with the schism in the Church ' Scherr, Ger- mania, p. With these men's consciences had to be satisfied. How could reUgious art grow from such a soil, how enthusiasm for the production of fine church buildings, how zeal for the creation of nobly conceiverl pictures of religious or Biblical life?
It is a general principle, says Riegel, Grundriss der bildenden Kiinste, jj. Handweiser, , p. Formerly art had been the ' expression of the holiest and highest sentiments,' it had lifted men out of their earthly troubles, and ' announced the joyous message from the other world,' it had ministered to reverence and edification, and as ' a noble daughter of heaven,' had preached a gospel of peace ; now it found itself drawn away into the tumultuous whirlpool of religious party strife, and pressed into the service of the demon of hatred and scorn.
A chief representative of this degenerate art-tendency was the Bernese painter, Nicholas Manuel, ' It will be no less unpleasant to the reader of this section to find in it much scandalous matter than it was to the author to collect together all the objectionable details. But the work seemed necessary in order to give a complete picture of the times, and to show by this great mass of circumstantial evidence that the ills in question were not confined to mere isolated cases, but represented a general tendency running through the whole age.
As in the field of hterature, so also, to a certain extent, in that of art, the Thirty Years' War of annihilation was preceded by a century of reUgious warfare. He went so far as to make a picture of the resurrection of Christ the handle for an improper scene between a monk and a nun J Hans Holbein, especially during his sojourn in?
In a series of drawings in which he represented the passion of Christ, the judges, accusers, and executioners of the Saviour are personified by the Pope, and by monks and priests. Judas Iscariot is a monk, Caiaphas is the Pope, who pronounces the sentence, and those who scourge and mock and lead the Saviour to death are priests of the Church. On his coat-of-arms there are two priests in wolf -skins who are holding the rosary beads in the wolfs claws p. Respecting Manuel as painter, F. Vcigelin says, in Baechtold CX. He was not least among the contributors to its ruin, but at the same time he shook the foundations of his own.
The Reforma- tion destroyed sacred art, but it did not build up in its place a school of national art. Respecting two wood-engravings of an earlier period ascribed to Holbein ' Ablasshandel ' traffic in indul- gences and ' Christ the True Light,' of. Woltmann, ii. In tliis last engraving the Pope, a bishop, a pre- bendary, and a monk are turning their backs to the hght and hurrying with closed eyes to a precipice, with Aristotle and Plato in front of them.
The latter has already fallen down the precipice. The artist here embodies the exhortations of multitudes of preachers to disregard, to disdain, Greek philosophy. A second pamphlet has on its title-page a fat pope whom devils are carrying up on high ; in a third the Pope is on his throne surrounded with car- dinals, bishops, clergy and monks, each wearing a wolf's head ; geese are strutting round about and cackling prayers, while a monk with a cat's head is playing on a lute ; a fourth shows a bishop and a monk each with a cat's head, another with a buck's head, who are all storming against a cross.
But ' slanderous pictures ' of this sort reappeared again and again. After the Emperor had made repeated com- plaints on this score, the council, in , laid the blame 1 Schade, i. In he called on his followers to ' assail the noble race of idolaters of the Roman Antichrist by means of painting ; ' the dirt and dregs, with ' which they would hke to fill the world with its stink, must be stirred up till they are fain to stop up their jaws and their nostrils.
Baader in Von Zahn's Jahrhiicher, i. The drawings for the wood- cuts of this representation of the jiapacy were done by Hans Sebald Beham ; cf. Rosenberg, xi. Lucas Cranach's woodcuts to the text of Melanchthon, -with an introduction by G.
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Luther, says his enthusiastic admirer, Mathesius, ' in the year was instrumental in the production of many vigorously conceived pictures, which represented, for the benefit of those who could not read, the true nature and monstrosity of the Antichrist, just as the Spirit of God in the Apocalypse of St. John depicted the red whore of Babylon. In another the Pope, in full pontifical array, is seen riding on a sow, and blessing with his right hand a heap of reeking dung which he carries in his left hand, and towards which the sow is stretching its snout.
New series, xvi. Nuremberg, , Bl. He mentions them only p. Wendeler M. Lehfeldt also p. This influence has been by no means a happy one as far as art is concerned.