Misztal, M. Perez-Enciso, H. Simianer, and J. Researchers, teachers, and the animal breeding industry will find the reports of interest. Book reviews appear in many issues. The following is a list of the most cited articles based on citations published in the last three years, according to CrossRef.
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Journal list menu Journal. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics. Impact factor: 1. Online ISSN: Articles Most Recent Most Cited free access. Using the genomic relationship matrix to predict the accuracy of genomic selection M. The fundamental biological principles underlying animal breeding are discussed in the articles heredity and animal reproductive system. English agriculturist Robert Bakewell was a very successful breeder of commercial livestock in the 18th century.
Breeding and variation
His work was based on the traditional method of visual appraisal of the animals that he selected. Although he did not write about his methods, it is recorded that he traveled extensively by horseback and collected sheep and cattle that he considered useful. It is thought that he made wide outcrosses of diverse breeds, and then practiced inbreeding with the intent of fixing desirable characteristics in the crossbred animals.
He was also the first to systematically let his animals for stud. For these reasons he is generally recognized as the first scientific breeder. In animal breeding, a population is a group of interbreeding individuals—i. Typically, certain animals within a breed are designated as purebred.
Breeding and Genetics | Animal Science
The essential difference between purebred and nonpurebred animals is that the genealogy of purebred animals has been carefully recorded, usually in a herd book, or studbook , kept by some sanctioning association. Purebred associations provide other services that are useful to their members to enhance their businesses. Selective breeding utilizes the natural variations in traits that exist among members of any population. Breeding progress requires understanding the two sources of variation: genetics and environment.
For some traits there is an interaction of genetics and the environment.
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Such variations in performance because of the environment are not transmitted to the next generation. For most traits measured in domestic animals, the environment has a larger impact on variation than do genetic differences. For example, only about 30 percent of the variation in milk production in dairy cattle can be attributed to genetic effects; the remainder of the variation is due to environmental effects.
Thus, environmental factors must be considered and controlled in selecting breeding stock.
Genetic variation is necessary in order to make progress in breeding successive generations. Each gene , which is the basic unit of heredity , occupies a specific location, or locus, on a chromosome. Two or more genes may be associated with a specific locus and therefore with a specific trait.
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These genes are known as alleles. If paired alleles are the same, the organism is called homozygous for that trait; if they are different, the organism is heterozygous.
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Typically, one of the alleles will be expressed to the exclusion of the other allele, in which case the two alleles are referred to as dominant and recessive, respectively. However, sometimes neither dominates, in which case the two alleles are called codominant. Although no complete knowledge of the genetic makeup of any breed of livestock exists yet, genetic variations can be used for improving stock. Researchers partition total genetic variation into additive, dominance, and epistatic types of gene action, which are defined in the following paragraphs.