By hiring songwriters to compose music based on public demand and mainstream tastes, the Tin Pan Alley publishers introduced the concept of popular music as we know it. During the early days of its development, the gramophone was viewed as a scientific novelty that posed little threat to sheet music because of its poor sound quality. However, as inventors improved various aspects of the device, the sales of gramophone records began to affect sheet music sales.
The Copyright Act of had imposed a royalty on all records of copyrighted musical works to compensate for the loss in revenue to composers and authors.
This loss became even more prominent during the mids, when improvements in electrical recording drastically increased sales of gramophones and gramophone records. The greater range and sensitivity of the electrical broadcasting microphone revolutionized gramophone recording to such an extent that sheet music sales plummeted.
From the very beginning, the record industry faced challenges from new technology. Composers and publishers could deal with the losses caused by an increase in gramophone sales because of the provisions made in the Copyright Act. However, when radio broadcasting emerged in the early s, both gramophone sales and sheet-music sales began to suffer. Radio was an affordable medium that enabled listeners to experience events as they took place.
This development was a threat to the entire recording industry, which began to campaign for, and was ultimately granted, the right to collect license fees from broadcasters. With the license fees in place, the recording industry eventually began to profit from the new technology. Radio sales dramatically increased throughout the s because radios were an affordable way to listen to free music and live events. The ascendance of Tin Pan Alley coincided with the emergence of jazz An improvisational style of music that emerged in New Orleans in the s, characterized by syncopation and heavily accented rhythms.
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An improvisational form of music that was primarily instrumental, jazz incorporated a variety of styles, including African rhythms, gospel, and blues. However, jazz became a legitimate form of entertainment during the s, when white orchestras began to incorporate jazz style into their music. During this time, jazz music began to take on a big band style, combining elements of ragtime, black spirituals, blues, and European music.
These big band orchestras used an arranger to limit improvisation by assigning parts of a piece of music to various band members. Although improvisation was allowed during solo performances, the format became more structured, resulting in the swing style of jazz that became popular in the s. As the decade progressed, social attitudes toward racial segregation relaxed and big bands became more racially integrated.
At the heart of jazz, the blues A bar musical form with a call-and-response format between the singer and his guitar that originated in the Mississippi Delta at the turn of the 20th century. Dealing with themes of personal adversity, overcoming hard luck, and other emotional turmoil, the blues is a bar musical form with a call-and-response format between the singer and his guitar. Originating in the Mississippi Delta, just upriver from New Orleans, blues music was exemplified in the work of W.
Unlike jazz, the blues did not spread significantly to the Northern states until the late s and s. Once Southern migrants introduced the blues to urban Northern cities, the music developed into distinctive regional styles, ranging from the jazz-oriented Kansas City blues to the swing-based West Coast blues. Chicago blues musicians such as Muddy Waters were the first to electrify the blues through the use of electric guitars and to blend urban style with classic Southern blues. The electric guitar, first produced by Adolph Rickenbacker in , changed music by intensifying the sound and creating a louder volume that could cut through noise in bars and nightclubs.
By focusing less on shouting, singers could focus on conveying more emotion and intimacy in their performances. This electrified form of blues provided the foundations of rock and roll. The Chicago blues, characterized by the use of electric guitar and harmonica, provided the foundations of rock and roll. Muddy Waters was one of the most famous Chicago blues musicians.
The s through the s is considered the golden age of radio. During this time, the number of licensed radio stations in the United States exploded from 5 in to over by The introduction of radio broadcasting provided a valuable link between urban city centers and small, rural towns. Able to transmit music nationwide, rural radio stations broadcast local music genres that soon gained popularity across the country. Technological advances during the s made it even easier for people to listen to their favorite music and for artists to record it.
The introduction of the reel-to-reel tape recorder paved the way for several innovations that would transform the music industry. The first commercially available tape recorders were monophonic, meaning that they only had one track on which to record sound onto magnetic tape. This may seem limiting today, but at the time it allowed for exciting innovations. By the time four-track and eight-track recorders became readily available in the s, musicians no longer had to play together in the same room; they could record each of their individual parts and combine them into a finished recording.
Reel-to-reel tape recorders and magnetic tape not only helped artists experiment with overdubbing, but they also were a compact method for reproducing and preserving audio. While the reel-to-reel recorders were in the early stages of development, families listened to records on their gramophones. The 78 revolutions per minute rpm disc had been the accepted recording medium for many years despite the necessity of changing the disc every 5 minutes.
In , Columbia Records perfected the inch 33 rpm long-playing LP disc, which could play up to 25 minutes per side and had a lower level of surface noise than the earlier and highly breakable shellac discs. Ronald D. Cohen New York: Routledge, , The 33 rpm discs became the standard form for full albums and would dominate the recorded music industry until the advent of the compact disc CD. During the s, a mutually beneficial alliance between sound recording and radio existed. Artists such as Frank Sinatra and Ella Fitzgerald profited from radio exposure. Until this time, music had primarily been recorded for adults, but the popularity of Sinatra and his contemporaries revealed an entirely untapped market: teenagers.
The postwar boom of the s and early s provided many teenagers spending money for records. Radio airplay helped to promote and sell records and the recording artists themselves, which in turn stabilized the recording industry. The near riots caused by the appearance of New Jersey crooner Frank Sinatra in concert paved the way for mass hysteria among Elvis Presley and Beatles fans during the rock and roll era.
New technology continued to develop in the s with the introduction of television. The new medium spread rapidly, primarily because of cheaper mass-production costs and war-related improvements in technology. The radio industry adapted by focusing on music, joining forces with the recording industry to survive. In an effort to do so, it became somewhat of a promotional tool. Stations became more dependent on recorded music to fill airtime, and in the Top 40 format was born.
Playlists for radio stations were based on popularity usually the Billboard Top 40 singles chart , and a popular song might be played as many as 30 or 40 times a day. Radio stations began to influence record sales, which resulted in increased competition for spots on the playlist. This ultimately resulted in payola The illegal practice of receiving money from record companies for playing particular songs on the radio.
The payola scandal came to a head in the s, when Cleveland, Ohio, DJ Alan Freed and 8 other disc jockeys were accused of taking money for airplay. King surged in popularity among white and black teenagers alike.
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Marketed under the name rhythm and blues A combination of blues and jazz that was a precursor to rock and roll. Nonetheless, there was a considerable amount of crossover among audiences. Although banned from some stations, others embraced the popular new music. Taking its name from a blues slang term for sex, the music obtained instant notoriety, gaining widespread support among teenage music fans and widespread dislike among the older generation. Frenetic showmen Little Richard and Chuck Berry were early pioneers of rock and roll, and their wild stage performances became characteristic of the genre.
As the integration of white and black individuals progressed in the s with the repeal of segregation laws and the initiation of the civil rights movement, aspects of black cultures, including music, became more widely accepted by many white individuals. However, it was the introduction of a white man who sang songs written by black musicians that helped rock and roll really spread across state and racial lines. The reaction Presley inspired among hordes of adolescent girls—screaming, crying, rioting—solidified his reputation as the first true rock and roll icon.
Prior to , rock and roll was primarily an American export. Although U. This situation changed almost overnight, with the arrival of British pop phenomenon the Beatles. Combining elements of skiffle—a type of music played on rudimentary instruments, such as banjos, guitars, or homemade instruments—doo-wop, and soul, the four mop-haired musicians from Liverpool, England, created a genre of music known as Merseybeat Term used to describe the music of bands originating in the Mersey area of England during the s, e.
When the Beatles arrived in New York in , they were met by hundreds of reporters and police officers and thousands of fans. Their appearance on The Ed Sullivan Show a few days later was the largest audience for an American television program, with approximately one in three Americans 74 million tuning in. During their first appearance on The Ed Sullivan Show , the Stones were lewd and vulgar, prompting host Ed Sullivan to denounce their behavior although he privately acknowledged that the band had received the most enthusiastic applause he had ever seen.
The British Invasion transformed rock and roll into the all-encompassing genre of rock, sending future performers in two different directions: the melodic, poppy sounds of the Beatles, on the one hand, and the gritty, high-volume power rock of the Stones on the other. The branching out of rock and roll continued in several other directions throughout the s.
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Surf music Carefree, hedonistic music that developed around the California surf culture in the s and is characterized by twanging, distorted electric guitar sounds. With their twanging electric guitars and glossy harmonies, the surf groups sang of girls, beaches, and convertible cars cruising along the West Coast. In Detroit, some black performers were developing a sound that would have crossover appeal with both black and white audiences. Producer and songwriter Berry Gordy Jr. Capitalizing on the s girl-group craze, Gordy produced hits by the Marvelettes, Martha and the Vandellas, and, most successfully, Diana Ross and the Supremes.
For his bands, he created a slick, polished image designed to appeal to the American mainstream.
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In the late s, supporters of the civil rights movement—along with feminists, environmentalists, and Vietnam War protesters—were gravitating toward folk Unpolished genre of music based on oral traditions and often associated with the social protest movement of the s. Broadly referring to music that is passed down orally through the generations, folk music retained an unpolished, amateur quality that inspired participation and social awareness.
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Carrying on the legacy of the s labor activist Woody Guthrie, singer-songwriters such as Joan Baez; Peter, Paul, and Mary; and Bob Dylan sang social protest songs about civil rights, discrimination against black Americans, and the Cuban Missile Crisis. Having earned himself a reputation as a political spokesperson, Dylan was lambasted by traditional folk fans for playing an electric guitar at the Newport Folk Festival.
However, his attempt to reach a broader crowd inspired the folk rock Folk music played with electric instruments. Protest music in the s was closely aligned with the hippie culture, in which some viewed taking drugs as a form of personal expression and free speech. Artists such as Jimi Hendrix, Jefferson Airplane, the Grateful Dead, and the Doors believed that the listening experience could be enhanced using mind-altering drugs. This spirit of freedom and protest culminated in the infamous Woodstock festival in the summer of , although the subsequent deaths of many of its stars from drug overdoses cast a shadow over the psychedelic culture.
After the Vietnam War ended, college students began to settle down and focus on careers and families. The 4th Edition is 10, pages long in 10 separate volumes with over 8 million words and 27, entries. The nature of popular music and jazz is such that it is ever changing, evolving and growing and therefore needs a new edition much more frequently than more static subjects. The large single volume of the Concise edition of The Encyclopedia of Popular Music is now in its 5th edition. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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