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The Roman domination began in b. During the long Roman domination Latin gradually become however the speech of the majority of the island's inhabitants. Some linguists assert that modern Sardinian, being part of the Island Romance group, [23] was the first language to split off from Latin, [60] all others evolving from Latin as Continental Romance.

At that time, the only literature being produced in Sardinia was mostly in Latin: the native Paleo-Sardinian and non-native Punic pre-Roman languages were then already extinct the last Punic inscription in Bithia, southern Sardinia, is from the second or third century A.

Although Sardinia was culturally influenced and politically ruled by the Byzantine Empire for almost five centuries, Greek did not enter the language except for some ritual or formal expressions in Sardinian using Greek structure and, sometimes, the Greek alphabet. From the long Byzantine era there are only a few entries but they already provide a glimpse of the sociolinguistical situation on the island in which, in addition to the community's everyday Neo-Latin language, Greek was also spoken by the ruling classes. Sardinia was then brought back into the Latin cultural sphere. Sardinian was the first Romance language of all to gain official status, being used by the four Judicates , [66] [67] [68] [69] [note 3] former Byzantine districts that became independent political entities after the Arab expansion in the Mediterranean cut off any ties left between the island and Byzantium.

One of the oldest documents left in Sardinian the so-called Carta Volgare comes from the Judicate of Cagliari and was issued by Torchitorio I de Lacon-Gunale in around , employing the Greek alphabet. While the earlier documents show the existence of an early Sardinian Koine, [71] [72] the language used by the various Judicates already displayed a certain range of dialectal variation.

The Carta de Logu of the Kingdom of Arborea, one of the first constitutions in history drawn up in — by Marianus IV and the Queen, the "Lady Judge" judikessa in Sardinian, jutgessa in Catalan, giudicessa in Italian Eleanor , was written in this transitional variety of Sardinian, and remained in force until Dante Alighieri wrote in his —05 essay De vulgari eloquentia that Sardinians , not being Italians Latii and having no lingua vulgaris of their own, resorted to aping Latin instead.

The literature of this period primarily consists of legal documents, besides the aforementioned Carta de Logu. The first document containing Sardinian elements is a donation to the abbey of Montecassino signed by Barisone I of Torres. The first chronicle in lingua sive ydiomate sardo , [90] called Condagues de Sardina , was published anonymously in the XIII century, relating the events of the Judicate of Torres. The long-lasting war and the so-called Black Death had a devastating effect on the island, depopulating large parts of it.

People from the neighbouring island of Corsica began to settle in the northern Sardinian coast, leading to the birth of the Tuscan -sounding Sassarese and Gallurese. De sos sanctos martires tantu gloriosos Et cavaleris de Cristus victoriosos, Sanctu Gavinu, Prothu e Januariu, Contra su demoniu, nostru adversariu, Fortes defensores et bonos advocados, Qui in su Paradisu sunt glorificados De sa corona de sanctu martiriu.

Cussos sempre siant in nostru adiutoriu. Despite Catalan being widely spoken and written on the island at this time leaving a lasting influence in Sardinian , there are some written records of Sardinian, which was estimated to be the ordinary language of the Sardinians by the Jesuits in Through the marriage of Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon in and, later in , the reorganization of the monarchy led by the Count-Duke of Olivares , Sardinia would progressively join a broad Spanish cultural sphere and leave the exclusive Aragonese one.

Spanish was perceived as an elitist language, gaining solid ground among the ruling Sardinian class; Spanish had thus a profound influence on Sardinian, especially in those words, styles and cultural models owing to the prestigious international role of the Habsburg Monarchy as well as the Court. Sardinian was also one of the few official languages, along with Spanish, Catalan and Portuguese, whose knowledge was required to be an officer in the Spanish tercios. A proclamation is in the Bosa archives.

The War of the Spanish Succession gave Sardinia to Austria, whose sovereignty was confirmed by the —14 treaties of Utrecht and Rastatt. This transfer would not initially entail any social nor linguistic changes, though: Sardinia would still retain for a long time its Iberian character, so much so that only in were the Aragonese and Spanish dynastic symbols replaced by the Savoyard cross. However, the Savoyard government eventually decided to directly impose Italian on Sardinia in July , [] [] [] [] because of the geopolitical need to draw the island away from the Spanish influence and align Sardinia with the Italian Piedmont, [] [] [] rather than just because of Italian nationalism , which would be later pursued by the King Charles Albert.

At the end of the XVIIIth century, following the trail of the French revolution , a group of the Sardinian middle class planned to break away from the mainland ruling class and institute an independent Sardinian Republic under French protection; all over the island, a number of political pamphlets printed in Sardinian were illegally distributed, calling for a mass revolt against the Piedmontese rule and the barons' abuse.

The most famous literary product born out of such political unrest was the poem Su patriottu sardu a sos feudatarios , noted as a testament of the French-inspired democratic and patriotic values, as well as Sardinia's situation under feudalism. The first systematic study on the Sardinian language was written in by the philologist Matteo Madau, with the title of Il ripulimento della lingua sarda lavorato sopra la sua antologia colle due matrici lingue, la greca e la latina.

The government in Turin , which had been monitoring Febres' activity, decided that his work would not be allowed to be published: Victor Amadeus III had supposedly not appreciated the fact that the book had a bilingual dedication to him in Italian and Sardinian, a mistake that his successors, while still echoing back to a general concept of "Sardinian ancestral homeland", would from then on avoid, and making exclusive use of Italian to produce their works. A few years after the major anti-Piedmontese revolt, in , the priest Vincenzo Raimondo Porru published a timid essay of Sardinian grammar, which, however, referred expressively to the southern dialect hence the title of Saggio di grammatica del dialetto sardo meridionale [] and, out of prudence towards the king, was made with the declared intention of easing the acquisition of Italian among his fellow Sardinians, instead of protecting their language.

In contrast to the Mainland's cultural dynamics established between Italian and the various Romance dialects, in Sardinia the relationship between the Italian language - recently introduced by Savoy - and the native one had been perceived from the start by the locals, educated and uneducated alike, as a relationship albeit unequal in terms of political power and prestige between two very different languages, and not between a language and one of its dialects.

Pino e gli Anticorpi open the Club Esse Comedy Tour in Sardinia in July

The jurist Carlo Baudi di Vesme claimed that the suppression of Sardinian and the imposition of Italian was desirable in order to make the islanders "civilized Italians". Despite the assimilation policy and the subsequent loss of the island's residual autonomy through the Perfect Fusion and the unification of the Italian peninsula , [] [] the anthem of the Savoyard Kingdom of Sardinia was S'hymnu sardu nationale "the Sardinian National Anthem" , also known as Cunservet Deus su Re "God save the King" , before it was de facto replaced by the Italian Marcia Reale as well, in Unlike the other infantry brigades of Italy, Sassari's conscripts were only Sardinians including many officers.

It is currently the only unit in Italy with an anthem in a language other than Italian: Dimonios "Devils" , written in by Luciano Sechi. Its title derives from Rote Teufel German for "red devils". However, compulsory military service played a role in language shift. After World War II , awareness around the Sardinian language and the danger of its slipping away did not seem to concern the Sardinian elites and entered the political spaces much later than in other European peripheries marked by the long-standing presence of ethno-linguistic minorities; [] Sardinian was in fact dismissed by the already Italianized middle class, [] as both the Sardinian language and culture were still being held accountable for the island's underdevelopment.

In the meantime, the emphasis on Italian-only assimilation policies continued, with historical sites and ordinary objects renamed in Italian. There have been many campaigns, often expressed in the form of political demands from the late '60s onwards, [] to give Sardinian equal status with Italian as a means to promote cultural identity. In the s, there has been a resurgence of Sardinian-language music, ranging from the more traditional genres cantu a tenore , cantu a chiterra , gosos etc. One of the first laws approved by the Sardinian legislator with respect to the protection and promotion of the Sardinian language and culture was soon rejected by the Constitutional Court in ; [] it was not until that Sardinian was finally recognized by the regional law n.

While the first section of said law states that Italian is the official language of the Republic, a number of provisions are included in order to normalize the use of such languages and let them become part of the national fabric. Furthermore, many people in Italy outside of Sardinia continue to regard Sardinian as an "Italian dialect", [] likewise many school and university books in Italy did not stop to group the language under Linguistica italiana Italian linguistics , Dialetti italiani Italian dialects or Dialettologia italiana Italian dialectology.

A number of other factors like a considerable immigration flow from mainland Italy, the interior rural exodus to urban areas, where Sardinian is spoken by a much lower percentage of the population, [note 20] and the use of Italian as a prerequisite for jobs and social advancement actually hinder any policy set up to promote the language. Language use is far from stable; [32] following the Expanded GIDS Expanded Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale model, Sardinian would position between 7 "Shifting: the child-bearing generation knows the language well enough to use it among themselves but none are transmitting it to their children" [] and 8a "Moribund: the only remaining active speakers of the language are members of the grandparent generation" [].

While an estimated 68 percent of the islanders had in fact a good oral command of Sardinian, language ability among the children plummeted to less than 13 percent; [19] [16] [17] [] some linguists, like Mauro Maxia, cite the low number of Sardinian-speaking children as indicative of language decline, calling Sardinia "a case of linguistic suicide". Today, most people who use Sardinian as part of day-to-day life reside mainly in the sparsely populated areas in the countryside, like the mountainous region of Barbagia.

A bill proposed by former prime minister Mario Monti 's cabinet would have lowered further Sardinian's protection level, [] distinguishing between languages protected by international agreements German, Slovenian, French and Ladin and the recognized indigenous languages which are not spoken in any state other than Italy all the other eight ethno-linguistic groups, including Sardinian. This bill, which was eventually implemented [] but later deemed unconstitutional by the Court, [] triggered a reaction on the island.

After about one month, Google changed the place names back to Italian. After a signature campaign, [] it has been made possible to change the language setting on Facebook from any language to Sardinian. In , the first automatic translation software from Italian to Sardinian was developed. At present, the Sardinian-speaking community is the least protected one in Italy, despite being the largest minority language group officially recognized by the state.

According to a report on the digital language diversity in Europe, Sardinian appears to be particularly vital on social media as part of many people's everyday life for private use, but such vitality does not still translate into a strong and wide availability of Internet media for the language. Despite the formal recognition from the Italian state, Italy does not in fact collect any information on the ethnic and linguistic composition of the population, apart from South Tyrol. Moreover, the resources allocated to cultural projects like bilingual education, which lacks a consistent approach and offers no guarantee of continuity throughout the years, [] are largely insufficient to meet "even the most basic expectations".

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A solution to the Sardinian question being unlikely to be found anytime soon, [32] the language has become highly endangered: [] the late recognition as a minority language, as well as the gradual but pervasive Italianization promoted by the education system, the administration system and the media, followed by the intergenerational language replacement, made it so that Sardinian's vitality has been heavily compromised. This would appear to be yet another minority language group under threat.

The agencies of production and reproduction are not serving the role they did a generation ago. The education system plays no role whatsoever in supporting the language and its production and reproduction. The language has no prestige and is used in work only as a natural as opposed to a systematic process. It seems to be a language relegated to a highly localised function of interaction between friends and relatives. Its institutional base is extremely weak and declining.

Yet there is concern among its speakers who have an emotive link to the language and its relationship to Sardinian identity. The sociolinguistic subordination of Sardinian to Italian has resulted in the gradual degeneration of the Sardinian language into an Italian patois under the label of regional Italian. This new linguistic code that is emerging from the interference between Italian and Sardinian is very common among the less privileged cultural and social classes. Whatever the fate of the Sardinian language might be, it shall therefore constitute the substratum of the one prevailing now, Italian, in a number of linguistic components specific to the island.

All dialects of Sardinian have phonetic features that are relatively archaic compared to other Romance languages. The degree of archaism varies, with the dialect spoken in the Province of Nuoro being considered the most conservative. Medieval evidence indicates that the language spoken in Sardinia and Corsica at the time was similar to modern Nuorese Sardinian; while Corsica underwent a process of Tuscanization that rendered the Corsican dialects akin to Tuscan, the Sardinian dialects are thought to have slowly evolved through some Catalan , Spanish and later Italian influences.

The examples listed below are from the Logudorese dialect :. According to Michael Allen Jones, Sardinian has the following consonants: []. Historically, the Sardinians have always been quite a small population scattered across isolated cantons , sharing similar demographic patterns with Corsica; as a result, Sardinian developed a broad spectrum of dialects over the time. Starting from Francesco Cetti 's description in the 18th century, [] [] Sardinian has been presented as a pluricentric language , being traditionally subdivided into two macro-varieties spoken by roughly half of the entire community: the dialects spoken in North-Central Sardinia, centered on the orthography known as Logudorese su sardu logudoresu , and the dialects spoken in Central Southern Sardinia, centered on another orthography called Campidanese su sardu campidanesu.

All the Sardinian dialects differ primarily in phonetics, which does not hamper intelligibility; [] [] [] the view of there being a dialectal boundary separating the Campidanese and Logudorese varieties has been in fact subjected to more recent research, that shows a fluid linguistic continuum from the Northern to the Southern ends of the island. The dialects centered on the Logudorese model are generally considered more conservative, with the Nuorese subdialect su sardu nugoresu being the most conservative of all. They have all retained the classical Latin pronunciation of the stop velars kena versus cena , "supper" , [] the front middle vowels compare Campidanese iotacism , probably from Byzantine Greek [] and assimilation of close-mid vowels cane versus cani , "dog" and gattos versus gattus , "cats".

Labio-velars become plain labials limba versus lingua , "language" and abba versus acua , "water". An east-west strip of villages in central Sardinia speaks a transitional group of dialects su sardu de mesania. Examples include is limbas the languages and is abbas the waters. The dialects centered on the Campidanese model, spreading from Cagliari once the metropolis of the Roman province , show relatively more influences by Carthage , Rome, Constantinople and Late Latin.

Examples include is fruminis the rivers and is domus the houses. Sardinian is the indigenous and historical language of most Sardinian communities. Sassari , the second-largest city on Sardinia and the main center of the northern half of the island cabu de susu in Sardinian, capo di sopra in Italian , is located there. There are also two language islands , the Catalan Algherese -speaking community from the inner city of Alghero northwest Sardinia and the Ligurian -speaking towns of Carloforte , in San Pietro Island , and Calasetta in Sant'Antioco island south-west Sardinia.

Sardinian has already been a standardized language since the Middle Ages, even if the process led to the emergence of the above-mentioned models of Logudorese and Campidanese. However, some attempts have been made to introduce a single writing system for administrative purposes over the recent decades, but they have not been generally acknowledged by native speakers.

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The Regional Council Deliberations no. Its rules were published in by the Autonomous Region of Sardinia, [] but were met with some criticism about their overall focus on the more conservative varieties, and was eventually not adopted by the regional Council. The Regional Council Deliberation no. Their job involved a program of measures for the protection and promotion of the Sardinian language, by means of a guide to be used by the regional administration.

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This work does not refer to morphology and syntax, which is already fairly homogeneous, [] and concerns itself primarily with spelling. Our Father, who art in heaven, hallowed be thy name.

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Give us this day our daily bread, and forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors. And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil. Babbu nostru chi ses in chelu, Santificadu siat su nomine tou. Benzat a nois su rennu tou, Siat fatta sa boluntade tua, comente in chelu gai in terra. Dona nos oe su pane nostru de donzi die, Et perdona nos sos peccados nostros, Comente nois perdonamus a sos depidores nostros. Et no nos lesses ruer in tentatzione, Et libera nos dae male. Babbu nostu chi ses in celu, Santificau siat su nomini tuu.

Bengiat a nosus su regnu tuu, Siat fatta sa boluntadi tua, comenti in celu aici in terra. Donasi oi su pani nostu de dogna dii, Et perdonasi is peccaus nostus, Comenti nosus perdonaus a is depidoris nostus. Et no si lessis arrui in tentatzioni, Et liberasi de mali. Panem nostrum quotidianum da nobis hodie, et dimitte nobis debita nostra, sicut et nos dimittimus debitoribus nostris. Padre Nostro, che sei nei cieli, Sia santificato il tuo nome.

Dacci oggi il nostro pane quotidiano, E rimetti a noi i nostri debiti Come noi li rimettiamo ai nostri debitori. E non ci indurre in tentazione, Ma liberaci dal male. Media related to Sardinian language at Wikimedia Commons. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the modern Romance language. For ancient Sardinian, see Paleo-Sardinian language. Romance language indigenous to the island of Sardinia. Language family. Linguistic map of Sardinia. Sardinian is yellow Logudorese and orange Campidanese.

See also: History of Sardinia. See also: Paleo-Sardinian language and Nuragic civilization. See also: Corsica and Sardinia. See also: Sardinian medieval kingdoms. See also: Italian Republic and Sardinian autonomy and Language shift. See also: Logudorese dialect and Campidanese dialect.

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. October Languages portal Italy portal. Ma dal punto di vista linguistico la questione assume un altro aspetto. Antonio, Ludovico Antonio Antiquitates Italicae Moedii Evi , Mediolani, t. Ego iudice Mariano de Lacon fazo ista carta ad onore de omnes homines de Pisas pro xu toloneu ci mi pecterunt: e ego donolislu pro ca lis so ego amicu caru e itsos a mimi; ci nullu imperatore ci lu aet potestare istu locu de non n apat comiatu de leuarelis toloneu in placitu: de non occidere pisanu ingratis: e ccausa ipsoro ci lis aem leuare ingratis, de facerlis iustitia inperatore ci nce aet exere intu locu Ego iudigi Salusi de Lacunu cun muiere mea donna Ad elasia, uoluntate de Donnu Deu potestando parte de KKaralis, assolbu llu Arresmundu, priori de sanctu Saturru, a fagiri si carta in co bolit.

Et ego Arresmundu, l eba nd u ass o ltura daba su donnu miu iudegi Salusi de Lacunu, ki mi illu castigit Donnu Deu balaus a nnus rt bonus et a issi et a muiere sua, fazzu mi carta pro kertu ki fegi cun isus de Maara pro su saltu ubi si I asked media personality Ray Weeks about 'Publico'.

He thought I was talking about 'Publicious' and said he had heard good reports. That's how I came to meet Andy McDermott. The spectacular cover design was a Publicious masterpiece, my sketches had been redrawn to illustration quality and my photographs inserted. Blitz was launched in good time for the February 19th Bombing of Darwin Day celebrations. Latest Blog.

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