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Medway demonstrates the central importance of the Charles River and the thriving town that grew alongside it. Today, the one-room schoolhouses are gone and the country stores have moved to the mall, but the open town meetings continue. After nearby Medfield was established as a town in , an increasing number of newcomers settled on the land west of the Charles River. By , this settlement west of the Charles had grown large enough to petition the Massachusetts General Court for the creation of a separate new town.

That petition. Map denoting where each of the 39 deceased presidents of the United States died. The following is a list of Presidents of the United States by date of death, plus additional lists of presidential death related statistics. John "Grizzly" Adams also known as James Capen Adams and Grizzly Adams — [a] was a famous California mountain man and trainer of grizzly bears and other wild animals he captured for menageries, zoological gardens and circuses. Sellier, Jr. Early years Grizzly Adams was of English ancestry. Adams began as an apprentice in the footwear manufacturing industry at age fourteen.

RooseveltApril 12, John F. KennedyNovember 22, Since the office was established in , 45 persons have served as President of the United States. Of these, eight presidents have died in office:[1] four were assassinated and four died of natural causes; on each occasion, the Vice President has succeeded to the presidency.

He died from complications of what at the time was believed to be pneumonia. The Democratic-Republican Party formally called the Republican Party was an American political party formed by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison around to oppose the centralizing policies of the new Federalist Party run by Alexander Hamilton, who was Secretary of the Treasury and chief architect of George Washington's administration.

It began in as one faction in Congress and included many politicians who had been opposed to the new constitution. They called themselves Republicans after their political philosophy, republicanism. They distrusted the Federalist tendency to centralize and loosely interpret the Constitution, believing these policies were signs of monarchism and anti-republican values. The party splintered in , with the faction loyal to Andrew Jackson coalescing into the Jacksonian movement which would soon acquire the name Democratic Party , the factio. This is a list of Presidents of the United States who owned slaves.

Slavery in the United States was legal from its beginning as a nation, having been practiced in British North America from early colonial days. The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution formally abolished slavery, though the practice effectively ended only after the end of the American Civil War.

In total, twelve presidents owned slaves at some point in their lives, eight of whom owned slaves while serving as president. George Washington was the first president to own slaves, including while he was president. Zachary Taylor was the last president to own slaves during his presidency, and Ulysses S.

Grant was the last president to have owned a slave at some point in his life. Slave owning was common among early presidents; of the first twelve, only John Adams 2 and his son John Quincy Adams 6 never owned slaves, although two of the others Martin Van Buren and William Henry Harrison did not own slaves while serving as pre. The 56 delegates to the Second Continental Congress represented the 13 former colonies which had declared themselves the "United States of America," and they endorsed the Declaration of Independence which the Congress had approved on July 4, The Declaration proclaimed that the former Thirteen Colonies then at war with Great Britain were now a sovereign, independent nation and thus no longer a part of the British Empire.

The final draft of the Declaration was approved by the Continental Congress on July 4, although the date of its signing has long been disputed. Most historians have concluded that it was. This is a list of presidents of the United States by age. The first table charts the age of each United States president at the time of presidential inauguration first inauguration if elected to multiple and consecutive terms , upon leaving office, and at the time of death.

Where the president is still living, their lifespan is calculated up to June 30, The second table includes those presidents who had the distinction among their peers of being the oldest living president, and charts both when they became and ceased to be oldest living. Age of presidents Age of presidents when assuming office approximately follows a bell curve The median age upon accession to the presidency is 55 years and 3 months.

This is how old Lyndon B. Johnson was at the time of his inauguration. Adams, who had served as vice president under George Washington, took office as president after winning the presidential election. The only member of the Federalist Party to ever serve as president, his presidency ended after a single term following his defeat in the presidential election. When Adams entered office, the ongoing war between France and Great Britain was causing great difficulties for American merchants on the high seas and arousing intense partisanship among contending political factions nationwide.

Attempts to negotiate with the French led to the XYZ Affair, in which French officials demanded bribes before they would assent to the beginning of negotiations. The murder itself was extraordinarily brutal and received national outcry in the United Kingdom. Fanny was murdered after being abducted by Baker and was brought into a hop garden near her home. She was brutally severed and her body cut into several pieces, with some parts never to have been found. Further investigations suggested that two small knives were used for the murder, but it was later ruled that they would have not been equal to committing the crime and that another weapon had to have been used.

Used to express total downtime or inaction, the military, manual-trade and locker room talk phrase sweet Fanny Adams has been in use since at least the mid 20th century, vying with a stronger expletive. This is a list of nicknames of Presidents of the United States that were in common usage at the time they were in office or shortly thereafter. Presidential nicknames George Washington Full name: George Washington The American Cincinnatus[1] Like the famous Roman, he won a war, then became a private citizen instead of seeking power or riches as a reward.

He became the first President General of the Society of the Cincinnati, formed by Revolutionary War officers who also "declined offers of power and position to return to his home and plough". Theodore Roosevelt and Edith Carow Roosevelt with their children. Children from left to right: Quentin Roosevelt, Theodore Jr. This is a list of children of U. All full names with married names are given. Currently there are 31 confirmed, known living presidential children, the oldest Lynda Bird Johnson Robb, the youngest confirmed Barron Trump. Bush, have become president in their own right.

Presidential children have been studied individually and as a class. As individuals they are more often notable in their own right than most individuals: They disproportionately circulate among political and social leaders and the wealthier classes, and they are more likely to be scrutinized as part of celebrity culture. Additionally, as individuals they frequently have significant influence on other notabl. Charles Francis Adams Sr. August 18, — November 21, was an American historical editor, writer, politician, and diplomat.

Adams served two terms in the Massachusetts State Senate before running unsuccessfully as vice-presidential candidate for the Free Soil Party in the election of on a ticket with former president Martin Van Buren. During the Civil War, Adams served as the United States Minister to the United Kingdom under Abraham Lincoln, where he played a key role in keeping the British government neutral and not diplomatically recognizing the Confederacy. Early life Adams was born in Boston on August 18, Jameson, p. Jones, Dolores. Chicago: Marquis Who's Who, See checklist at www. New International Encyclopedia 1st ed.

New York: Dodd, Mead. Ryan Adams topic David Ryan Adams born November 5, is an American singer-songwriter, multi-instrumentalist, record producer and poet. Horatio Alger topic Horatio Alger Jr. John T. Adams was one of few in the woodworkin Folders related to John T. Haberdashers' Adams topic Haberdashers' Adams is a grammar school for boys aged 11—18 and girls aged 16—18, located in Newport, Shropshire, offering day and boarding education.

Adams had no children and never married, so therefore decided to leav Folders related to Haberdashers' Adams: Buildings and structures in Newport, Shropshire Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Academies in Telford and Wrekin Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Educational institutions established in the s Revolvy Brain revolvybrain.

List of Presidents of the United States topic The president of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States, indirectly elected to a four-year term by the people through the Electoral College. The first third is paid directly to the candidate; another third is paid to the candidate's institution to fund research expense Folders related to Adams Prize: Faculty of Mathematics, University of Cambridge Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Awards and prizes of the University of Cambridge Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Awards started in Revolvy Brain revolvybrain.

Francis Adams writer topic Francis William Lauderdale Adams 27 September — 4 September [1] was an essayist, poet, dramatist, novelist and journalist who produced a large volume of work in his short life. Australia In he married Helen Uttley and migrated to Australia, where he started work as a tutor on a station at Jerilderie, New South Wales, but soon moved on to Sydney and then Q Folders related to Francis Adams writer : 19th-century Australian short story writers Revolvy Brain revolvybrain 19th-century Australian writers Revolvy Brain revolvybrain 19th-century male writers Revolvy Brain revolvybrain.

John Adams topic John Adams October 30, [a] — July 4, was an American statesman, attorney, diplomat, writer, and Founding Father who served as the second president of the United States from to William H. During this period, he signed several laws that advanced the rights of and opportunities for blac Folders related to William H. Seward: Failed assassination attempt survivors Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Seward family Revolvy Brain revolvybrain United States presidential candidates Revolvy Brain revolvybrain.

Adams has stated in interviews that his musical influences have not only come from other rappers, but also from the classic rock, rock, classical music, and blue Folders related to Sammy Adams: East Coast hip hop musicians Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Trinity College Connecticut alumni Revolvy Brain revolvybrain American rappers Revolvy Brain revolvybrain.

Railroad and streetcar lines brought rapid growth Folders related to Dorchester, Boston: Coastal populated places in Massachusetts Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Former municipalities in Boston Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Neighborhoods in Boston Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Nocturnal Animals topic Nocturnal Animals is a American neo-noir psychological thriller film written, produced and directed by Tom Ford, based on the novel Tony and Susan by Austin Wright. Ansel Adams topic Ansel Easton Adams February 20, — April 22, was a landscape photographer and environmentalist known for his black-and-white images of the American West.

Douglas Adams topic Douglas Noel Adams 11 March — 11 May was an English author, scriptwriter, essayist, humorist, satirist and dramatist. List of U. William Adams locomotive engineer topic William Adams 15 October — 7 August was an English railway engineer. The railway surveyor Charles Vignoles had previously worked on the construction of the Lon Folders related to William Adams locomotive engineer : English railway mechanical engineers Revolvy Brain revolvybrain English engineers Revolvy Brain revolvybrain 19th-century British engineers Revolvy Brain revolvybrain.

List of Presidents of the United States by date of death topic Map denoting where each of the 39 deceased presidents of the United States died. John "Grizzly" Adams topic John "Grizzly" Adams also known as James Capen Adams and Grizzly Adams — [a] was a famous California mountain man and trainer of grizzly bears and other wild animals he captured for menageries, zoological gardens and circuses.

Democratic-Republican Party topic The Democratic-Republican Party formally called the Republican Party was an American political party formed by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison around to oppose the centralizing policies of the new Federalist Party run by Alexander Hamilton, who was Secretary of the Treasury and chief architect of George Washington's administration. The party splintered in , with the faction loyal to Andrew Jackson coalescing into the Jacksonian movement which would soon acquire the name Democratic Party , the factio Folders related to Democratic-Republican Party: Republican parties Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Republicanism in the United States Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Defunct political parties in the United States Revolvy Brain revolvybrain.

Slave owning was common among early presidents; of the first twelve, only John Adams 2 and his son John Quincy Adams 6 never owned slaves, although two of the others Martin Van Buren and William Henry Harrison did not own slaves while serving as pre Folders related to List of Presidents of the United States who owned slaves: American slave owners Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Lists relating to the United States presidency Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. List of presidents of the United States by age topic This is a list of presidents of the United States by age.

List of nicknames of Presidents of the United States topic This is a list of nicknames of Presidents of the United States that were in common usage at the time they were in office or shortly thereafter. This venture helped me overcome my fear of failures. At 70, the grandfather of two leads an active life brisk walking in the MacRitchie and Bukit Timah nature reserves and climbing mountains in Malaysia and Indonesia.

Shanmugam hitchhiked from Wales to Germany during winter in and fulfilled his dream of meeting Outward Bound founder Kurt Hahn. Shanmugam found himself embarking on a journey out of Singapore that would show him what it meant to serve, to strive and not to yield. More than half a year later — thanks to his single-minded purpose and steely resolve — he was able to fulfil his dream of meeting Mr Kurt Hahn, the very founder of Outward Bound itself, on a forbidding wintry day in Germany in And because of this accomplishment, he was able to tell the youth he later mentored during his career that they could achieve more than they thought possible.

Along the Alps in Germany, the weather was a brutal degrees Celsius. When he took out his mountaineering cooker to boil water, he had to first heat the water bottle to melt the ice before he was able to boil the water to make coffee. Thankfully, he met many kind drivers along the way. And then there were many sights that were simply spellbinding. He finally arrived in a small town in Hermannsberg near Salem. When he asked. But Mr Shanmugam was undeterred. He left Aberdovey in December ,. Instead, what followed was an impassioned plea. After a six-month stint, during which he was also a participating observer in other Outward Bound schools in the United Kingdom such as in Devon, Eskdale, Ullswater and Moray, he told the warden that he was going to hitchhike from Wales to India and, on the way, he would call upon Mr Hahn.

He was. He stood out there, freezing. Near the guardhouse, he spoke to a staff member over the phone and explained the reason for his visit. The man turned him down, saying that Mr Hahn was a sick and frail man who did not entertain guests. If this is not Outward Bound, what is? Everything happened so fast!

I thanked Mr Hahn for accommodating a nobody like me in spite of his ill health. I spoke to him about OBS on Pulau Ubin and that it was at its infancy still learning and using his philosophy to train Singaporeans, especially youth. I was proud to be representing Singapore. Our challenges come from the heat, and the. Throughout, Mr Shanmaguam always had a passion for youth and motivating them to go farther. He remembers pleading with a principal, on behalf of an expelled boy whom he was overseeing at the Geylang Serai Boys Club, to take the boy back. Mr Shanmugam carried on his hitchhiking journey, traversing places such as Greece, Italy, Afghanistan and Pakistan before reaching India.

Along the way, he slept in railway stations, churches and temples. When he came back from India, he joined the. A letter to Mr L. The team became champions later. You would often see me during course break on a rock by the sea admiring nature as you would a. Then there was the absence of guidelines and operation procedures, which meant that the instructors had to use their own initiative to conduct the activities and lead the trainees. In spite of the challenges, the team spirit among the instructors was excellent and their.

Sometimes, he would cycle from Ubi, where he lives, to Changi Point, and then back. Shanmugam with his trainees, including Ms Jen Tay standing, second from the right , who attended a day course for women in February Picture: Courtesy of Ms Jen Tay. Others put them on the highest shelf in the storeroom, with no intention of ever taking them out again. But not Mr Lim Joon Hiang. For 46 years, he has kept close to him keepsakes, such as his OBS badge and tie and a logbook full of daily entries of his day course in The OBS tie is always on display with.

Till today, he credits OBS for having instilled in him the values of teamwork, endurance, patience, leadership and perseverance. He recalls recording late at night, before lights out at OBS, all the daily events and activities in. He also drew sketches, such as stick-figure drawings of the rope course and the Flying Fox, and even a detailed diagram of the cutter that they took on the sailing expedition. Of that expedition, Mr Lim remembers that the sea was choppy and the winds unexpectedly strong. Within thirty minutes of setting sail, half his team was already seasick, leaving only seven members to manoeuvre the vessel.

The team did not make it to the destination of Bintan Island and he himself succumbed to sickness on the return journey. Thankfully, Mr Lim has fonder recollections of. At night, in the deep of the jungle, the boys scared one another with. Mr Lim believes that OBS imbued in him mental strength, survival skills and the ability to manage in changing environments. These helped him go through National Service more smoothly and equipped him to weather the storms in his 35year career in the IT industry, where he worked his way from programmer to chief information officer.

Since retirement, the badminton player, photographer and gardener has devoted himself to humanitarian work in the region. When Cyclone. Nargis hit Myanmar in , he worked with a team of volunteers to help in the efforts of rebuilding orphanages, schools, clinics and bridges. This is when parents and the nation can do something to shape him up. Once, she went round the gardens in their housing estate and came back with two frogs for their science lesson.

These outdoor experiential lessons must have had a profound effect on her children, for they all grew up loving sports, nature and adventure. So much, in fact, that two of her daughters, Yvonne and Jacqueline, eventually became OBS instructors. However, all of them have had the chance to go through OBS when they were in school. Although a sporty and active person, she found it very tough in the first few days. She also remembered an orientation exercise where the participants had to find their way in the jungle, using only a compass as their guide.

One particular incident stuck in her mind though — when they got into deep trouble, literally. It came right up to our chest! OBS was a precious experience which took them out of the comfort of home and school, they said.

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She remembered, when she was a Science teacher, returning to OBS one day and leading some children through a tunnel. It was pitch dark. Can you touch the walls on both sides? And so, just like a caterpillar, we slowly made our way out. Thanks to the influence of the OBS instructors right in her own home — her daughter, Yvonne, and her son-in-law, Edvan Loh — Ms Monica Heng and her husband were inspired to trek up 5,m to Thorong La, a pass on the Annapurna mountain in Nepal, in , after a period of intense training at the trails in Bukit Timah and MacRitchie.

And, encouraged by her older sister, she decided to push herself out of her comfort zone and train to be a guide as well. She is also a volunteer bird surveyor with the Gardens, and so, on some days, you may find her walking around with a pair of binoculars around. Some of the birds that she has spotted are the collared kingfisher, the white-bellied sea eagle and the oriental magpie robin. The pair of Nikon lenses she has is actually a birthday present from all her daughters last year, a fitting reminder of what she always taught them when they young — to always be in awe of the surroundings and see the world through ever curious eyes.

Left: Ms Margaret Heng second row, second from the right and her friends attempting a ladder obstacle course. Picture: Courtesy of Ms Margaret Heng. Right: They also made their way down a rock wall top , along a rope crossing middle and up a scramble net bottom. Pictures: Courtesy of Ms Margaret Heng. At that time, she was on the school hockey and table-tennis teams, played netball and did folk dancing, even representing the school in a youth dance festival.

The competition for the limited places would have been stiffer had it not been for the fact that. From the get-go, the girls were thrown into one challenging activity after another. On the very first day, upon arrival at the camp, they were made. Words spoken from personal experience indeed. Ms Wee recalled her jitters when confronted with the water survival test during her.

Still, Ms Wee felt that she had been handed a golden opportunity. OBS was fairly new then and had started running courses for women in Ms Wee remembered being put together with participants older than her, some of whom were from the army. If you are someone who is unsure of yourself, OBS can really shape you up. Even if you are afraid to try new things, somehow you will go ahead. Ms Ivy Wee keeps active by going to the gym, playing badminton and cycling. OBS course, when she had to jump from the jetty into the sea with a pair of pyjama pants and turn it into an improvised float.

But they were all unforgettable and valuable. Picture: Courtesy of Ms Ivy Wee. During her time at OBS, Ms Ivy Wee took part in various activities, including clockwise from bottom working as a team, traversing a rope crossing, sailing, tackling a rope obstacle and running. Pictures: Courtesy of Ms Ivy Wee. All the watches, they were told, had won the trophy for outstanding performance and good teamwork. Only theirs, Gandhi Watch, had not. That was in Mr Wong, just 25 years old and fresh out of university, had just joined the Civil Service as a curator in the then-Parks and Recreation Department the previous year.

Like several others, he had been encouraged to attend the day OBS course. Mr Wong and his teammates went all out in the programme, determined to show the instructors how well they worked together as a team. The hard work paid off: On the last day of the programme, they were elated when their victory was announced. These include the value of teamwork, resilience, determination and putting others before self.

During the 21day course, he was exposed to a wide range of activities, from long-distance kayaking and cutter sailing to long treks and camping solo. What he remembers most, however, was abseiling face-first down a steep cliff. Did I do all these things? How did I manage to accomplish all of them? Under the same project, OBS alumni also helped in activities such as coastal.

Today, NParks and OBS continue to collaborate on guided walks and talks for the public and youth, and work closely with schools to conduct outdoor education and nature appreciation activities. Facilities such as mangrove boardwalks, shelters and interpretation signage, meanwhile, have enabled more people to get up close to nature. The two organisations were able to achieve so much, he said, because they had similar strategic interests.

Mr Wong remains a big supporter of OBS today and does what he can to help the outdoor adventure institution grow. For instance, when OBS was given part of Coney Island to develop a campsite, he helped to guide its public engagement and consultation processes. The sea is just in front of her office, which is surrounded by the forest at Pulau Ubin. Sometimes, she would see a wild boar roaming around the place, an eagle hunting for food, a family of otters swimming around, and the occasional hornbill flying to roost in a tree.

It gives me a kind of peace, to be away from the hustle and bustle of the city. Starting out as an instructor, she later took on the post of training coordinator, and is now the manager of the enrolment team. Working with OBS, she said, has taught her to persevere and never give up, and have a positive outlook in life. She has also learnt the value of both self-reliance and teamwork, as well as the importance of being prepared.

In several minor emergencies, I was able to remain calm and not panic. She also had no outdoor experience. Unfamiliar with the foreign waters, she had to rely on her sea charts and compass to get to the campsite, which they reached late at night. To her shock, when the group got back to OBS days later, she was told that there was a hole in the hull of the boat, possibly caused by a rock on the sea floor when she had moored the boat. Of the roles she has done, Ms Saparila said that she enjoyed being an instructor the most.

It was hard work but it brought the team together too. There was a strong sense of ownership and responsibility; we all wanted to make sure we could deliver safe and quality courses for our participants. The energy and enthusiasm shown by the staff was really commendable. The experience of working together as a team is something that I remember most. I need to constantly look at new training areas and plan a programme that will optimise their experience. The greatest satisfaction comes from seeing the sense of achievement shown by instructors after they have completed the expedition.

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In the past, those recruited into OBS often joined us with some outdoor adventure sports competencies, for example, life-saving skills, climbing, kayaking, navigation, and first aid. Some had even gone on their own expeditions, so there was some level of exposure to the outdoors. They have the passion, but lack the out-. So we have to plan a robust and structured training programme to ensure that they are competent to lead others in the outdoors. Their six months of training includes hard and soft skills, safety skills, group management skills, and so on.

They will have to go through three key assessments —. But seeing our trainee instructors grow to become competent and confident always inspires me more to serve them. The fellow participants were Secondary 4 students from other classes in my school. OBS was a first for all of us as it was the first time we were experiencing outdoor life away from family and the comforts of home. The entire experience was memorable to me.

The activities enabled us to learn teambuilding skills and the value of trust among fellow participants. On the whole, OBS has allowed me to understand that every individual has his own strengths and together, as a team, we can accomplish so much more. Even now at my workplace, I see each of my staff members for his or her strengths. Picture: Courtesy of Mr Jon Chua.

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Picture: Courtesy of Ms June Chiang. It was meant as a form of team-building for the Secondary 3 school leaders. We could bring only our bare essentials as space was tight in the kayaks. Basically, we had to stop kayaking and dip ourselves into the sea to answer the call of nature. We even needed to team up with another kayak to heave ourselves back thereafter. We also had to think out of the box to survive the journey. What we learnt in school was not going to help us. BS was truly a life-changing experience.

Finally, in , I had the opportunity to go to Outward Bound Singapore as part of my Physical Education teacher training course. In New Zealand, I realised one must have passion, purpose and perseverance to overcome challenges in life. Another key takeaway from the course was the importance of self-reflection, with the solo expedition giving me a timely reminder of what I wanted to do in life. May OBS continue to inspire future generations of young people. He had set out with a vision to transform the centre into one of the best training centres in the Asia Pacific.

However, it turned out to be very challenging in the first few years. The new image of OBS would be that of a modern outdoor adventure centre conducting programmes relevant to Singapore youth, building values, and cultivating teamwork and leadership through experiential learning. It also meant upgrading the skills of the staff. Despite working with a limited budget, OBS invested heavily in staff training. OBS also introduced shorter five-day courses so that participants could spend less time away from school or work —— a bold move in the Outward Bound community, which generally believed in longer expeditions.

Many OBS staff remember Mr Lim for continually challenging them to explore new ideas, so that the courses and obstacles in OBS could be innovative, challenging and relevant. One product of such thinking was the Inverse Tower, which turned the usual pyramid-shaped design for high rope structures on its head —— literally. Another was the key concept of learning from failure. Certain rope courses were designed such that participants would not succeed unless they worked as a team. We wanted trainees to learn from failure, so that they would improve and eventually succeed. OBS also collaborated with other centres to allow it to run courses overseas.

These initiatives built a significant amount of goodwill for OBS and Singapore.

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The Straits Times reported on his win on 21 December The number of participants in its programmes. In the citation, he was praised for being an. We always went all out to help one another. That year, OBS received the prestigious Excellence for Singapore Award, given to organisations that bring credit to Singapore by being among the best in their areas of activity in Asia or in the world. Over the years, Mr Conceicao has seen OBS transformed from a little-known adventure camp to a modern Outward Bound centre that is the envy of many in the Outward Bound fraternity.

Ironically, however, he knew nothing of the.

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So when he graduated with an economics degree, while most of his peers aspired for a lucrative career with a private bank or stockbroking firm, Mr Conceicao found himself drawn to a job advertisement for OBS instructors. Much later, he was told that he had, in fact, been ranked. Teaching people from all. It sparked a keen. This, said Mr Conceicao, was no easy task. Then, as Assistant Director of Training, he handled the selection and training of instructors, oversaw the Programmes Development and OYP units, as well as supervised day-to-day operations.

Later, he added on experience in strategic as well as operational roles, as Deputy Director Training and Operations and General Manager Operations Management respectively. Mr Conceicao paid tribute to the predecessors who gave him the guidance and mentorship to undertake his various postings at OBS, as well as the peers and subordinates who supported him with a combined strength and collective wisdom.

The 1,km expedition pushed staff far out of their comfort zones, as they had to sail in unfamiliar Mr Nicholas Conceicao right in his youth, at the helm of the Ji-Fung. Picture: Courtesy of Mr Nicholas Conceicao. Picture: Courtesy of Mr Nicholas Conceicao waters for 11 days. He has do spirit to dream big and to stay on course, no also had many opportunities to hone his leadership matter how daunting the setbacks.

At the time, he confessed, he too had not expected to stay beyond a few years. But, he added, he has since seen himself realising his full career potential and aspirations. He led a group of Ngee Ann Polytechnic students on an Overseas Youth Programme, in which they took on a challenging day expedition that included sailing a brigantine tall-ship called Ji-Fung Spirit of Resolution from Hong Kong to Luzon Island in the Philippines, trekking overland, and sea-kayaking to rural villages. Crossing the South China Sea to the Philippines, he said, was. But this experience gave the team the seamanship skills, confidence and teamwork to take over the running of the ship on the return journey to Hong Kong.

Singapore team summiting Mount Everest? Who could blame them? Apart from rock climbing and some hiking in the region, he had little climbing experience. But colleagues began to encourage him to give it a shot. Mr Edwin Siew made history by being one of two men in the first Singapore team to summit Mount Everest. It was then that Mr Siew began to consider the idea seriously.

After all, he noted, the OBS ethos is about sailing into the unknown and taking on new challenges. Over many, many months, they heaved kg backpacks up and down HDB flats and Bukit Timah Hill, practised rock climbing at Dairy Farm, and learned alpine climbing in Switzerland and in the Himalayan ranges. On 25 May , Mr Siew and his fellow climber, Mr Khoo Swee Chiow, made history, reaching the top of Mount Everest to unfurl the stars and crescent of the Singapore flag at the roof of the world.

Their success was celebrated on Pulau Ubin,. This victory spurred many more Singaporeans into realising that the impossible was possible. A Singapore team conquering Mount Everest? Yes, it was possible! But over the years, through the instructor selection process and training to.

Picture: Courtesy of Mr Edwin Siew. Today, Mr Siew, 48, runs Incredible Journeys, an outdoor adventure consultancy that organises expeditions and training for those who want to push their limits. The challenge for me was to harness the experiences, skills and knowledge that I learnt from the Everest expedition, and to break it down into learning perspectives that I could impart to participants, colleagues and OBS. When he decided to set up Incredible Journeys in , he found himself drawing on the same lessons. OBS provided me with the institutional adventure perspective.

My task is to marry these two and find the in-between balance. OBS has widened my horizons and enabled me to combine my experiences into bite-size learning perspectives. OBS and Everest formed a giant springboard for me to propel myself forward. The Straits Times reported on Mr David Lim and his preparations for the expedition to the South Pole on 14 June , about six months before his team of four men became the first Singapore team to reach the South Pole.

It was in line with something he always wanted to do, given his own lifelong passion for the outdoors. Ten years later, however, he was back at OBS with a new task that continued his mission:. To help inspire thousands of young people through an ambitious plan to send all secondary students through OBS.

Mr Lim knew exactly what he was saying. In , he and three others did Singapore proud by becoming the first Singapore team to trek to the South Pole. Man-hauling some kg or so of supplies over more than 1,km through. For Mr Lim, it was the highest point of a career in outdoor adventure. He had joined OBS after graduating from university, inspired by a field attachment with Outward Bound Australia that he had done as part of his studies. I could observe them slowly transforming into a better team as well as individuals.

I decided then that I wanted to help people by being an OBS instructor. Several years later, when the idea of sending a Singapore team to Antarctica came about, Mr Lim, then team manager, made a beeline for the team. At the time, it would have seemed impossible, given his inexperience with polar trekking. But Mr Lim was determined to give it a shot. I wanted to inspire younger generations to dare to dream. Picture: Courtesy of Mr David Lim. Fulfilling that dream, however, did not mean there was no hard work involved. After being selected, Mr Lim and his teammates spent many weeks training for the expedition.

They did fivehour runs, dragged car tyres across rough terrain, and went for several trips overseas to learn the skills needed, including cross-country skiing, polar navigation and rescue techniques. The hard work paid off, and the Antarctica team returned victorious, having achieved their aims. But while they were feted as heroes, Mr Lim wanted to do more — to share their victory with all Singaporeans.

In , after 12 years at OBS — he was by then its Head of Training Operations — Mr Lim left to work at Republic Polytechnic, where he set up its Adventure Learning Centre to provide experiential learning programmes for both students and staff. There, the two men strove to inspire youth and working adults, sharing their adventure experiences as well as knowledge.

When the storm comes, the crew is able to sail through it. Mr David Lim, then 29, was the youngest of the four men in the first Singapore team to reach the South Pole on 31 December Although it was held over only three days, it was packed with all the exciting activities that would thrill a year-old who had just finished her Primary School Leaving Examination. As an educator, the former principal was also heartened when he heard from his students how going to OBS had made them stronger and transformed their character. Once, a boy came back from a five-day OBS leadership training course and shared how the course was an eye-opener for him.

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It also changed his perspective about leadership, that it is more than just giving instructions. Clearly, he left the course a more confident and experienced leader. In his career spanning 45 years, from a teacher in to his last post as Deputy Director, Co-Curricular Activities before he retired from the Ministry of Education MOE , his mission had always been to bring up generations of young people who would not only be physically fit but also mentally resilient.

When he was a teacher and principal, he would champion outdoor pursuits and find opportunities for pupils and teachers to experience canoeing, sailing, camping and hiking. As a senior officer in MOE, he was instrumental in crafting and shaping policies in support of outdoor adventure education. Mr Goh Ek Piang is a pioneer and expert in outdoor adventure education in Singapore. Swimming, snorkelling, canoeing, bouldering, and camp craft skills, such as tent pitching. From these pioneers of trainee teachers grew a steady movement to develop outdoor adventure education, said Mr Goh.

Many of those who had benefited from their stints in Pulau Tekong or OBS, in turn, went on to train new batches of teachers as well as help various institutions set up their own training camps. They also started canoeing and sailing clubs, took teachers and students on snorkelling and diving trips in the Southern Islands, and on mountaineering trips in Malaysia and Indonesia. Since then, Mr Goh has witnessed how outdoor adventure education in Singapore has grown by leaps and bounds.

From being confined mainly to the uniformed groups, it was ramped up to reach more students and youth. Outdoor Activities Clubs also sprang up in more institutions. The training in Pulau Tekong and OBS aimed to groom these young Singaporeans into rugged leaders who would also have the desire to serve others in society. Those who wanted to take on more challenging outdoor pursuits went on mountain trekking trips in Malaysia and Indonesia, and even outback camping with children from Australia.

In taking outdoor adventure education to new heights, OBS had complemented what educational institutions were doing, said Mr Goh. They share the view that Outward Bound training is more than just imparting knowledge and skills and developing fitness and ruggedness. Physical Education Association, among his numerous voluntary roles.

Every year, when his birthday comes around, he would head to an Olympic-size swimming pool and set himself a record-breaking target. This year, he completed 69 laps — one lap for each year of his life. He is also a grassroots leader in Changi Simei Constituency and adviser to the Singapore.

Mr Goh Ek Piang, in his youth, making his way along a rope crossing. It was her first attempt at scaling something so tall but, encouraged by her instructor and fellow participants, she took up the challenge. Then there were others — many far younger than her — who would never have thought of giving outdoor adventure courses a try. But they went, and were rewarded with an. Though the courses can be very challenging both physically and mentally, the positive OBS experience lasts for many years.

Over the years, the government body in. Things changed in when a new unit, the People Cluster, was set up to look after human resource and volunteer management. OBS came.

Each year, OBS would conduct courses for more than 1, PA staff and another 1, grassroots leaders and volunteers. Before that, he said, only a small number of grassroots leaders had attended OBS, and even then, on a rather ad hoc basis. There was also an added challenge — the participants themselves, who came from vastly different backgrounds in terms of age, race and educational level.

Many of them also did not have the luxury of time to attend long courses or were not receptive to the idea of outdoor adventure training. More importantly, through activities that required individuals to put aside their differences and tackle obstacles as a team, participants built up camaraderie and bonded together.

Many came back from the courses better equipped to approach work challenges with a more positive mindset. In fact, over the years, Mr Tan himself has also gone on senior management and work plan retreats with his colleagues at OBS a few times. Two of them are colourful field guides to the butterfly kingdom in Singapore, while the third gives an insight into the little known world of caterpillars.

His enthusiasm in researching, observing and photographing them is matched perhaps only by a zeal in sharing whatever he knows with the larger community. Since the s, he has served as a volunteer. It is when we share our knowledge that we can make the world a better place. This allows nature and the built environment to coexist harmoniously so as to encourage biodiversity. Khoo Teck Puat Hospital and the Gardens by the Bay are some works that bear the imprint of this ethos. He had just finished his first-year studies at the National University of.

These lessons. Singapore when he attended a day course at OBS in Despite the hectic line-up of activities during the three weeks, he remembers that he always found time to observe the birds and butterflies during the orienteering exercises on Pulau Ubin and Pulau Tekong. Our OBS. Mr Khew Sin Khoon, who studies and photographs butterflies, is advising the authorities on developing the new OBS campus on Coney Island in an environmentally sensitive way.

Little did they suspect that the jalan jalan would turn out to be a wade in the mangrove swamp! Our shirts and shorts were completely unwashable and had to be thrown away! Accommodation was in army-style Nissen huts — simple, no-frills, barrel-vaulted, zinc-sheet buildings furnished with bunk beds. They got through each cold and unpleasant jump, but not without a good dose of calamine lotion to soothe the stings afterwards. He hated them and thought of giving up many times. The physical challenges of the course, however, were no match for what was to come when the. In contrast, the sailing expedition on the cutter turned out to be a breeze, simply because he was in the good company of national sailor Siew Shaw.

A tropical thunderstorm came and the participants were caught at sea amidst the choppy waters. They had to form a raft by pulling their canoes closely together so that no one would drift away. Mr Khew gleefully recounted how the sailor — who would later represent Singapore in the Olympics and win golds at the Southeast Asian Games — was able to handle the large man. At the invitation of OBS in , he and fellow enthusiasts from the ButterflyCircle conducted a biodiversity survey on the western part of Pulau Ubin. They found the area to be a thriving, undisturbed paradise for an impressive array of butterfly and bird species.

He believes that, besides the intensification of the. We cannot always expect to have ideal conditions and resources every time. In any situation, we. In truth, OBS taught him valuable lessons about teamwork and the importance of working with whomever one is placed with, in order to accomplish a mission. The desire to serve in his area of interest, he said, stems from the belief fostered in him through his OBS experience itself — that no man is an island.

He was also committed to mentoring black academics, and produced collaborative work with a number of them. Some commentators have suggested that the inspiration for this series may have been the publication, in , of Sol T. The novel was published in English rather than Setswana — indeed, it is often identified as the first novel in English by a black South African author — and Doke is said to have initiated the series in response, to support writing in the African languages. In a review of Mhudi , Doke observed:. Mr Plaatje has done a good service in writing this. It is a great pity that for Bantu publications the demand is at present so small among the Bantu themselves that books such as this have to be written in English.

Mhudi written in Chwana [Setswana] would have been a still greater contribution, and Chwana sadly needs such additions to its present meagre literature. This phrase exposes the power dynamics behind this phase of linguistic and anthropological studies. It is not surprising that black intellectuals would have wished to put as much distance as possible between themselves and such representations.

Moreover, in the same year that Doke was commenting on the absence of isiZulu novelists , Vilakazi published his first novel in the isiZulu language, Noma Nini , at Marianhill, a mission press. Noma Nini , written around , won a prize in from the International African Institute and was then published. Vilakazi was by this stage already well known for his writing, which had largely been published in African-language newspapers. He was also becoming increasingly vocal in the struggle against separate development. There is a steadily increasing group of young Africans who are possessed of literary talent and are working hard to perfect themselves in various media of expression.

The invitation that the title page of this first volume of a projected series holds forth will be to them an open door of opportunity. Lacking a large reading constituency and lacking facilities for publication, the only recourse of the ambitious Bantu writer has been the newspaper. This series should draw the best African effort in poetry, fiction, essay and drama and should be of immense encouragement to the race. The success of the series will depend in large measure upon the support given it by African readers. African authors of ability will not appear and grow to a significant stature except they have an eager public to read what they write.

Taylor Plaatje, and Nimrod Ndebele, among others. It is thus an over-simplification to consider the black writers in the Bantu Treasury Series to be restricted to the margins, because they formed an elite in their own right, even while operating within a restricted environment.

His writing was also published by other publishers, including mission presses like Lovedale Press, and he served on the editorial board of the religious journal, South African Outlook. Jolobe also played an important role in the compilation and translation of the English-Xhosa-Afrikaans dictionary; so that, like Vilakazi, he combined academic interests in his language and culture with creative writing. Raditladi , and Tseleng ya bophelo by Jac G.

But the latter would elect to publish his next volume, Meqoqo ya Phirimana , with the Afrikaanse Pers-Boekhandel in There were good commercial reasons for doing so, as will be seen. Bantu Treasury 12 was the play Senkatana , by Sophonia Machabe Mofokeng , and number 15 was Pelong ya ka by the same author. This was published posthumously, in , as Mofokeng, like Vilakazi, died young. Doke wrote the following tribute:. He was the author of a play in Sotho entitled Senkantana , which was published in the Bantu Treasury Series in , and of a book of essays and sketches, Leetong , published in He leaves a number of manuscripts, some of which may prove to be sufficiently complete for publication.

In he was invited to join a team of experts in the compilation of a new edition of a German encyclopedia of folklore. Up to the time of his death he had collaborated with me [Doke] in work on Southern Sotho grammar. He had read the proofs of the book now in the press; but, before seeing the finished work, he was called away to his eternal reward.

Here was an African writing essays in Swahili on African subjects in the Baconian manner; here was an African writing Swahili poems on African themes in literary forms resulting from Arab influence in Swahili culture. It was relevant to a changing Africa, and so Doke thought, quite rightly, that Shaaban should be supported Harries The authors thus no longer enjoyed the benefits of being marketed as part of a series, but they still received royalties for their work.

In his review, Taylor notes a number of common obstacles to publication for black authors in South Africa, including what would become a common complaint, the lack of a reading culture, as well as the lack of publishing outlets while commending the University for providing a new publishing channel. Therefore unless a book can be used in schools and a market thus assured, publishers are generally unwilling to undertake its printing.

Reading is a comparatively new recreation to the Zulu. Shepherd 39 provides a similar explanation, showing his understanding of the economics of publishing:. An edition of a vernacular book is generally small in number, and so the price is relatively high. Even Doke was keenly interested in the use of books in African languages at schools and as school textbooks. The small market for African-language literature, even today, remains a contentious issue, with publishers arguing that there is only a very small reading market for such titles.

Of this series Volume 3, the late Sol. He also comments at some length on the importance of the new channel offered by the university press. As can be seen, the series reflected the degree to which South African society remained colonised and segregated. While a measure of black agency may be seen in the authors writing works in their own languages, there was still the necessity of a white-run channel in order to publish and disseminate the works, and to confer a degree of authority upon them. In other words, the context of the establishment of the Bantu Treasury Series was one of a rising interest in African literature, and increasing willingness among publishers to test the market, which had previously been seen as non-existent.

It is true that, in contrast to, for instance, Shepherd at Lovedale Press, Doke did not intervene in the contents of the works he published. Doke was a professor of linguistics, and as such as keenly interested in standardising the orthography of African languages. Peires assesses the impact of the guidelines produced by this committee:.

Adair, Cecil

The manner in which the regulations were imposed awakened deep resentment among educated Africans. So let University Professors lay down a scheme in the light of science; and Native schools will have to adopt it or do without Government grants! Plaatje translated five Shakespeare plays, but managed to see only two into print, with the Bantu Treasury Series title only coming out after his death see Seddon, This reveals the complicated relationships among both the members of the New African Movement, and their publishers, such as Doke.

This conception of the audience of the Bantu Treasury Series as being primarily black would later become a reality, but not through the general public eagerly purchasing copies from bookshops, as perhaps Taylor envisaged. Rather, commodified as school and university set works, the volumes of the series would be consumed largely by black school children and by a multiracial audience of trainee teachers. The consumption of the series by this somewhat mainstream audience signalled the growing canonisation of the authors published in the series as well as the canny selection of such authors by Doke.